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Bacteriabroch.ind


Bacteria Fighting Power
Elite Bactericide Formulations
Agri-mycin 17®
Mycoshield®
BlightBan® A506
The Copper Champs

- Champ® Dry Prill
- Champ
® Formula 2 Flowable
- Champion
® WP
Nufarm Americas Inc.


Complete Disease Protection Better Bacterial Disease Protection Begins and Ends with Nufarm!Nufarm Americasprovidesthe mostcomprehensive portfolio ofproductsfor control of bacterial diseases of agricultural crops. These products set the standard for efficacy and innovation. When used in integrated control programs, Nufarm products are extremely effective in managing disease and resistance in a wide variety of crops. Nufarm's Disease Management Portfolio Includes …
Agri-mycin 17 is agricultural streptomycin used to control fire blight of apple and pear,
bacterial spot of tomato and pepper, tobacco wildfire and blue mold, and soft rot and blackleg of potato seed pieces.
Mycoshield is an oxytetracycline used to control fire blight of pear and bacterial spot
of peach and nectarine. Like Agri-mycin 17, Mycoshield has been especially important to growers of pears as well as peaches and nectarines. BlightBan A506, certified for use in organic agriculture, is a unique biological control
solution based on the common bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. BlightBan A506 reduces frost and frost damage on a variety of crops, and aids in the suppression of • Infects fruit, leaves fire blight and russeting on apples and pears.
• Tell-tale lesions are Champ Dry Prill is a copper hydroxide specially formulated to offer low-use rates in a
small, round and blisterlike convenient, no-dust formulation. Champ Dry Prill is incredibly efficient in fighting • Lesions are scabby bacterial disease on a variety of crops, such as apples, grapes, citrus and tomatoes. or corky on fruit • Effects include Champ Formula 2 Flowable, a liquid formulation of copper hydroxide, offers excellent
tenacity and provides effective control for a wide range of blights, mildews, rots, and severelyblemished fruit blotches and spots on fruits, berries, vegetables, tree crops and field crops. • Reduces fruit quality Champion WP is a wettable powder certified for use in organic agriculture. Like all
and can cause premature fruit drop copper hydroxide formulations, Champion WP offers incredibly effective bacterial • A severe infection disease control for a variety of crops due to its broad spectrum of activity. can destroy an entire crop


Formidable Resistance Management Power Each bacterial control product Nufarm offers has a unique mode of action that contributes to effective resistance management. A thoughtful blend of Nufarm products can help to efficiently manage disease resistance issues. Effective Weapons Against Bacterial DiseasesThe ability to create a complete resistance management program for your crops has never been easier. All you need to look for is the Nufarm name. It's your assurance that the products you buy are effective, affordable and scientifically proven to do the job! • Bacteria attacks shortly before or Mode of Action
during bloom Specific and unique Most effective bactericide • Kills blossoms, buds, young leaves and shoots Specific and unique Controls pathogen strains • Blossoms turn to oxytetracycline tolerant to streptomycin black, stay fixed on the tree Competitive exclusion as a No risk of resistance, • Leaves darken live organism, resistant to certified for use in with spots that eventually hole organic agriculture to oxytetracycline • The "right" condi- Broad spectrum, multi-site Highly active, dust-free tions can causecomplete crop loss inhibitor and protectant formulation through the use of Moisture Leveling™ Polymer (MLP) technology Champ Formula 2 Flowable Broad spectrum, multi-site Liquid formulation provides inhibitor and protectant excellent surface area coverage and rainfastness Broad spectrum, multi-site Easy and efficient to use, inhibitor and protectant certified for use in organic agriculture (OMRI) For superior resistance management, count on Nufarm!


Agri-mycin 17®
Active Ingredient: Streptomycin Sulfate
Agri-mycin 17 is considered one of the most powerful tools available for control of bacterial diseases … and is the most effective bactericide available on the market. The active ingredient in Agri-mycin 17, Streptomycin Sulfate, is a highly effective protectant bactericide that provides dependable control. Features and Benefits• Protectant bactericide • Suppresses fire blight in apples and pears • Superior bacterial control on a variety of crops • Active ingredient is agricultural streptomycin • Essential part of any bacterial disease control program Shoot Blight
• Easy on plants and animals Erwinia amylovora • Young shoots wilt, • Compatible with most commonly used pesticides form shepherd's • Economical and dependable control • Infection spreads along shoot axis Application Methods • Leaves show dark Agri-mycin 17 can be applied using most types of spraying equipment. The volume per acre streaks in midveins, will differ depending on the crop and the equipment used. Do not combine with emulsifiable then wilt and brown • Pathogen kills limb concentrates or use with alkaline-based materials. Please consult label for specific ratios. area supporting theinfected shoot • Can kill major portion of tree in just one Agri-mycin 17 offers excellent disease protection for the following crops: • Apple – Fire Blight • Pear – Fire Blight • Tomato – Bacterial Spot • Pepper – Bacterial Spot • Tobacco – Wildfire, Blue Mold • Potato – Soft Rot, Blackleg *Consult label for a complete list of diseases Agri-mycin 17 controls and the crops they affect.


Mycoshield®
Active Ingredient: Oxytetracycline Calcium Complex
Mycoshield controls pathogen strains tolerant to streptomycin, and offers excellent control of bacterial diseases in stonefruits, especially pears, peaches Mycoshield is an agricultural oxytetracycline (terramycin) that, in conjunction with other products, is particularly useful in resistance management programs.
Mycoshield can be used in combination or rotation with Agri-mycin 17 and other bactericides, and is compatible with most pesticides commonly used in an orchard. Features and Benefits• Suppresses fire blight in pears • Suppresses bacterial spot in peaches and nectarines • Essential part of resistance management programs • Gentle protectant bactericide • Damages leaves, fruit • Compatible with most commonly used pesticides and growing shoots • Causes defoliation Application Methods • Makes fruit Mycoshield can be applied using most types of spraying equipment. The volume per • Has a three-phase acre will differ depending on the crop and the equipment used. Do not combine with life cycle: dormancy, emulsifiable concentrates or use with alkaline-based materials. Please consult label a primary cycle and a secondary cycle for specific ratios. • Cankers form on • Transported via dew, fog, wind and insects Mycoshield offers excellent disease protection for the following crops: • Driving rain is a par- • Pear – Fire Blight ticularly harmful • Peach – Bacterial Spot means of spreadingthe disease • Nectarine – Bacterial Spot *Consult label for a complete list of diseases Mycoshield controls and the crops they affect.


BlightBan® A506
Active Ingredient: Pseudomonas fluorescens A506
BlightBan A506 offers a unique approach to bacterial control. A common and harmless bacterium, BlightBan A506 protects crops by colonizing blossoms of apples and pears before pathogenic bacteria can get a foothold. Once established, this exceptional biological control not only protects treated blossoms, but can also be transported to new blossoms by natural means. Certified for use in organic agriculture, BlightBan A506 offers an unparalleled degree of safety as a biological control … gentle to domestic animals, fish and wildlife, and safe on target plants.
BlightBan A506 is not a curative treatment – it must be applied and allowed to colonize plant surfaces before infection sets in. BlightBan A506 is fully compatible with Agri-mycin 17, and can be used in tank mixes and rotations as part of an integrated resistance management program. It can also be used in rotation programs with Mycoshield. There is no risk of resistance. Features and Benefits • Provides fire blight and russet suppression in pears and apples • Fruit blemish of • Offers frost protection for a variety of crops • Essential part of resistance management programs • Typical y causal • Gentle on crops agents are weather,spray injury andpathogens Application Methods • Fruit is most at risk BlightBan A506 can be applied using most types of spraying equipment. The volume immediately after per acre will differ depending on the crop and the equipment used. Please consult blossom stage label for specific ratios. • Ice nucleating bacteria can also be primary causal BlightBan A506 offers excellent disease protection for the following crops: • Decreases value • Pear – Fire Blight, frost protection, • Peach – frost protection • Can devastate russet suppression • Tomato – frost protection whole crops • Apple – Fire Blight, frost protection, • Almond – frost protection russet suppression • Strawberry – frost protection • Grape – Sour Rot • Potato – frost protection • Cherry – frost protection *Consult label for a complete list of diseases BlightBan A506 controls and the crops they affect.


The Copper Champs
Active Ingredient: Copper Hydroxide
Copper is a multi-site inhibitor with a broad spectrum of activity that kil s bacteria at infection sites. This activity makes it difficult for bacteria to develop a resistance to copper, making copper one of the most effective and essential tools for resistance management in a bacterial disease-fighting program.
Champ Dry Prill,
the only dry pril copper product on the market, is virtually dust-free. Champ Dry Prill's MLP (Moisture Leveling™ Polymer) technology constantly releases pv. phaseoli copper ions, offering superior weather-responsive disease control at reduced levels • Bacterium commonly of active ingredient per acre for less product per acre than any other formulation. spread by wind, infestingwounds and otheropenings Champ Formula 2 Flowable is an advanced liquid copper hydroxide formulation that is easy
• Small water-soaked spots to handle and offers superior mixing characteristics. Champ Formula 2 Flowable provides form, dry, turn brown,and are encircled by a broad-spectrum disease control, excel ent tenacity and plant protection efficacy. band of lemon yellow • When wind whips, Champion WP is an effective copper hydroxide formulation that is easy and efficient to use.
heavily infected leaves Champion WP is perfect for late blight in that there is no pre-harvest interval – spray today, may become tattered • Leaves may even die harvest tomorrow. Plus, it's certified for use in organic agriculture.
and yet remain attached to the plant Application MethodsEach of the Copper Champ products can be applied using most types of spraying equipment. The volume per acre wil differ depending on the crop and the equipment used. Please consult label for specific ratios.
Crops Protected*The Copper Champs offer excel ent disease protection for the fol owing crops: • Apple – Anthracnose, Blossom Blast, Shoot Blast, • Almond – Blossom Brown Rot, Bacterial Blast Fire Blight, Scab, Crown Rot • Potato – Early Blight, Late Blight • Pears – Fire Blight, Pseudomonas Blight • Tomato – Early Blight, Late Blight, Bacterial Spot • Peach – Leaf Curl, Bacterial Blast, Bacterial Spot • Pepper – Bacterial Spot • Citrus – Melanose, Scab, Algal Spot, Greasy Spot, • Blueberry – Bacterial Canker Pink Pitting, Brown Rot • Bean (dry, green) – Brown Spot, Bacterial Blight • Grape – Black Rot, Phomopsis, Downy Mildew *Consult each label for a complete list of diseases Champ DP, Champ Formula 2 Flowable and Champ WP control and the crops they affect.


Fire Blight: A Destructive Enemy Fire blight is a serious disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The disease damages blossoms and shoots, reducing yields, disfiguring fruit and diminishing the vigor of the trees it attacks. Severe infections may also compromise scaffold limbs, trunks and root systems, and can eventually cause tree death. Bacteria lie dormant in the winter at the edges of cankers formed on twigs, branches, scaffolds and trunks during the previous growing season. Bacteria in cankers begin to multiply in the spring, just after new growth has begun. The canker also begins to produce exudates containing mil ions of bacteria.
Insects and rain are the primary transporters of fire blight bacteria. Flying and crawling insects, attracted to exudates, carry the bacteria to open blossoms and from tree to tree. Rain spreads bacteria from cankers or other infected areas of a tree to new sites. Upwards of 10 million bacteria can be present inside a single blossom by the time fire blight symptoms become visible.
Fire blight infection can spread beyond the blossom into the branch and even further, causing green plant tissue to wither and die. Bacteria can also infect vegetation, fruit and bark through wounds caused by rain, hail and wind. Al this time, more bacteria-laden exudates are forming and being dispersed. • Damages blossoms, Plant tissue is vulnerable to infection during the growth period; fruit is susceptible until just before shoots, trunk androot stock harvest. Once growth has stopped, overwintering cankers start to form and the cycle begins again.
• Reduces yields and disfigures fruit • Diminishes tree vigor Blossom Blight Life Cycle and can eventually cause tree death to young twigs
by insects

• Cankers form on twigs, branches, Blossom blight phase
scaffolds and trunks • Transported via insects and the rain • 10 million bacteria can be present in bacteria to
migrate down
a single blossom to the branch
before symptomsare visible Bacteria overwinter
Droplets of ooze
in margins of cankers
Prevention Is the KeyPlant pathologists recommend three approaches to fire blight prevention: reducing susceptibility of the tree, reducing the amount of the exudates on the host and preventing the bacterium from developing on the host. Reduce host vulnerability by selecting an appropriate orchard site and resistant tree varieties. Prune young orchards annually if possible. Do not increase nitrogen supply suddenly. Cut root sprouts and suckers above the soil line when trees are dormant, and remove spurs on trunks and scaffold limbs.
Reduce fire blight exudate by removing overwintering cankers on all blighted tissue and minimizing non-orchard sources of exudates. Prevent development of bacteria by using a resistance-management program with the proven bactericides of Nufarm – Agri-mycin, Mycoshield, BlightBan A506, Champ DP, Champ Flowable 2 Formula and Champion WP. Fighting Fire Blight with Nufarm Bactericides Risk Management and Suppression Guidelines Growth Stage
Primary inoculum formed Apply Champ DP or Champ Formula 2 in cankers and dispersed Flowable – between silver tip and green tip per label recommendations. Removenon-orchard hosts adjacent to orchard.
Erwinia amylovora Remove cankers. Remove root sprouts,suckers, trunk spurs and scaffold spurs.
• Symptoms appear within two weeks Pathogen develops and Apply BlightBan A506 in combination spreads throughout orchard with Agri-mycin 17 or in rotationprograms with Agri-mycin 17 • Blossoms become and/or Mycoshield. water-soaked and darker green Blossom blight begins and Continue application of BlightBan pathogen continues to spread A506 to petal fal . Apply Agri-mycin 17 • Bacterial ooze can or Mycoshield every 5-7 days. often be seen on blossom Pathogen visible on fruit, Remove new infections. Apply can spread to branches Agri-mycin 17 or Mycoshield to • Blossom cluster and rain-damaged orchards as needed. fruiting spurs wilt Mow cover crop.
Pathogen begins to develop Plan new plantings that are blight • Infection can spread overwintering cankers resistant. Apply Agri-mycin 17 or and kill parts of Mycoshield to rain-damaged orchards supporting limb as needed. Improve drainage and soil pH of new planting sites. • Leaves wilt, die, turn dark brown or black Note: See applicable Nufarm bactericide labels for specific instructions.
Adhere to Pre-Harvest Intervals: Bacterial Spot: A Costly Disease Bacterial spot can be a formidable problem for peach and nectarine growers. The disease is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas pruni, which damages leaves, fruit and growing shoots, causing defoliation and making fruit unmarketable. Bacterial spot has a three-phase life cycle: dormancy, a primary cycle and a secondary cycle.
Bacteria overwinter in spring cankers on young twigs. When growth resumes, the bacteria multiply and form exudate. The bacteria thrive in the exudate, which seeps out of the canker. Dew, fog, rain, wind and foraging insects carry the exudate to leaves, fruit and shoots. Driving rain is a particularly harmful means of spreading bacterial spot. Bacterial spot infections blacken blossoms, leaves and branches, leave brown or black blemishes on fruit, cause early leaf drop and contribute to loss of vigor. Tree death can result. Pears are also vulnerable to secondary bacterial spot infections from summer cankers, exudate Xanthomonas pruni from leaf lesions and exudate from existing fruit infections. The secondary infection is spread • Attacks fruit, leaves by the same means as the primary infection. During rainy, windy summers, bacterial spot can • On leaves, water- become very severe.
soaked spots turn to shotholes As the growth season ends, bacteria become dormant in existing spring cankers, ready to fuel • Two lesions can cause leaf to deaden the life cycle again in the following season. • Reduces fruit yield Bacterial Spot Life Cycle and quality • Can cause buds to fail to open and Bacteria spread
by wind and rain

Bacteria from
cankers spread
by wind and rain

Cankers
formed
in spring

Overwintering
in young twig

Prevention Is the KeyPlant pathologists favor prevention programs that emphasize sound cultural practices and use of bactericide sprays to reduce the presence of bacterial spot.
How to Reduce Bacterial Spot Pathogens:
• Selecting resistant varieties for orchards • Planting new trees far from susceptible varieties • Avoiding excess nitrogen • Pruning new infection promptly • Use Nufarm bactericides Application Schedule Controlling Bacterial Spot on Peaches, Nectarines and Pears
On peaches and nectarines, apply one of the Copper Champs (Champ DP, Champ
Formula 2 Flowable or Champion WP) after leaf fall as a dormant application Pseudomonas syringaepv. tomato according to label rates. Use the higher labeled rates when rainfall or disease • Infects leaves and fruit pressure is heavy. The Copper Champs may be applied with agricultural oil. • Heavy infection can Do not apply copper products as post-dormant cover sprays, as spotting of leaves cause defoliation or defoliation may occur.
• Mainly reduces fruit quality • Lesions are black and On peaches and nectarines, apply Mycoshield weekly starting at shuck split normally surrounded by yellow halo and continue applying weekly until three weeks before harvest. Schedule may • Lesions are also slightly call for up to nine applications, but applications must cease three weeks prior raised, but unlike to harvest. Apply at the rate of 150 ppm active ingredient, or 12 oz. of Mycoshield bacterial spot, do notcrack or become scaly per hundred gallons of water. On pears, Mycoshield can be applied to control fire blight as well as bacterial spot. Apply 8 oz. Mycoshield per 50 gallons water, or 1 lb. Mycoshield per 100 gallons. Begin applications at 10% bloom at a rate of 50-100 gallons of spray solution per acre. Repeat applications at 4-6 day intervals. This may involve up to 8-10 applications. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest. Nufarm Americas Inc.
1333 Burr Ridge Parkway • Suite 125A Agri-mycin 17® is a registered trademark of Nufarm Americas Inc.
Mycoshield® is a registered trademark of Nufarm Americas Inc.
Burr Ridge, IL 60527-0866 BlightBan® A506 is a registered trademark of Nufarm Americas Inc.
Phone: 708.754.3330 • Fax: 708.754.0314 Champ® Dry Pril is a registered trademark of Nufarm Americas Inc.
Champ® Formula 2 Flowable is a registered trademark of Nufarm Americas Inc.
2004 Nufarm Americas Inc.
Champion® WP is a registered trademark of Nufarm Americas Inc.

Source: http://www.ag.nufarm.co.uk/Assets/1170/1/BactericideBrochure.pdf

wellness.unl.edu

BCBSNEMEMWKBCD.XML - 1768150 - VersionID: 1 Better Health Guide Jan Doe 1003 Main Street Anywhere, TN 11111 An Independent Licensee of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield 13810 Southeast Eastgate Way, Suite 200 Bellevue, WA 98005 Table of Contents Living with asthma Chapter 1 1 Chapter 1 Living with asthma .1 Breathing easy with asthma: putting yourself in control .2

A european study investigating patterns of transition from home care towards institutional dementia care: the protocol of a righttimeplacecare study

Verbeek et al. BMC Public Health 2012, 12:68http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/12/68 A European study investigating patterns oftransition from home care towards institutionaldementia care: the protocol of aRightTimePlaceCare study Hilde Verbeek1*, Gabriele Meyer2, Helena Leino-Kilpi3,4, Adelaida Zabalegui5, Ingalill Rahm Hallberg6, Kai Saks7,Maria Eugenia Soto8, David Challis9, Dirk Sauerland10 and Jan PH Hamers1, forthe RightTimePlaceCare Consortium