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J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 1(3): 114-118.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Volume 1 Issue 3 (September 2014) DOI: 10.5455/javar.2014.a16
Efficacy of different therapeutic regimens for acute foot rot in adult
sheep


Mohammad Moin Ansari
1,*, Khadim Hussain Dar2, Hilal Ahmad Tantray3, Mohammad
Mansoor Bhat4, Shahid Hussain Dar1 and Mehraj ud-Din Naikoo1
1Department of Veterinary Clinical Service Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (FVSc
& AH), Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Science and Technology (SKUAST) - Kashmir, India;
2Division of Surgery and Radiology, FVSc & AH, Shuhama, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006, India;
3Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine Ethics & Jurisprudence, FVSc & AH, SKUAST-Kashmir, India;
4Division of LPT, FVSc & AH, SKUAST-Kashmir, India.
*Corresponding author's e-mail:

ABSTRACT

Keywords
Antibiotics, Foot rot, Footbath, Lameness, Sheep In this study, efficacies of different therapeutic
regimens along with 10% zinc-sulfate footbath for the
treatment of acute foot rot in adult sheep were

Received : 21 May 2014,
Revised: 26 May 2014,
Accepted : 29 May 2014,
Published online: 02 June 2014.
evaluated. The research work conducted on the adult
sheep (n=104) of both sexes which were presented to
the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex during

INTRODUCTION
April 2013 to May 2014. Foot rot was confirmed based
on clinical and physical examinations. The sheep
Foot rot (also known as footrot or infectious were divided into four equal groups; G-I, G-II, G-III,
pododermatitis) is a kind of highly contagious infection and G-IV. The animals of the G-I, II and IV were
of hoof, which is considered as an economically treated with a mixture of amoxicillin and cloxacillin
important disease of ruminants especially sheep and at 15 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) through
goats. Dichelobacter nodosus (a Gram-negative rod) is the intramuscular (IM) route, oxytetracycline at 20 mg/kg
main causal agent of this disease (Wani et al., 2007). b.wt., IM, and enrofloxacin at 5 mg/kg b.wt., IM,
respectively. The animals of G-III were treated with

Other organisms like Fusobacterium necrophorum also gamma benzene hexachloride cream. Along with the
causes to develop foot rot (Egerton et al., 1989). The above treatments, all four groups were given footbath
disease is characterized by an exudative inflammation with 10% zinc-sulfate. Mean recovery time (days) was
followed by necrosis of the epidermal tissues of the recorded as lowest in G-II (3.83±0.64) followed by G-I
interdigital skin and hoof matrix, which results in (4.17±0.31), G-IV (4.38±0.0.79) and G-III (5.67±0.98),
separation of the hoof from the underlying soft tissues respectively. The mean±SE values of rectal
(Sreenivasulu et al., 2013). The affected animals showed temperature and ruminal motility that were recorded
loss of body condition, lameness, decreased fertility, before and after the treatment showed significant
and reduced production of wool and meat (La Fontaine (p<0.05) differences. In conclusion, administration of
et al., 1993). Lameness is usually the first sign varying parenteral antibiotics in combination with footbath
from scarcely noticeable to severe in one or more feet was highly effective to treat combination with
followed by reddening of the interdigital tissues and footbath was highly effective to treat the acute foot
swelling of the foot, causing spreading of the toes rot in sheep.
(Stewart, 1989). eISSN 2311-7710
Ansari et al./ J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 1(3): 114-118, September 2014 114
Table 1.Design for therapeutic regimen of acute foot rot in sheep (n=104)
Therapeutic Regimen
Dose and Route
Duration (Day)
Amoxicillin and CloxacillinA OxytetracyclineC Gamma benzene hexachlorideD AIntamox: Intas pharmaceuticals limited, Ahmedabad, India BZinc sulfate: AVA Chemicals Private Limited,Maharashtra, India COxytetracycline: Zydus Animal Health limited, Ahmedabad, India DLorexane Cream: Virbac Animal Health Private Limited, Mumbai, India EEnrodac-10: Zydus Animal Health limited, Ahmedabad, India. In the world, India ranked 6th in sheep population with for the successful treatment of acute foot rot in adult an estimated 61.5 million sheep (Hegde, 2006). In northern hilly areas of India, such as Kashmir, sheep farming is considered as the key livestock industry, where it serves as a major source of income for poor MATERIALS AND METHODS
rural communities. In this area, people rear sheep mainly for mutton and wool purposes iswas et al., The present study was carried out on adult sheep 1994). In the past few years, the disease became as a (n=104) of both the sexes (70 females and 34 males), challenge for sheep farmers with a reported prevalence which were presented to the Teaching Veterinary of 13-16% in Kashmir. An estimated annual cost of 37 Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and million rupees (approximately 8.26 million US dollars) Animal Husbandry, SKUAST-Kashmir, during the is lost due to foot rot sheep only in south Kashmir period April 2013 to May 2014. The ages of the sheep region (Rather et al., 2011). were 2.3±1.5 years, and the weights were 37.5±5 kg. All the animals were presented with the history of visible There are various reports of foot rot in Jammu and nodding of the head, pus in affected feet, irregular Kashmir, where the climate is temperate and favorable stride having an inflammation of the interdigital space, for foot rot (Wani et al., 2007; Hussain et al., 2009). The a characteristic smell, and under running of hoof horn. main predisposing factors of foot rot infection include Foot rot was confirmed by clinical and physiological muddy pastures, frequent rains and injury to feet (Asif examinations of the animals. On clinical examination et al., 2011), and other factors include low land farms, the animals showed hard horn, junction between horn high stocking densities, winter housing, routine foot and skin broken, soft horn of inside wall of hoof and trimming and inadequate treatment, and failure to sole cracked. Their duration of mild lameness ranged isolate the affected sheep (Whittington, 1995; Stewart, from 4 to 12 days as reported by farmers (Figure 1).
1989). However, there are very few reports worldwide Physiological parameters of sheep like, rectal about the efficacy of parenteral antibiotics that can be temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, and ruminal used for successful treatment of foot rot, with almost motility were recorded. The animals were randomly no clinical trials conducted in India so far on the allotted to four equal treatment groups; these were G-I, efficacy of combination therapy ( i.e., antibiotics, zinc- G-II, G-III and G-IV (Table 1). The animals of G-I were
sulphate and gamma benzene hexachloride) to treat administered with mixture of amoxicillin and foot rot in sheep. cloxacillin through intramuscular (IM) route dosed at 15 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) once a day for 3 days. Sheep with acute foot rot treated with long acting parenteral oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin and topical The animals of G-II received oxytetracycline dosed at application of potassium permanganate (an inorganic 20 mg/kg b.wt., IM, once a day for 3 successive days. chemical compound with the formula KMnO₄) solution The animals of G-III were treated with tropical on day 0 responded well to the treatment, however application of gamma benzene hexachloride twice a topical application of KMnO₄ alone was not effective day for 5 days. The animals of G-IV were given (Kaler et al., 2012). Present paper communicated the enrofloxacin dosed at 5 mg/kg b.wt., IM, once a day for comparative efficacy of different therapeutic regimens 3 days. Footbath was applied to animals of all the four Ansari et al./ J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 1(3): 114-118, September 2014 115


groups using 10% zinc-sulphate solution once a day for treatment showed significant (p<0.05) differences, 7 days (Table 1). whereas the changes in heart rate and respiratory rate
Statistical Analysis:
The data recorded, wherever
were insignificant (Table 2). Acute foot rot was
applicable, was statistically analyzed using simple one characterized by the presence of active lesion with way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% level of interdigital inflammation with or without hoof horn significance. The efficacy of therapeutic regimens was separation, characteristic foul smell, absence of hyperplasia of the sole and/or wall horn, and lameness evaluated on the basis of clinical response and duration. for <28-day. The findings of the present study were comparable to that of Egerton and Robertsm (1968). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The different antibiotics were administered IM to the animals in their assigned respective groups on the first The mean±SE values of age in years and weight in day after the diagnosis and repeated on day 2nd and kilograms for all the sheep were 2.3±1.5 and 37.5±05 day 3rd along with footbath with 10% zinc-sulphate respectively. The mean±SE values of rectal temperature daily for 5 min for 7 days. The animals of G-I treated and ruminal motility recorded before and after with a mixture of amoxicillin and cloxacillin Table 2. Physiological parameters (Mean±SE values) before and after treatment.
Observations
Before Treatment
After Treatment
Rectal Temperature (°F) Heart rate beats/min Respiratory rate/min Ruminal motility/2 min Means bearing same superscript in a row were not significant (p>0.05)
Means bearing different superscript in a row differ significantly (p<0.05)
Table 3. Comparative efficacy of different treatment regimens for acute foot rot in sheep.
Observations
Group III
Recovery time (in days) (Mean±SE values) Complete healing time in days (Mean±SE values) Recovery by single therapy (%) Recovery (%)
Means bearing same superscript in a row were not significant (p>0.05) Means bearing different superscript in a row differ significantly (p<0.05) Figure 1. Clinical examination of foot rot lesions. Left: characteristic lameness due to foot rot; Right: (A) hard
core, (B) horn and skin junction broken, (C) soft horn of inside wall of hoof and sole broken.
Ansari et al./ J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 1(3): 114-118, September 2014 116
dosed at 15 mg/kg b.wt. IM, and footbath with 10% using parenteral antibiotics in Southern Germany, it zinc-sulfate showed 100% recovery within 4.17±0.31 was found that the use of gamithromycin dosed at 6 days; whereas, complete healing was observed in mg/kg b.wt., IM, and long-acting oxytetracycline 28.83±2.31 days. The animals of G-II treated with dosed at 20 mg/kg b.wt., IM, under field conditions oxytetracycline dosed at 20 mg/kg b.wt. IM, and 10% were effective in controlling foot rot in sheep (Strobel et zinc-sulfate footbath also recovered 100% within 3.83±0.64 days, with complete healing within 27.17±1.64 days. The animals of G-II showed faster Kaler et al. (2012) reported that parenteral use of long response as compared to G-I, which might be acting oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin, and topical attributed to the inclusion of oxytetracycline. On the application of KMnO₄ solution for the treatment of other hand, the animals of G-III treated with Gamma both acute and chronic foot rot in sheep was very benzene hexachloride cream by local application twice effective. The results of our study indicated that the a day for three days, and footbath with 10% zinc- sheep with acute foot rot that were treated with sulfate showed 80% recovery within 5.67±0.98 days, parenteral antibiotics, along with footbath exhibited a with complete healing within >30.67±1.98 days. The significantly rapid recovery from lameness, and prolonged healing time and incomplete recovery in this completely healed within shorter time as compared to group could be attributed to the fact that zinc-sulfate those of treated with the combination of gamma footbath along with application of Gamma benzene benzene hexachloride and zinc-sulfate footbath (Table
hexachloride cream in the absence of any parenteral antibiotic was not sufficient to eliminate the causal agents of foot rot completely. Recovery in G-IV sheep CONCLUSIONS
administered with enrofloxacin dosed at 5 mg/kg b.wt. From the present study, it is concluded that the IM, and footbath with 10% zinc-sulfate occurred within administration of parenteral antibiotics in combination 4.38±0.79 days with complete healing in 28.83±1.79 with footbath to treat clinico-physical symptoms of days (Table 3).
acute foot rot is highly effective. This is likely to provide socio-economic benefits to the farmers and When compared with 1st day, clinical lameness reduced strengthen welfare concern. in all the sheep of the four groups after the single treatment, as reflected in the reduction in the number COMPETING INTEREST
of foot rot affected feet. Therefore, in our study, it was observed that the sheep with acute foot rot that were The authors declare that they have no competing treated with parenteral antibacterial had a significantly rapid recovery from lameness and had complete healing of lesion within short time as compared with those of treated with Gamma benzene hexachloride and 10% zinc-sulfate footbath (<50% recovered in 28 The authors are highly thankful to the staffs of days). Recovery period from this disease does not Teaching Veterinary Clinical Services Complex, Faculty relate to body condition score, age, duration of of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, for lameness, or presence of pus in the feet of acutely there constant support during the tenure of this present affected sheep. Similar to our findings, treatment of acute foot rot was successfully done by using short acting parenteral antibiotics such as penicillin and REFERENCES
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Dolor torácico crónico Problema clínico La presencia de dolor torácico semejante al de una angina constituye un síntoma alarmante que con frecuencia lleva al afectado a acudir a urgencias y representa el grueso de la carga de trabajo de los cardiólogos. La evaluación clínica del acontecimiento va desde la realización de estudios sencillos, como el electrocardiograma (ECG, tanto en reposo como tras la práctica de ejercicio) y el ecocardiograma hasta otros métodos de investigación más onerosos e invasivos, tales como la angiografía coronaria y las pruebas de esfuerzo farmacológicas. En aquellos pacientes que presentan síntomas recurrentes carentes de una causa evidente debe llevarse a cabo una evaluación ulterior para excluir cardiomiopatías, enfermedad microvascular y enfermedad pericárdica. Con todo, entre el 10 % y el 50 % de los pacientes aquejados de un dolor torácico similar al de la angina que sea lo suficientemente grave como para justificar la realización de estudios cardíacos invasivos no sufren enfermedad cardíaca [30] y se clasifican como pacientes afectados de dolor torácico no cardíaco (DTNC). Caracterización epidemiológica y consecuencias sociales y económicas El DTNC es frecuente en el mundo occidental. Hasta el 30 % de los pacientes que se someten a una angiografía coronaria por dolor torácico tienen arterias coronarias normales [15]. En un reciente metaanálisis llevado a cabo en 14 poblaciones independientes, compuestas por 25.000 sujetos, se ha puesto de manifiesto una prevalencia combinada del DTNC que asciende al 13 % (IC: 95 %, 9-16), similar en mujeres y hombres, pero marcadamente superior en sujetos que también habían referido enfermedad por reflujo gastroesofágico (ERGE) [19]. Otros factores de riesgo son la obesidad, antecedentes familiares de ERGE, tabaquismo y uso de analgésicos [13]. El pronóstico de los pacientes con DTNC es favorable. El infarto de miocardio afecta a un máximo del 1 % de los casos [31, 44], mientras que la muerte cardíaca se da tan solo en el 0,6 % de los pacientes tras un seguimiento de hasta 10 años. En cambio, los aquejados de enfermedad coronaria limitada a un único vaso presentan una tasa de mortalidad del 15 % a los 48 meses y del 35 % a los 11 años [10]. La carga económica es considerable. En la realización de un análisis estadounidense el cálculo de los costes sanitarios ascendió a más de 315 millones USD anuales, derivados de la gran cantidad de consultas médicas y a urgencias, hospitalizaciones y recetas [36]. En Australia, el DTNC supone todos los años al menos 30 millones USD del presupuesto sanitario [14]. Características clínicas de las causas cardíacas y esofágicas del dolor torácico En los pacientes afectados de DTNC se considera posible la presencia de alteraciones gastrointestinales, pulmonares, musculoesqueléticas, infecciosas, psicológicas y relacionadas con el consumo de drogas; no obstante, se juzga que son los trastornos esofágicos el factor que con mayor frecuencia contribuye a la aparición de dolor torácico similar al de la angina y de origen no cardíaco [16]. Como apunte interesante, ha de advertirse que en la historia médica no suele hacerse distinción entre causas cardíacas y esofágicas del dolor torácico porque el dolor de origen esofágico también puede tener una localización retroesternal e irradiarse a los brazos, el cuello, las mandíbulas o la espalda. La sensación dolorosa se describe a menudo como de opresión o ardor y puede venir desencadenada por la acción de tragar, pero asimismo por la práctica de ejercicio. En pacientes aquejados de angina, la presencia de acidez de estómago o disfagia puede incrementar la probabilidad de que exista un trastorno esofágico subyacente [2]; no obstante, hasta el 50 % de los pacientes cuyo dolor torácico sea de causa cardíaca pueden sufrir también ardor, regurgitación o disfagia [7]. Es más, pueden coincidir la enfermedad cardíaca y la esofágica, pues, por ejemplo, en los pacientes afectados de enfermedad de las arterias coronarias el reflujo gastroesofágico puede provocar cambios del segmento ST en el ECG, así como dolor torácico [29], y por ello no puede darse por supuesta la existencia de enfermedad cardíaca o esofágica con la única justificación de la presentación clínica. A pesar de estos factores confusos, los pacientes que sufren DTNC suelen ser jóvenes y tienen una mayor probabilidad que los afectados de angina cardíaca de presentar un ECG normal en reposo [11]. Caracterización fisiopatológica del DTNC Son causas frecuentes del dolor torácico de origen esofágico el ERGE, la hipersensibilidad visceral y la dismotilidad esofágica, de los cuales el ERGE constituye la razón esofágica más habitual de DTNC. Los análisis del pH esofágico revelan que en torno a la mitad de los pacientes afectados de DTNC presentan una exposición anómala al ácido esofágico [9, 41], si bien no está

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