Trustees of Agricultural
Issue 1, First Quater January-March,2016
Livestock Value Chain

TA P P Trustees of Agricultural
Executive Editor
Professor Leonard Kamwanja
Content Development
Charles Mkoka
Charles Mkoka & Amos Gumulira
Layout & Design
Stephen Schade Mbalule
Contact Information
Trustees of Agricultural Promotion
Programme (TAPP),
Cover photo : A woman farmer rearing cattle
provides scarce water for them to drink
LPMU Headquarters,Likuni Road, afterLilongwe Cold Storage Co, Ltd,P/Bag A 21, Lilongwe, MalawiMobile : 0888 382 900 / 0997 286 786E-mail: [email protected]: www.tappmalawi.org Back Cover photo : The road to LUANAR
where animal science is taught

Trustees of Agricultural
Tobacco stems to control tick attacks Olav Reksen Professor of Animal Science at Norwegian University of Life Sciences TA P P Trustees of Agricultural
Capacity Building for Managing Climate Change (CABMACC) is a national five year programme that
aims to build capacity of the University and its stakeholders through teaching training, research and outreach in climate change adaptation and mitigation.
The programme is funded by the Royal Kingdom of Norway and is being coordinated by the Programme Coordinating Office (PCO) at Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANAR) in collaboration with the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU)
The overall goal of the programme is to improve livelihoods and food security through innovative responses and enhanced capacity for climate change adaptation.
Specifically the programme aims to achieve the following out puts: Enhanced capacity by the University towards emerging local and global climate change Increase knowledge technologies and systems for climate change adaptation and Increase capacity on advocacy, outreach , networking and mainstreaming of climate change with national policies and adaptations plans Trustees of Agricultural
Synergies needed in
climate resilience Challenges brought by year innovative programme Animal Health and Livestock climate change are impacting to cushion the effects Development will also a lot on diverse farming brought by climate change conduct diagnostics analysis communities. This is affecting nationwide. on samples collected on Zebu the normal way people live, CABMACC is jointly cattle to determine causes food security and more coordinated with the of diseases. In this issue we importantly sustenance of Norwegian University of Life are focusing on the livestock domestic animals such as the Sciences (NMBU) supported value chain in Bolero, Malawi Zebu.
by the government of It does not need rocket Norway. One of the current As it can be seen there science to know that a food interventions being pursued is strength in unity. It can insecure nation is more prone is the livestock value chain therefore be concluded that to malnutrition and flabby research initiative to curb synergies are very crucial in to make contributions to the climate change effects ensuring various institutions overall national development through innovative ideas. work together for a common agenda. This mean rural The overall objective is cause and purpose.
people other than suffering to empower farmers with from hunger, disease and knowledge such that the dry poverty as a result of climate period takes less toll in terms change effect – will not of mortality on the Zebu impart capacity to the current cattle. After all, a significant crop of children to attain part of meat and milk in better education and help Malawi comes from Zebu to make informed decisions in the future. As a result the CABMACC realizes the cycle of poverty continues important role synergies to spiral, generation after with other institutions insecure nation is more generation. This is a threat to play in the fight against prone to malnutrition and both the present and future climate change. As such it flabby to make contributions human well being.
has built partnerships with to the overall national In a move to ensure relevant non – governmental development agenda. This farming households build organization and government mean rural people other resilience to overcome shocks institutions such as Find than suffering from hunger, such as erratic rain, drought Your Feet who are working disease and poverty as a and dry spells. The Lilongwe with farmers to ensure crop result of climate change effect University of Agriculture and genetic diversity is conserved – will not impart capacity to Natural Resources under the through the construction the current crop of children Programmes Coordinating of seed banks as part of to attain better education Office is implementing and help to make informed the Capacity Building for Another partner Central decisions in the future. Managing Climate Change Veterinary Laboratory in Malawi (CABMACC) a five under the Department of TA P P Trustees of Agricultural
populations of Zebu cattle using indigenous knowledge farmers are capable of overcoming cases of vulnerability and food insecurity, but also pay school fees for their children. All this is possible under the technical guidance of the TAPP under the Capacity Building for managing Climate Ticks infest animals causing sores and wounds
Change in Change. Trustees of Agricultural
in terms of the expected products. One of them being bsence of dip tanks manure for instance, which the that provide control farmers heavily rely upon to of ticks when cattle improve soil texture as mulch are immersed in acaricides is in their gardens.
negatively affecting livestock Chief Bongololo added husbandry at Bolero, Rumphi. that more manure from This has resulted in cattle animals mean that there is being attacked by pests that a positive bearing in terms are causing trauma leading to of food security. This is reduced output in milk, meat because fertilizer prices are so and manure. This is according exorbitant these days, costing to lead Farmer Joseph close to MK25, 000.00 per 50 Gondwe who is also principal kilograms bag, which is quite chief Bongololo explaining in expensive for the average an interview with this reporter. farmer reeling from effects of According to the UN Food climate change.
and Agriculture Organization According to another tick infestations may cause farmer Harris Msowoya of The drug Ivermectin ready to be
physical damage to livestock Kawazamawe village, vibrant administered on sick animals
other than diseases, paralysis, harvest mean more fodder and toxicosis. They also cause for the animals that will in unrest irritation and weight turn provide more milk and the Capacity Building for loss due to massive loss meat – if farmers decide managing Climate Change in of blood due to continued to sell them on market. In feeding. The resultant effect that way they are building CABMACC is jointly being the drastic decline of resilient communities that can coordinated by Lilongwe domesticated animals through overcome shocks in times of University of Agriculture and Natural Resources together In the absence of Mphatso Chipandula, with Norwegian University of acaricides, farmers are now Field Officer of Trustees Life Sciences supported by exploring the effectiveness of of Agriculture Promotion the government of Norway. fluid generated from tobacco Programme (TAPP) said there The livestock value chain is stems as a local alternative used to be so many Zebu one of the research projects to treat ticks attacking the cattle but today the statistics being carried out in the quest dermis of domestic animals. are declining. He explained to manage climate change ills "The idea is that in the that TAPP is conducting through innovative ideas and absence of available resources, research to find out what farmers can use the fluid factors are prevalent in the According to the to reduce ticks attack that population that points to this Deputy Vice Chancellor, Prof are tormenting our animals. Emmanuel Kaunda, TAPP was We hope we can capitalize By sustaining vibrant trusted with the assignment on tobacco stems as they populations of Zebu due to their immense are locally abundant and cattle using indigenous experience in dealing with accessible. This will ensure knowledge farmers are indigenous livestock practices. we reduce mortality rate that capable of overcoming cases It is envisaged that TAPP will result from untreated cattle," of vulnerability and food assist LUANAR in unearthing insecurity, but also pay school indigenous ways of managing He expressed concern that fees for their children. All this climate change effects animals affected by pests and is possible under the technical especially when it relates to diseases have reduced output guidance of the TAPP under livestock and food security. TA P P Trustees of Agricultural
Plans underway to improve climate information access
By Charles Mkoka
A better informed community is able to take timely and appropriate farming activities both in crop and animal husbandry. To better address climate change related effects, a more robust climate monitoring information system is paramount to provide accurate and up to date data In a quest to improve agricultural productivity Bolero Meteorological Weather station will be electrified so that the computerized station currently running under solar energy will be soon be connected to the national power grid. This TAPP Field Officer, Mphatso Chipandula captured at Bolero met station
will ensure sustained energy supply is available critical in to know the available residual the animals and inadequate providing information to help moisture in the soil and other food as well. Thomas added in agricultural decision making.
important updates needed by that there is a drastic decline "We are working with livestock in the vegetative cover in the as such the linkage with access Raphael Thomas, Bolero area and this has altered the to climate information is very Meteorological Observer told temperatures for the area. This paramount. We need to know a visiting electronic and print development has a bearing on how many rain days is the media crew covering CABMACC livestock rearing forcing them to area experiencing for us to be activities that the station travel long distances in search able to make decision in as far boosts of a thermometer, rain for water and fodder. water harvesting initiative is gauge and wind vane that is Thomas called upon well wishers concerned," Chipandula said in to help safeguard equipment an interview at the station.
He explained that the past at the station as it is prone to Farmers need to know when two seasons the rains were vandalism especially the solar to plant crops such as soya okay but last season 2014/15 panels. "This heavily affects the that is a fodder to livestock. precipitation was more erratic logging and saving of the data," The presence of the data helps which meant less water for he said in an interview.
Trustees of Agricultural
Innovation at play in
Livestock value chain
By Charles Mkoka
instituted studies on the effect such as leaves from leguminous of distance to water on the trees and maize bran for Bolero in Rumphi district is parameters; milk yield, calves feeding Zebu cows during one of those old rural growth growth, reproductive function, the drier months. Additional centers established way back by milk composition and many feeding will help maintaining the visionary Hastings Kamuzu more. This way researchers will body condition and thereby Banda. It boost of feeder be able to give the farmers production of the cows during a bitumen network roads at the scientific based advice on the prolonged dry period.
trading centre, an agricultural best approaches to rear Zebu Currently, farmers are training centre opened on 29 cattle, and add to the body of being provided with seedlings July, 1966 as part of the Turkish knowledge within the scientific to upscale fodder for animals. Tobacco Development Scheme community. Also of importance Some purchased dried leaves financed by the Federal Republic is the fact that research supply from leguminous trees are of Germany. There is also a fully policy makers with knowledge being used during training so fledged meteorological station on the production and health that farmers use them as feed to monitor short and long limits of these animals, such that additive. Already this is some term trends and feed the local water dams are being restored level of mitigation as part of farming community with up to and leguminous trees are being resilience building from climate planted on the right sites and effects. Thanks to Professor The agro-ecology has with adequate capacity.
Leoanrd Kamwanja who has one of the species that is The general idea is taken a lead role in this fight.
associated with fertile soils. This to empower farmers with Other initiatives include is a leguminous nitrogen fixing knowledge such that the dry bio-ethanol, diary breeding, acacia like species Faidherbia period characterized with water biomass, aquaculture, albida. However, like any other shortage takes minimal toll on conservation agriculture and place locally climate effects have Zebu cattle. This is because a gender. Overall, CABMACC not spared local communities. significant part of meat and milk goal is to enhance innovative One of the major challenges locally comes from Zebu cattle. response and capacity for is water access which is not Farmers are encouraged to use adaptation to climate change at only affecting people but also community based resources national level. livestock especially cattle that has to travel long distance hence impacting on productivity such as milk, meat and manure. Water and fodder for animals ranks high as great challenges to sustain livelihoods according to the residents.
There is a ray of hope now to ensure resilience building as part of adaptation among the local communities. Capacity Building for Managing Climate Change (CABMACC) is jointly coordinated by the Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources and Norwegian University of Life Sciences with support from the government of Norway.
So far scientists have Domestic animals and people share a borehole due to water scarcity at Bolero
TA P P Trustees of Agricultural
Olav Reksen Professor of Animal Science at Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(LUANAR) partnered with the Norwegian University of Life
Sciences (NMBU) through the Capacity Building for Managing
Climate Change (CABMACC) that aims to strengthen
knowledge and research to enhance resilience building
as part of adaptation and mitigation to climate effects.
CHARLES MKOKA, a communication consultant had a chat
with Professor Olav Reksen from NMBU to explain more on
the exchange programme. Excerpts:
Olav Reksen from NMBU
Can you explain the LUANAR and NMBU
approaches – which is the primary objective of higher educational institutions. In order to solve global encounters of today, we need to build Currently, the main collaboration is centered partnerships for exchange of knowledge and on student exchange and research within the ideas. This way, enabling technologies in one part CAMBACC Program. Student exchange is facilitated of the world may be made available for a larger through our School of Business and Economics, scientific community to combat food shortage and whereas CABMACC encompass seven different climate change worldwide.
projects at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. I am involved in a project on Livestock What is the significance given the two countries
value chain, food security, and environmental different climates?
quality that is headed by Professor Leonard Kamwanja, Director of Trustees of Agricultural When it comes to climatic change, Norway also Promotion Programme in Malawi.
experiences unwelcomed alterations. The weather continues to get wait, specifically along the coast. Why should knowledge enhancement of this The winters are getting milder and the summers
nature need to be nurtured?
colder. So, there is no doubt that we have a common problem. An important aspect of bringing Human brainpower has brought us to the state Norwegian students to Malawi is to present for we are today, both on the positive and negative them the opportunity of working outside Norway. side. The current climatic challenges must also be These are very capable young people that would solved – through innovative and research based make a difference wherever they may go, so why Trustees of Agricultural
A farmer feeds a healthy cow in expectation for better returns
not try to influence the direction? One of the students already holds a Doctor in Veterinary Medicine but is taking an additional degree in animal science, and the three other students are in their last year of veterinary education. All students use results from this project in their thesis. When it comes to through innovative and research specific contributions by the students it must be seen in based approaches – which is the context of our profession. the primary objective of higher educational institutions. In What parameters are you actively involved in?
order to solve global encounters of today, we need to build We are working on the optimization of health and production in cows, and the underlying mechanisms partnerships for exchange of are quite similar both in Norway and Malawi. The knowledge and ideas. This objectives relate to improving milk yield, calves growth, way, enabling technologies reproductive function and milk composition. The in one part of the world students have participated in obtaining blood samples may be made available for a to determine disease situation in the population. There larger scientific community is a need to build a robust population of Zebu to to combat food shortage and encounter prolonged periods of drought, and a healthy animal is a prerequisite for robustness. climate change worldwide.
TA P P Trustees of Agricultural
expeRIeNCe shARINg
There is now population boom in this area, so much that there is competition for land which usually has been left idle to allow cattle to graze. This increase in human population is exerting enormous pressure on areas meant for domestic animal to feed. In a move to ensure that households are food secure, farmers are turning large areas of idle land into arable farming, a development that is denying domestic animals to freely move in search of food. The changing environment is also having a bearing especially on water access. The increase in radiation intensity means more evaporation is taking place and water is being restricted to wells, streams and rivers which are far away from human habitation. This means animals have to travel long distances to access water, a thing that negatively affect productivity in terms of milk, meat and manure. As a result there is a direct implication on food security PArAmOuNT ChIEf ChIkulAmAyEmBE Trustees of Agricultural
Uvwili wa Luanar ku Bolero
pala tikudumba vya kulima nga ndi bizinesi, yakukhalapo na kulima ni banandi, kweni
iyi ndiyo nthowa mulongozgi wakale yakasungilapo vilengiwa sono yali kuzgoka minda.
Ngwazi dr. hastings Kamuzu Banda Malo ayo vibeto, chomene ng'ombe, vikwenela
wakakhumbanga apo wakajulilanga malo ya kuti vikaliskikengeko yakumala pachoko na
masambiro ya vya ulimi pa 29 July, 1966 in pachoko. Ili ni sugzo likulu chomene ku vibeto.
Ntchakuzizwisya chala kuti sugzo la maji Malo aya yakawa nthowa imoza yakukwezgera lakhwaska chomene vibeto ivyo vikukhala na ulimi wa hona uyo wakalimikanga na bazungu kovwila banthu panyumba. Viweto sono vikwenda bakuchalo cha Turkey na ovwili bakufumira ku ulendo utali chomene kuti vikasange maji Germany. Kalimilo aka kakawa kakovwila chomene yakumwa--suzgo ilo liziska kuchepa kwa mkaka, ku ulimi wa mbuto zakupeleka ndalama kwa alimi, nyama, ngwata na vinyakhe ivo balimi bakusanga chomenechomene hona. Chilato chinyake chikawa ku vibeto nga ni ng'ombe.
kovwila wanthu wanandi kuti wasange mwabi wa Fumbo likulu ndakuti ka pali nthowa uli ntchito na kulutiska pambere chuma cha chalo izo zilikuwikika kuti tovwile kumazga suzgo chino chifukwa cha ndalama za vyalo na vyalo ilo balimi wakukaya nga ndi awa izo zikwiza chifukwa cha malonda nga ndi agha wakusangana nalo? (foreign earnings) Bolero ndi malo ghakusangika mu boma la Rumphi, ma kilomita yakuneng'enera 15 kumpoto cha kumanjililo kwa dazi mphepeti mwa msewu wa chuvu uwo ukulazga ku Hewe na ku malo ya vinyama vya muthondo ya Nyika National Park. Malo agha ghakumanyikwa chomene chifukwa cha msangu makuni ayo ghakuwegzela nitrogen mu dongo ivyo vikovwila chalu kuwa na nyata. Makuni ya chilengiwa agha ghakulakata mahamba, kuwegzelamo Kusazgilapo pa makuni agha, ku Bolero kukasangikaso utheka wakubiliwila na maji yanandi, ivyo vikawovwilanga balimi kuti babe na vakulya na vibeto vinandi. Ng'ombe zikaba na chakulya chakukwanila chaka chose. Malo agha yakamanyikwaso chomene na vipaso vyachilengiwa ivyo vikawovwilanga wanthu kukula makola.
Muhanya uno, vinandi ivyo vikawako kale vili kuzgoka chomene. Vikusoba. Mu mazgo ya Themba la Mathemba Chikulamayembe, "kale lili kuluta nakuti sono moyo ukusuzga chomene." Fumu yikulu ya ba Tumbuka ikuti Bolero wali pa masugzo chifukwa cha kwandana kwa wanthu. Banthu Winnie Chirambo,
a farmer at
village, TA
in Rumphi
TA P P Trustees of Agricultural
Ivyo vyachitikapo umo kabetero ka vibeto kawila pa vyaka ivyo vili kujumpha Ba CABMACC bakupa balimi chifukwa cha kusintha kwa mahamba yakomira ya makuni nyengo. Tikukhumbiskiskaso yakukwezgera nyata mudongo kuti tisange nthowa za lokolo izo kuti bavune chakurya chinandi. banthu wakukaya wakugwilisya Bakubasambizgaso umo bangasazgira mahamba aya ku Iwo bakadumbapo vya chakurya cha viweto.
ntchito ya wupu wawo apo a bangagwiliskira ntchito bana ba sukulu kufumila ku mahamba aya Ng'ombe Norwegian University of Life zikutemwa chomene chakulya Sciences (NMBU) bakawa kuti chakupangika mu nthowa wali ku Bolero kukatola ndopa na iyi ndipo balimi banweka na mavi gha ng'ombe za lokolo kuti kuyamba kupanda makuni yawo wakaviyezge ku malo ya boma yakupimilako vinandi vya vibeto Pakumazga suzgo la ya Central Veterinary Laboratory.
vibungu, bakupeleka nyelete ya Ivermectin iyo ikuchizga matenda Ivyo vyachitikapo ya mpholozi za mu matumbo, za m'maso na za m'mapapo Prof. Leonard Kamwanja Ba CABMACC bakupa balimi kweniso ba kabali na nyinda mahamba yakomira ya makuni ku ng'ombe za makilogilamu chala, bakayowoyapo za umo yakukwezgera nyata mudongo yapakati pa 50 na 250.
bungwe lawo likugwilira ntchito kuti bavune chakurya chinandi. Bantchito ba bungwe kuvwila kawilo ka vinthu na za Bakubasambizgaso umo ili bakugwilaso ntchito jando la mahala ya bungwe bangasazgira mahamba aya ku na mabungwe yanyakhe lawo umo lifiskilenge chilato cha chakurya cha viweto.
kuoneseska kuti pali wene na kafukufuku uyu.
a bangagwiliskira ntchito wene Pakumazga suzgo la A Kamwanja bakuti pa mahamba aya Ng'ombe kusintha kwa nyengo. Limoza ntchito yakumazga masuzgo zikutemwa chomene chakulya mwa mabungwe agha ni la Find yakusangika chifukwa cha chakupangika mu nthowa Your Feet ilo ndi la boma chala. kusintha kwa nyengo, na owviri iyi ndipo balimi banweka na Bungwe la kuyima palekha wa kufuma kwa mwimilili wa kuyamba kupanda makuni yawo ili likovwira balimi kuzenga chalo cha Norway, wali kovwila na yawo. nthamba zakusungilamo mbuto nkhwantha za masambilo ku Pakumazga suzgo la za mbeu izo zikucha makola Lilongwe University of Agriculture vibungu, bakupeleka nyelete ya kwakuyana mmadera umo and Natural Resources (LUANAR) Ivermectin iyo ikuchizga matenda bakugwiramo ntchito iyi. Ivi pa mahala ayo ghangasangika ya mpholozi za mu matumbo, vivwilenge balimi kupanda mbuto pakuchita kafukufuku nga ndi za m'maso na za m'mapapo izo zikuzizipizga na kupambika imoza mwa nthowa zakumazgila kweniso ba kabali na nyinda makola na kusinthasintha kwa masuzgo nga ndi agha.
ku ng'ombe za makilogilamu kawilo ka vula mu madera Nkhwantha izi ndizo yapakati pa 50 na 250.
zikachema mabungwe kuti Bantchito ba bungwe Wupu wa Trustees of yalembe umo yangavwilira ili bakugwilaso ntchito Agriculture Promotion kumazga suzgo la kusintha kwa na mabungwe yanyakhe Programme (TAPP), ilo chilato nyengo, icho ndi ntchito ikulu kuoneseska kuti pali wene na chakhe ni kulutiska pambele chomene ya boma. wene Pakumazga suzgo la ulimi wa vibeto, likupanga TAPP ikawa imoza mwa kusintha kwa nyengo. Limoza kafukufuku ku Bolero kuti lisange mabungwe ayo yali kupokela mwa mabungwe agha ni la Find nthowa zakuchepeska masuzgo ovwili kufuma ku Capacity Your Feet ilo ndi la boma chala. ayo banthu bakukumana nayo Building for Managing Climate Bungwe la kuyima palekha chifukwa cha kusintha kwa Change In Malawi(CABMACC). ili likovwira balimi kuzenga Ba Kamwanja bakati: "Ntchito nthamba zakusungilamo mbuto Professor Leonard yithu ku Bolero tikuyezgeska za mbeu izo zikucha makola Kamwanja, awo ni mulala wa kuti itivwire kumanya umo kwakuyana mmadera umo bungwe la TAPP ilo ndaboma vinthu vili kusinthila, chomene bakugwiramo ntchito iyi. Ivi Trustees of Agricultural
acidic and its ph level is falling. scientists
think this could have widespread
and severe effects on marine life—
10 Terrifying Facts From the UN's New Climate
increasingly, ocean acidification is being
Report. It's getting hotter. we're causing it. And we
referred to as the "other Co2 problem."
have to act now. We particularly find point seven
to conform to the rationale and objective of this
6. Climate change will hit developing
issue's theme; " Livestock value chain ".
nations particularly hard, but we are all
vulnerable.Climate change will make
The Inter-governmental panel on Climate Change.
food systems more volatile, exacerbate
health problems, displace people,
1. we humans really, truly are responsible
weaken countries' infrastructures, and
for climate change, and ignoring that
fuel conflict. It will touch every area
fact doesn't make it less true. "human
of life. economic growth will slow as
influence on the climate system is
temperatures warm, new poverty traps
clear, and recent anthropogenic
will be created, and we'll find that
emissions of greenhouse gases are
poverty cannot be eliminated without
the highest in history," the report
first tackling climate change.
states. The atmospheric concentration
of key greenhouse gases—carbon 7. plants and animals are even more
dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide—
vulnerable than we are. As climates shift,
is "unprecedented in at least the last
entire ecosystems will be forced to move,
800,000 years," the report warns, and our
colliding with one another. Many plants
fossil-fuel driven economies and ever-
and small animals won't be able to move
increasing population are to blame.
quickly enough to keep up, if global
warming marches forward unabated,
and will go extinct.
2. Climate change is already happening.
each of the past three decades has been
8. we must switch mostly to renewables
warmer than the last, and warmer than
by 2050, and phase out fossil fuels
any decade since we started keeping
by 2100. To avoid the most damaging
records. sea levels are rising. Arctic
and potentially irreversible impacts
ice cover is shrinking. Crop yields are
of climate change (e.g., from the
changing—more often than not, getting
report: "substantial species extinction,
smaller. It has been getting wetter, and
global and regional food insecurity,
storms and heat waves are getting more
consequential constraints on common
human activities, and limited potential
for adaptation"), we'll need to make sure
3. …and it is going to get far worse: "heat
our greenhouse gas emissions are cut
waves will occur more often and last
severely by the middle of this century.
longer…extreme precipitation events will
we should aim for "near zero emissions
become more intense and frequent in
of Co2 and other long-lived ghgs by the
many regions. The ocean will continue to
end of the century."
warm and acidify, and global mean sea
9. we already have the answers we need
level to rise," the report states. If we stick
to tackle climate change. we have the
to our current path, we could see 3.7 to
necessary technologies available, and
4.8 degrees Celsius of warming—or even
economic growth will not be strongly
more—by the end of the century.
affected if we take action, the report
argues. As the cliché goes, all it takes is
4. Much of recent warming has been in the
the will to act. But we must act in unison,
ocean. About 90 percent of the energy
the report states: "Effective mitigation
that has gone into the climate system
will not be achieved if individual
since 1971 went into the ocean. That
agents advance their own interests
means a warmer, expanding ocean,
independently. Cooperative responses,
which fuels stronger storms. It also
including international cooperation, are
means rising sea levels and eroding
therefore required to effectively mitigate
ghg emissions and address other
climate change issues."
5. The ocean is also becoming more acidic.
By taking in so much of the carbon
10. This dire report is decidedly conservative.
dioxide that humans have been spitting
The effects of climate change could
out since the industrial revolution, the
be much worse than what this report
ocean has become 26 percent more
TA P P Trustees of Agricultural
The road to LUANAR where animal science is taught Designed and Printed By ecosystems partners 0993113113

Source: http://www.bunda.luanar.mw/pco/downloads/Tapp%20Newsletter.pdf

Der galenische trick

Verschiedene Wirkstoffe geschickt in einer Tablette kombiniert Der galenische Trick Lang anhaltender Bluthochdruck kann dramatische Folgen haben: Herzinfarkt oder Schlaganfal drohen. Um vor-zubeugen, nehmen viele Menschen Medikamente – meist gleich mehrere Präparate. Wissenschaftler von Bayer HealthCare bringen nun Ordnung in die Pil en-Vielfalt: Sie haben zwei bewährte Wirkstoffe in einer Tablette vereint. Eine Meisterleistung der Galenik, denn die beiden Substanzen müssen ganz unterschiedlich im Körper freigesetzt werden.

Disposición 20069 del boe núm. 317 de 2010

BOLETÍN OFICIAL DEL ESTADO Núm. 317 Jueves 30 de diciembre de 2010 Sec. I. Pág. 108827 I. DISPOSICIONES GENERALES MINISTERIO DE LA PRESIDENCIA Resolución de 23 de diciembre de 2010, de la Presidencia del Consejo Superior de Deportes, por la que se aprueba la lista de sustancias y métodos prohibidos