6370 LBJ Freeway
Dallas, TX 75240
FDA Approves Two New Parkinson's Drugs
Good news for the Parkinson's community came in early January this year as the FDA approved two new drugs. RYTARY™ is an extended-release oral
capsule form of carbidopa/levidopa for use in early through late stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). DUOPA™ is approved for treatment of motor
fluctuations in the late stages of PD. It is administered through an infusion pump that delivers carbidopa and levodopa directly into the small intestine.
• RYTARY™ (pronounced rye-TAR-ee) addresses the needs of patients who
experience reduced mobility as levodopa levels drop by providing a formulation of carbidopa/levidopa that releases more slowly over time. In addition to the
extended-release beads, the capsule contains immediate release beads that are
designed for rapid effectiveness. Studies of RYTARY showed subjects had significantly increased amount of "on" time during waking hours without
troublesome dyskinesia. The manufacturer states that dosage of RYTARY will
require careful monitoring, as there is not a direct 1:1 correlation between it and
Liza Farrow-Gillespie, J.D.
carbidopa/levidopa. However it can be taken whole, or for those experiencing
See page 2 for speaker bio
swallowing problems, the beads in the capsule may be sprinkled on applesauce and consumed. RYTARY is scheduled to be released in four strengths and
available for commercial distribution in February 2015. For more information,
please consult • DUOPA™ has been approved as an orphan drug, a designation given to
Safaris to Sea Pirates:
products intended to treat rare diseases or conditions that affect fewer than
200,000 patients in the US. As PD progresses, it becomes increasingly difficult
to treat the motor symptoms of the disease with immediate release oral
As always, light refreshments
carbidopa/levidopa tablets. DUOPA is administered continuously for 16 hours
will be available.
through a tube called a PEG-J that is surgically inserted into the stomach. A
We look forward to seeing you!
small pump moves the medication from a cassette into the PEG-J tube. The
pump delivers DUOPA as a large dose first thing in the morning, as a
Monday, February 9, 2015
continuous dose while the pump is on, and as any extra doses needed during the day. In clinical trials, patients with advanced PD who received DUOPA
showed significantly reduced "off" times. Full prescribing information, including a
medication guide, can be found at
These new drugs help fill an unmet need for patients living with Parkinson's to
United Methodist Church
significantly increase the amount of time symptoms are adequately controlled.
As always, please seek your doctor's advice when determining how best to
meet your medical needs.
february speaker bio 2
legislative news 4
memorials, honors, donations 6
thank you 2
weather reminder 5
group schedules 7
daps: past, present, future 3-4
executive director's message 5
calendar of events 8
february speaker: Liza Farrow-Gillespie, J.D.
Liza Farrow-Gillespie is a lawyer, musician, sailor, pilot, and dedicated travel buff. From 1998 to 2005, Liza and her husband Alan
Dedicated to impacting and improving
lived aboard a sailboat and circumnavigated
the lives of those affected by
the globe. They made landfall on six
continents and visited 55 countries and island
groups. A book about their adventure is set
for publication in summer 2015.
This past year, they got the travel bug again
Board of Directors
and went on safari in South Africa and
Cindy Weatherall, President
Zimbabwe. Liza enjoys sharing stories about
Chad Swank, Ph.D., Vice President
her travels and hearing stories from others
Joyce Susman, Secretary and
Advisory Council Liaison
Diana Winkelmann, Treasurer
Liza is managing partner of a law firm in
Liza Farrow-Gillespie, J.D.
downtown Dallas, where she practices law in
the areas of estate planning, probate, nonprofit organizations, and elder law.
Mary El en Malone
In addition to those areas, her firm focuses on health law, employment law,
litigation, corporate law, government law, and family law. Liza is a trustee of
the Dallas Opera and a portfolio advisor for Texas Women Ventures Fund; and
Heather Jennings Stevens
she has served on the board of directors of DAPS since 2013.
Medical Advisory Board
Shilpa Chitnis, MD, Ph.D.
Richard B. Dewey, Jr., M.D.
Richard L. Fulbright, Ph.D.
Dwight C. German, Ph.D.
Jorge A. Romero, M.D.
R. Malcolm Stewart, M.D.
for their generous contribution
Gary L. Tunell, M.D.
Jill Dominguez, Editor
December holiday luncheon!
The DAPS newsletter is published monthly as an information guide only, and does not serve as legal or medical advice. We welcome your feedback, contributions or requests. Please send to or contact:
Submissions must be received by the 1st of the month preceding publication date and are subject to editing.
PAGE 2 · DAPS · FEBRUARY 2015
Dallas Area Parkinsonism Society: Past, Present, Future
by Margaret B. Schroeder
The Dallas Area Parkinsonism Society (DAPS) has a
In 1980, DAPS organized the first exercise class for people
strong foundation that began in 1978, explained Cindy
with PD and added speech therapy classes in 1981.
Weatherall, President of the Board of Directors for DAPS.
These classes have always been offered free of charge to
"Fiduciary duty started keeping me up at night," she said,
participants, and now caregiver classes are offered as well.
"so I knew I had to do something." When Cindy decides to
It takes many volunteers to keep DAPS running smoothly,
‘do something,' she really goes all out. She enrolled in the
Center for Philanthropy and Nonprofit Leadership at Rice University in Houston, Texas and received her Certificate in
Nonprofit Leadership with distinction in 2014. "I read binders Advisory Council and binders and binders of meeting minutes," she said, as
she described the coursework she did.
Musicians – The Reflections Band Speakers
What better way to kick off 2015 than to tell the story of DAPS and the vision for its future? "It began in 1978,"
she said, "with a 73-year old woman whose husband had
Newsletter Writers and Producers
Parkinson's disease (PD). When she couldn't find a group
Website and Database Experts
in Dallas, she started her own!" And so, Clarice Dougherty
Churches which provide space for classes
and her husband, Brook, became the founding members
Participants at monthly meetings
of DAPS, modeled after HAPS, the
Houston Area Parkinson Society,
DAPS manages all of these volunteers
which had been founded just four
and activities with minimal paid staff,
DAPS was founded in 1978.
years prior. Together the two
including our new Executive Director,
It was modeled after HAPS,
organizations are among the three
Mike Miles; our Administrative
oldest independent groups in the
the Houston Area Parkinson
Associate, Jill Dominguez; and our
nation that benefit people with PD.
Society. Today, these two
exercise, speech and support group
organizations are among the
"Did you know that the average lifespan of a Fortune 500 company is
three oldest independent
Some of the funds used to support
40 years? We're 36!" exclaimed
groups in the nation that
DAPS have come from the generous
Cindy. "And relationships are the
benefit people with PD.
donations of our membership. In
foundation of what we do at DAPS."
addition to membership contributions,
For example, Dr. Malcolm Stewart
we receive many honors, memorials,
spoke at the DAPS "Get Acquainted"
and additional donations from class
meeting in 1978. About that same time, Dr. Stewart was
participants. In 2014, we had a successful April
Assistant Professor of Neurology at UT Southwestern
Non-Event and we benefitted from the September North
Medical Center at Dallas (UTSW). He later went on to
Texas Giving Day. We are thankful to Briggs Equipment for
become President of DAPS and earned the DAPS
their generous donations in 2013 and 2014, and also to Fish
Community Service Award in 1983, 1984, and 1985. He
City Grill / Half Shells for their First Tuesday benefit
established the Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease
donations. But the most significant donation came to us as
program at Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, has been a
a bequest in 1996 from someone with no known connection
clinical professor of neurology at UTSW since 1995, and
to DAPS. If not for the generosity of a stranger, DAPS
was selected for the Best Doctors in America Award in
would have fallen into the red in 2008. Other smaller
1996 and 2001. He has remained a constant friend of
bequests have been given since 1980, some of which came
DAPS throughout his career.
from people who were connected to DAPS and others who were not.
DAPS has made many longstanding connections in the Dallas area, arguably the most important being the
According to DAPS Vice President Dr. Chad Swank, the
University Park United Methodist Church, where our
first recorded benefit of exercise for people with PD was
membership meetings have been held since1979. Other
published in The Journal of the American Medical
area churches host various classes for DAPS, graciously
Association in 1951, when the disease was known as
without charging for the use of space.
Paralysis Agitans. We know there is scientific evidence in
FEBRUARY 2015 · DAPS · PAGE 3
neurological diseases, including Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. The information collected will provide
addition to our own personal observations that exercise is
a foundation for evaluating and understanding aspects of
an important part of the treatment for PD. Clearly, DAPS
these diseases we currently do not have a good grasp of,
provides needed services.
such as the geography of diagnoses, variances in gender,
DAPS has also been able to donate approximately
disease burden and changes in health care practices
$500,000 to Dallas area researchers, including Dr. Dwight
among patients. According to Burgess, this new
German of UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.
surveillance system could one day lead to a cure for
During Cindy's presentation, she showed an archive photo
of Dr. German sitting next to Clarice Dougherty in 1986. In
"Because no national collecting system exists to gather data
our June 2014 membership meeting, Dr. German
on disease and risk, geography and incidence, diet and
announced that he had recently conducted a successful trial relapse, we are hampered in our ability to understand these
showing the potential existence of a blood biomarker for
conditions and improve the lives of these patients," Burgess
PD. Since then, he was awarded a nearly $3.5m grant from said. "What this bill does is simple and long overdue: It
the National Institutes of Health to expand his research
organizes and analyzes important information that will lead
across 240 participants. Through this line of research, Dr.
to better treatment and even a cure for neurological
German and his colleagues hope to find a way to slow
diseases, which are so misunderstood, yet so prevalent
down, stop, or even reverse PD, something which no drug
"The Advancing Research for Neurological Diseases Act will
When Cindy was studying for her Certificate in Nonprofit
help the CDC provide more accurate information to assist
Leadership, she conducted a survey of independent
those who research and treat neurological diseases,
organizations serving the Parkinson's community across
including Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson's disease," Van
America. Of 16 participating groups, DAPS was the only
Hollen said. "I am proud to continue working with
one offering significant services without the help of an
Congressman Burgess on this important legislation, which
executive director (ED). In order to continue our legacy and will provide a foundation for evaluating and understanding expand our vision further, Cindy decided to ask the DAPS
the occurrence of these diseases and improve the
Board of Directors to take a leap of faith. By investing in an prospects for discovering cures." ED, DAPS will be able to assign major responsibilities in the The bipartisan legislation has been endorsed by the
areas of evaluation, management, and development. The
National Multiple Sclerosis Society and the Parkinson's
ED will also continue building relationships, identify new
Action Network, among others.
resources, and help grow DAPS' skills. We are happy that Mr. Mike Miles was selected to fill this new position. With
"Having a national data collection system gathering critical
Mike at the helm, we are confident that DAPS will continue information on who has Parkinson's disease would be a to sustain itself with help from volunteers and the generous game changer," Ted Thompson, CEO of the Parkinson's donations from you, our family and friends.
Action Network, said. "We have advocated for the federal government to engage in this area because researchers
have long said that such a system will help ensure better
and more effective research, better treatments, and better
services for people living with Parkinson's disease and other
to Provide Better Understanding
neurological disorders. Our hope is that it would one day
help contribute to ultimately finding a cure for Parkinson's."
of Neurological Diseases
Parkinson's Action Network (PAN) partners with other
A press release on January 13, 2015, issued by the office of Parkinson's organizations as well as grassroots volunteers
Congressman Michael C. Burgess, M.D., (R-TX) announced around the country to educate the public and government
that he and Congressman Chris Van Hollen (D-MD) have
leaders on better research policies and improved quality of
introduced legislation to improve and enhance the
life for people living with Parkinson's. If you are interested in
understanding of neurological diseases, which afflict tens
other legislative issues concerning Parkinson's disease,
of thousands of new patients in the U.S. each year.
email alerts and updates are available by signing up on
The Advancing Research for Neurological Diseases Act,
PAN's website, Interested parties
H.R. 292, will guide the Centers for Disease Control and
may also contact PAN's Texas assistant director, Linda
Prevention in tracking the incidence and prevalence of
Swanson, at email@example.com.
PAGE 4 · DAPS · FEBRUARY 2015
Earn money for
while you shop!
Tom Thumb Good Neighbor Program
Link your Tom Thumb Rewards card to number 3071,
A message from Mike Miles
and a percentage of what you pay to Tom Thumb will
be donated to DAPS!
Kroger Plus Card
Community Rewards Program
The Kroger Plus Card Program now requires you to
link your card online to benefit DAPS.
Picture a man washing his car with a down-on-his-luck,
log in. In your Account Summary, look for Community
homeless man sitting on the curb nearby. The man washing
Rewards. Click Edit, type in our Organization number
his car assumes that the man is going to ask for money. He
(80709), and click the button next to Dallas Area
never does. Finally the homeless man speaks. Here it
Parkinsonism Society. Click Save. Show your Kroger
comes – he is going to ask for money. Instead he says,
Plus card at the register and DAPS earns cash!
"Really nice car!" The guy thanks him, but does not get
engaged in a conversation, because, after al , the homeless
The iGive mall includes your favorite stores. Best of
man only wants money. Finally the guy gives in and asks,
all, up to 26% of your purchases are donated to DAPS.
"Do you need some help?" The homeless man's answer
Just go to sign in or sign up for an
really surprised him. "Don't we all?"
account and choose DAPS as your cause. Next time
Here at DAPS we have terms such as PWP and Caregivers.
you shop, go to iGive first to sign in, click on your store
Well, if we must have terms, these are as good as any to
of choice, and a percentage of your purchase benefits
help distinguish which side of PD you're on. But I have to
believe that if it's not PD, it's something else. And the rest of the story is, that it is never just PD, never just cancer, never just finances, never just relationships. The list is endless. These things, these misfortunes don't describe who we are, unless we let them. I have to admit that sometimes I am guilty of passing someone on the street or in the marketplace and having that first impression, "There goes
someone who has it all! There is someone without problems. There is someone who doesn't need a thing." My first
In the event that there is bad
impressions could not be farther from the truth.
weather on the day of a
I do believe the homeless man hit the nail right on the head.
DAPS meeting, group or class,
We all need help…which I think means we all need to be helping each other.
we will follow decisions
I bet you thought I, like the man on the street, was going to
determined by the Dallas
ask you for some money – a donation to DAPS. Well, we all do need help. "Just kidding about the money. Sorta."
Independent School District.
Wishing you and all of us a day of getting and giving the help
FEBRUARY 2015 · DAPS · PAGE 5
MEMORIALS · HONORS · DONATIONS
In memory of Jobea Nell Graham Bittenbender
In honor of Marie Thorpe
From: Patricia Eddings
From: Cheryl Thorpe
In memory of Harry and Reba Swiff
In honor of Misty Owens' birthday
From: Joseph and Helen Swiff Memorial Fund of the
Dallas Jewish Community Foundation
Donation to DAPS
In memory of Jerry O'Connor and Chester Maxey
From: Briggs Equipment
In memory of Ramon Navarro
Doug and Judy McIntyre
From: NORCAL Mutual Insurance Company
Jim Ann Grandstaff
In memory of Troy Sheldon Quigley
From: Brandon Quigley
Jeffrey and Deborah Hamer
In memory of Geoffrey Nelson
From: Sondie Rosenthal
In honor of Greg Wood
Debby and Don Shannon
From: Amy Anderson
In honor of Sam Farrow
From: Liza Farrow-Gillespie
Half Shells Seafood Grill - Plano,
In honor of Jim Harned
First Tuesday donation
From: Elizabeth Kitay
DAPS @ Preston Hollow (Dallas)
DAPS @ Trinity (Duncanville)
About Memorials, Honors, and Donations
Flowers fade within days. Memorial tributes to DAPS have a lasting effect, funding our more than 25 Parkinson's exercise, speech, and support groups and education programs.
Your generous donations will be listed in our DAPS newsletter. Both you and your honoree will receive letters of acknowledgement and thanks, but the dollar amount will be included in your letter only for tax purposes.
Send these special tributes to the DAPS office, with instructions regarding who the donation is in honor of or in memory of and who should be recognized as the donor.
You may also make memorial donations at www.daps.us. Just click the Donate button on the right side and you will be taken to PayPal, where you can add "in memory / in honor of" details by clicking the "Add special instructions to the seller" link that appears on the second web page, after you enter your payment or login information.
THPD GROUPS & CLASSES
The Movement Disorders Education
exercise · speech therapy · support groups
and Resource Center at Texas Health
Presbyterian Hospital Dallas (THPD)
St. Andrews Christian Church
(8200 Walnut Hil Lane, Dallas, TX 75231)
3945 N. Josey Lane
Trinity United Methodist Church
offers the fol owing. For more information
or to RSVP, please contact
1302 S. Clark Rd.
Kathryn MacDonell at 214-345-4224 or
Wednesday.10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. Speech Therapy:
Thursday.1:00 p.m. to 1:45 p.m.
Wednesday…11:15 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Group Exercise:
Monday.3:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m.
No class last Monday of the month
PD Patient Support Group
Baylor Institute for Rehabilitation
Thursday.2:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m.
3rd Thursday of each month at 6pm in
909 N. Washington (214-820-9353)
Room 111 at Texas Health Resources
Water Therapy: (nominal fee)
Last Monday.6:30 p.m. to 8:00 p.m.
Wednesday.11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.
Essential Tremor Support Group
2nd Wednesday of odd months at 1pm
Finley Ewing Cardiovascular &
South Garland Baptist Church
in Room 111 at Texas Health Resources
Fitness Center, Studio 3
1330 E. Centerville Rd.
5721 Phoenix Drive (214-345-7074)
Atypical Parkinson's Support Group
Dance for Movement Disorders:
Thursday.9:30 a.m. to 10:15 a.m.
Tuesday…2:00 p.m. to 3:15 p.m.
3rd Saturday of each month at 10am in
Thursday.2:00 p.m. to 3:15 p.m.
Room 111 at Texas Health Resources
Monday.10:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.
1st Saturday.11:00 a.m. to 12:15 p.m.
Thursday.10:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.
Care Partner Support Group
Lakeside Baptist Church
4th Monday of each month at 1pm
Monday.9:30 a.m. to 10:30 a.m.
9150 Garland Rd.
in the Red Room at Texas Health
Resources University (THRU).
Thursday.10:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.
Wednesday.10:30 a.m. to 11:15 a.m.
Dance for Movement Disorders
Wednesday.9:30 a.m. to 10:30 a.m.
Instructed by Misty Owens, MFA.
Custer Road United Methodist
Every Tues. & Thurs. 2-3:15 pm;
every 1st Sat. 11am-12:15 pm in
2nd Wed.10:15 a.m. to 11:15 a.m.
6601 Custer Road
Studio 3 of the CVC* This class is
co-sponsored by Texas Health
Preston Hollow United Methodist
Thursday.11:00 a.m. to 11:45 a.m.
Presbyterian Hospital Dallas and
the Dallas Area Parkinsonism
6315 Walnut Hill Lane
Monday.9:45 a.m. to 10:45 a.m.
Society (DAPS) and is offered free to
Thursday.9:45 a.m. to 10:45 a.m.
individuals with movement disorders.
Tuesday.11:30 a.m. to 12:15 p.m.
Water Exercise for Movement
Tuesday.10:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.
Contact DAPS office for details
In the pool at the CVC* every Monday,
Thursday.10:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.
Wednesday, & Friday at 11:15 am.
(A physician release form and the
Monday.9:45 a.m. to 10:45 a.m.
purchase of a CVC punch card are
Mesquite Rehabilitation Institute
required. Please call for more information:
1023 North Belt Line Rd.
Arapaho United Methodist Church
Caregivers are welcome to attend any
1400 W. Arapaho at Coit
of these support groups and exercise
Tuesday.10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m.
Tuesday.10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m.
*CVC = Finley Ewing Cardiovascular & Fitness Center,
5721 Phoenix Drive, across Greenville from Presbyterian
Friday.10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m.
Hospital, Dallas. 214-345-7074
FEBRUARY 2014 · DAPS · PAGE 7
Dallas Area Parkinsonism Society
6370 LBJ Freeway, Suite 170
Dallas, Texas 75240
MARK YOUR CALENDAR
general membership meeting
Find DAPS on the internet and
Monday, February 9th - 1:00 p.m.
Topic: Safaris to Sea Pirates: Adventure Travel
Speaker: Liza Farrow-Gillespie, J.D.
open board meeting
Monday, February 16th - 1:00 p.m.
Monday, March 9th - 1:00 p.m.
Topic: Sleep Disorders
Speaker: Sonya Merrill, MD, PhD, FACP
All General Membership and Board Meetings are held at University Park
United Methodist Church, 4024 Caruth Blvd., Dallas, TX 75225.
disclaimer: The contents or opinions expressed in this Newsletter
are those of the individual writers or presenters and do not constitute an
endorsement or approval by DAPS staff. Please consult your personal
physician regarding your individual medical problems.
For change of address or corrections, please indicate the changes on this page
and mail it to DAPS, or email:
Centre de recherche sur la conception, les mécanismes d'action et la vectorisation de médicaments Réseau québécois de recherche sur les médicaments P1 - ATEF, Mohammed Emehdi Role of augmented levels of endogenous angiotensin II and endothelin-1 in enhanced expression of Gq-PLC-beta1 proteins and vascular hypertrophy. Atef ME, Anand-Srivastava MB, Université de Montréal, Dép. de physiologie, Pavil on Paul-G.-Desmarais, 2960, chemin de la Tour, Montréal (Qc) H3T 1J4. Studies on the protein expression of Gqα and PLCβ1 in vascular smooth muscle cel s (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at different ages are lacking, and the implication of Gqα in the hypertrophy of VSMCs still not clearly defined. Here we investigated if VSMCs from SHR, at different ages (12 and 16 weeks), exhibit enhanced expression of Gq/11α and PLCβ1 and if this up-regulation is related to VSMCs hypertrophy (increased protein synthesis). Since the levels of endogenous angiotensin II (ANG-II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) are enhanced in VSMCs from SHR, the aim of this study was also to characterize the signaling mechanisms whereby endogenous ANG II and ET-1 can modulate Gqα -PLCβ1 expression in VSMCs. We report for the first time that VSMCs from 16 weeks but not from 12 weeks SHR exhibited enhanced levels of Gqα and PLCβ1 proteins as compared to VSMCs from age matched WKY rats. The increased level of Gqα and PL Cβ1 proteins in VSMCs form SHR was associated with enhanced protein synthesis (cell hypertrophy). Silencing of Gqα protein by specific SiRNA and AS-ODN attenuated the enhanced protein synthesis in VSMCs from SHR. The enhanced expression of Gqα and PLCβ1 proteins in VSMCs from 16-wk-old SHR was inhibited by AT1 and ETA receptor antagonists, losartan and BQ123 respectively but not by ETB receptor antagonist, BQ788. In addition, losartan and BQ123 also attenuated the enhanced protein synthesis in VSMCs from SHR compared to WKY. Furthermore, the augmented phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PKC delta in VSMCs from SHR was attenuated by losartan and BQ123 but not by BQ788. These results suggest that the enhanced levels of endogenous ANGII and ET-1 in VSMCs from SHR increase the protein expression of Gqα and PLCβ1 and subsequent VSMCs hypertrophy. Which may implicate MAP kinase signaling and PKC delta activation. P2 - BAGHERI, Haniyeh Régulation différentielle de différents ligands sur la désensibilisation du récepteur opioide delta. Haniyeh Bagheri, Graciely Pineyro, Université de Montréal, Centre de recherche du CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal (Qc). Introduction : Les opiacés sont des analgésiques très efficaces pour le traitement des douleurs, mais leur administration prolongé peut induire de la tolérance analgésique. Au niveau moléculaire, la tolérance serait associée à la désensibilisation des récepteurs opiacés. La morphine, agoniste du récepteur Mu, produit le plus de tolérance avec une faible capacité d'internalisation et une grande capacité de désensibilisation. Ces observations mettent en évidence que la conformation spécifique de la morphine détermine ces phénomènes. Nous estimons que les conformations distinctes stabilisées par les ligands opioïdes semblent être responsables des différents profils de désensibilisation et d'internalisation. Résultats : En ce qui concerne la désensibilisation du RDO, nous avons observé que la réponse aux agonistes tels que le mcpTIPP, la morphine et le SB 235863 désensibilisent plus lentement que cel le du DPDPE qui est similaire au snc-80. D'autres agonistes tels que la deltorphine et la met-enképhaline qui ne se différencient pas entres eux, ont une plus grande capacité de désensibilisation que le DPDPE et le snc-80. Quant à leur capacité d'internalisation, le mcpTIPP et le SB 235863 n'induisent aucune internalisation du RDO. Alors, que la deltorphine engendre 80 % d'internalisation du RDO. Les agoniste DPDPE, le snc-80 et la met-enkephaline induisent ± 60 % d'internalisation du RDO. Finalement, les ligands opiacés tels que la deltorphine, la met-enképhaline, le snc-80 et le DPDPE sont le plus efficace à inhiber l'AMPc, contrairement au mcpTIPP et au SB 235863. Conclusion : Ces résultats nous indiquent qu'ils n'existent aucune corrélation entre l'internalisation et la désensibilisation du RDO. Ce manque de corrélation est caractéristique de la stabilisation de différentes conformations du récepteur activé par des ligands distincts.
Doro PhoneEasy® 624 15. Charging socket 16. Headset socket 17. Assistance button Left selection button 20. External display Input method/Silent 22. Green light = New message 10. Message shortcut 23. Red light = Battery level low 11. Volume control 24. Charging stand 12. End call/Power on/off 14. Right selection button The items supplied with your phone might vary depending on the soft-ware and accessories available in your region or offered by your serviceprovider. You can obtain additional accessories from your local Doro deal-er. The supplied accessories provide the best performance with yourphone.