0610_y15_sy.indd

For examination in June and November 2015 This syllabus is approved for use in England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a Cambridge International Level 1/Level 2 Certificate (QN: ###/###/#).
Cambridge Secondary 2
Changes to syllabus for 2015
This syllabus has been updated, but there are no significant changes.
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Cambridge International Examinations 2013 1.1 Why choose Cambridge?1.2 Why choose Cambridge IGCSE?1.3 Why choose Cambridge IGCSE Biology?1.4 Cambridge International Certificate of Education (ICE)1.5 How can I find out more? 2. Teacher support 2.1 Support materials2.2 Resource lists2.3 Training 3. Assessment at a glance . 6 4. Syl abus aims and assessment objectives . 8 4.1 Aims 4.2 Assessment objectives4.3 Scheme of assessment4.4 Weightings4.5 Conventions (e.g. signs, symbols, terminology and nomenclature) 5. Syl abus content 6. Practical assessment 6.1 Paper 4: Coursework 6.2 Paper 5: Practical Test6.3 Paper 6: Alternative to Practical6.4 Laboratory equipment 7.1 Grade descriptions7.2 Terminology, units, symbols and presentation of data for biology 7.3 Glossary of terms used in science papers7.4 Mathematical requirements 8. Appendix B: Forms .55 9. Other information 10. Additional information for England, Wales and Northern Ireland .64 1.1 Why choose Cambridge?RecognitionCambridge International Examinations is the world's largest provider of international education programmes and qualifications for learners aged 5 to 19. We are part of Cambridge Assessment, a department of the University of Cambridge, trusted for excellence in education. Our qualifications are recognised by the world's universities and employers.
Cambridge IGCSE® (International General Certificate of Secondary Education) is internationally
recognised by schools, universities and employers as equivalent in demand to UK GCSEs. Learn more at
www.cie.org.uk/recognition
Excel ence in educationOur mission is to deliver world-class international education through the provision of high-quality curricula, assessment and services. More than 9000 schools are part of our Cambridge learning community. We support teachers in over 160 countries who offer their learners an international education based on our curricula and leading to our qualifications. Every year, thousands of learners use Cambridge qualifications to gain places at universities around the world. Our syllabuses are reviewed and updated regularly so that they reflect the latest thinking of international experts and practitioners and take account of the different national contexts in which they are taught. Cambridge programmes and qualifications are designed to support learners in becoming: • confident in working with information and ideas – their own and those of others
responsible for themselves, responsive to and respectful of others
reflective as learners, developing their ability to learn
innovative and equipped for new and future challenges
engaged intellectually and socially, ready to make a difference.
Support for teachers
A wide range of materials and resources is available to support teachers and learners in Cambridge schools.
Resources suit a variety of teaching methods in different international contexts. Through subject discussion
forums and training, teachers can access the expert advice they need for teaching our qualifications. More
details can be found in Section 2 of this syllabus and at www.cie.org.uk/teachers
Support for exams officers
Exams officers can trust in reliable, efficient administration of exams entries and excellent personal support
from our customer services. Learn more at www.cie.org.uk/examsofficers
Not-for-profit, part of the University of Cambridge Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
We are a not-for-profit organisation where the needs of the teachers and learners are at the core of what we do. We continually invest in educational research and respond to feedback from our customers in order to improve our qualifications, products and services.
Our systems for managing the provision of international qualifications and education programmes for
learners aged 5 to 19 are certified as meeting the internationally recognised standard for quality
management, ISO 9001:2008. Learn more at www.cie.org.uk/ISO9001
1.2 Why choose Cambridge IGCSE?Cambridge IGCSEs are international in outlook, but retain a local relevance. The syllabuses provide opportunities for contextualised learning and the content has been created to suit a wide variety of schools, avoid cultural bias and develop essential lifelong skills, including creative thinking and problem-solving.
Our aim is to balance knowledge, understanding and skills in our programmes and qualifications to enable candidates to become effective learners and to provide a solid foundation for their continuing educational journey.
Through our professional development courses and our support materials for Cambridge IGCSEs, we provide the tools to enable teachers to prepare students to the best of their ability and work with us in the pursuit of excellence in education.
Cambridge IGCSEs are considered to be an excellent preparation for Cambridge International AS and
A Levels, the Cambridge AICE (Advanced International Certificate of Education) Group Award,
Cambridge Pre-U, and other education programmes, such as the US Advanced Placement program
and the International Baccalaureate Diploma programme. Learn more about Cambridge IGCSEs at
www.cie.org.uk/cambridgesecondary2
Guided learning hoursCambridge IGCSE syllabuses are designed on the assumption that candidates have about 130 guided learning hours per subject over the duration of the course, but this is for guidance only. The number of hours required to gain the qualification may vary according to local curricular practice and the learners' prior experience of the subject.
1.3 Why choose Cambridge IGCSE Biology?Cambridge IGCSE Biology is accepted by universities and employers as proof of real ability and knowledge. As well as a subject focus, the biology syllabus enables students to: • better understand the technological world, with an informed interest in scientific matters• recognise the usefulness (and limitations) of scientific method, and how to apply this to other disciplines and in everyday life • develop relevant attitudes, such as a concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, integrity, enquiry, initiative and inventiveness • further interest in, and care for, the environment• better understand the influence and limitations placed on scientific study by society, economy, technology, ethics, the community and the environment Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
• develop an understanding of the scientific skills essential for both further study at Cambridge International A Level and in everyday life. Recommended prior learningWe recommend that candidates who are beginning this course should have previously studied a science curriculum such as that of the Cambridge Lower Secondary Programme or equivalent national educational frameworks. Candidates should also have adequate mathematical skills for the content contained in this syllabus.
ProgressionCambridge IGCSE Certificates are general qualifications that enable candidates to progress either directly to employment, or to proceed to further qualifications.
Candidates who are awarded grades C to A* in IGCSE Biology are well prepared to follow courses leading to Cambridge International AS and A Level Biology, or the equivalent.
1.4 Cambridge International Certificate of Education (ICE)Cambridge ICE is the group award of Cambridge IGCSE. It gives schools the opportunity to benefit from offering a broad and balanced curriculum by recognising the achievements of learners who pass examinations in at least seven subjects. Learners draw subjects from five subject groups, including two languages, and one subject from each of the other subject groups. The seventh subject can be taken from any of the five subject groups.
Biology falls into Group III, Science.
Learn more about Cambridge IGCSE and Cambridge ICE at www.cie.org.uk/cambridgesecondary2
The Cambridge ICE is awarded from examinations administered in the June and November series each year.
Detailed timetables are available from www.cie.org.uk/examsofficers
1.5 How can I find out more?
If you are already a Cambridge school
You can make entries for this qualification through your usual channels. If you have any questions, please
contact us at info@cie.org.uk
If you are not yet a Cambridge school
Learn about the benefits of becoming a Cambridge school at www.cie.org.uk/startcambridge. Email us
at info@cie.org.uk to find out how your organisation can register to become a Cambridge school.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
2. Teacher
Cambridge syllabuses, past question papers and examiner reports to cover the last examination series are on the Syllabus and Support Materials DVD, which we send to all Cambridge schools.
You can also go to our public website at www.cie.org.uk/igcse to download current and future syllabuses
together with specimen papers or past question papers and examiner reports from one series.
For teachers at registered Cambridge schools a range of additional support materials for specific syllabuses
is available online. For Teacher Support go to http://teachers.cie.org.uk (username and password
required).
2.2 Resource listsWe work with publishers providing a range of resources for our syllabuses including textbooks, websites, CDs etc. Any endorsed, recommended and suggested resources are listed on both our public website and on Teacher Support.
The resource lists can be filtered to show all resources or just those which are endorsed or recommended by Cambridge. Resources endorsed by Cambridge go through a detailed quality assurance process and are written to align closely with the Cambridge syllabus they support.
2.3 Training
We offer a range of support activities for teachers to ensure they have the relevant knowledge and skills to
deliver our qualifications. See www.cie.org.uk/events for further information.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Assessment at a glance 3. Assessment at a glance
Candidates are awarded grades ranging from A* to G. Candidates expected to achieve grades D, E, F or G, study the Core Curriculum only and are eligible for grades C to G. Candidates expected to achieve grade C or higher should study the Extended Curriculum, which comprises the Core and Supplement content; these candidates are eligible for all grades from A* to G.
All candidates must enter for three papers.
All candidates take:
Multiple choice question paperWeighted at 30% of total available marks and either:
1 hour 15 minutes 1 hour 15 minutes Core theory paper Extended theory paper Weighted at 50% of total available marks Weighted at 50% of total available marks and either:
Paper 5 1 hour 15 minutes
Alternative to Practical Weighted at 20% of total Weighted at 20% of total Weighted at 20% of total AvailabilityThis syllabus is examined in the May/June examination series and the October/November examination series.
This syllabus is available to private candidates. However it is expected that private candidates learn in an environment where practical work is an integral part of the course. Candidates will not be able to perform well in this assessment or successfully progress to further study without this necessary and important aspect of science education.
Detailed timetables are available from www.cie.org.uk/examsofficers
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Assessment at a glance Combining this with other syl abusesCandidates can combine this syllabus in an examination series with any other Cambridge syllabus, except: • syllabuses with the same title at the same level • 0653 Cambridge IGCSE Combined Science• 0654 Cambridge IGCSE Co-ordinated Sciences (Double Award)• 5129 Cambridge O Level Combined Science Please note that Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge International Level 1/Level 2 Certificate and Cambridge O Level syllabuses are at the same level.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus aims and assessment objectives 4. Syllabus aims and assessment objectives
4.1 Aims The aims of the syllabus, listed below, are the same for all students. They are not listed in order of priority.
to provide a worthwhile educational experience for all candidates, through well designed studies of experimental and practical science, whether or not they go on to study science beyond this level 2. to enable candidates to acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to: become confident citizens in a technological world, to take or develop an informed interest in scientific matters recognise the usefulness, and limitations, of scientific method and to appreciate its applicability in other disciplines and in everyday life be suitably prepared for studies beyond the Cambridge IGCSE in pure sciences, in applied sciences or in science-dependent vocational courses 3. to develop abilities and skills that: • are relevant to the study and practice of biology• are useful in everyday life• encourage efficient and safe practice• encourage effective communication 4. to develop attitudes relevant to biology such as: • concern for accuracy and precision• objectivity• integrity• enquiry• initiative• inventiveness 5. to stimulate interest in, and care for, the environment6. to promote an awareness that: scientific theories and methods have developed, and continue to do so, as a result of the co-operative activities of groups and individuals the study and practice of science is subject to social, economic, technological, ethical and cultural influences and limitations the applications of science may be both beneficial and detrimental to the individual, the community and the environment science transcends national boundaries and that the language of science, correctly and rigorously applied, is universal Cambridge IGCSE Biology places considerable emphasis on understanding and use of scientific ideas and principles in a variety of situations, including those which are well-known to the learner and those which are new to them. It is anticipated that programmes of study based on this syllabus will feature a variety of learning experiences designed to enhance the development of skill and comprehension. This approach will focus teachers and learners on development of transferable life-long skills relevant to the increasingly technological environment in which people find themselves. It will also prepare candidates for an assessment that will, within familiar and unfamiliar contexts, test expertise, understanding and insight.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus aims and assessment objectives 4.2 Assessment objectivesThe three assessment objectives in Cambridge IGCSE Biology are: A: Knowledge with understandingB: Handling information and problem solvingC: Experimental skills and investigations A description of each assessment objective follows. A: Knowledge with understandingCandidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of: 1. scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts, theories2. scientific vocabulary, terminology, conventions (including symbols, quantities and units)3. scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety4. scientific quantities and their determination5. scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental implications.
Syllabus content defines the factual material that candidates may be required to recall and explain. Candidates will also be asked questions which require them to apply this material to unfamiliar contexts and to apply knowledge from one area of the syllabus to knowledge of a different syllabus area. Questions testing these objectives will often begin with one of the following words: define, state, describe, explain (using your knowledge and understanding) or outline (see Glossary of terms).
Handling information and problem solving Candidates should be able, using oral, written, symbolic, graphical and numerical forms of presentation, to: 1. locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources2. translate information from one form to another3. manipulate numerical and other data4. use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences5. present reasoned explanations of phenomena, patterns and relationships6. make predictions and propose hypotheses7. solve problems, including some of a quantitative nature.
Questions testing these skills may be based on information that is unfamiliar to candidates, requiring them to apply the principles and concepts from the syllabus to a new situation, in a logical, reasoned or deductive way. Questions testing these objectives will often begin with one of the following words: discuss, predict, suggest, calculate, explain or determine (see Glossary of terms).
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus aims and assessment objectives Experimental skil s and investigations Candidates should be able to: know how to use techniques, apparatus, and materials (including the following of a sequence of instructions, where appropriate) 2. make and record observations and measurements3. interpret and evaluate experimental observations and data4. plan investigations, evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements (including the selection of techniques, apparatus and materials).
4.3 Scheme of assessmentAll candidates must enter for three papers: Paper 1; one from either Paper 2 or Paper 3; and one from Papers 4, 5 or 6.
Candidates who have only studied the Core curriculum, or who are expected to achieve a grade D or below, should normally be entered for Paper 2. Candidates who have studied the Extended curriculum, and who are expected to achieve a grade C or above, should be entered for Paper 3.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus aims and assessment objectives All candidates must take a practical paper, chosen from: Paper 4 (Coursework), Paper 5 (Practical Test), or Paper 6 (Alternative to Practical).
All candidates take:
A multiple-choice paper consisting of 40 items of the four-choice typeQuestions will be based on the Core curriculum and will be of a difficulty appropriate to grades C to GThis paper will test skills mainly in Assessment Objectives A and BWeighted at 30% of total available marks and either:
1 hour 15 minutes 1 hour 15 minutes Written paper consisting of 80 marks of short- Written paper consisting of 80 marks of short- answer and structured questions answer and structured questions Questions will be based on the Core Questions will be based on the Extended curriculum and will be of a difficulty appropriate curriculum and will be of a difficulty appropriate to grades C to G to the higher grades Questions will test skills mainly in Assessment Questions will test skills mainly in Assessment Objectives A and B Objectives A and B.
At least a quarter of the marks available will be based on Core material and the remainder on the Supplement Weighted at 50% of total available marks Weighted at 50% of total available marks and either:
Paper 5 * 1 hour 15 minutes
Paper 6 * 1
Alternative to Practical School-based assessment of Questions covering Written paper designed to practical skills ** experimental and test familiarity with laboratory observational skil s Weighted at 20% of total Weighted at 20% of total Weighted at 20% of total The purpose of this component is to test appropriate skills in Assessment Objective C. Candidates will not be required to use knowledge outside the Core curriculum.
Teachers may not undertake school-based assessment without the written approval of Cambridge. This will only be given to teachers who satisfy Cambridge requirements concerning moderation and they will have to undergo special training in assessment before entering candidates. Cambridge offers schools in-service training in the form of occasional face-to-face courses held in countries where there is a need.
Detailed notes on coursework regulations appear in the Assessment Criteria for Practicals section in this syllabus and in the Distance Training Pack.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus aims and assessment objectives A: Knowledge with understanding
50% (not more than 25% recall) B: Handling information and problem solving
C: Experimental skills and investigations
Teachers should take note that there is an equal weighting of 50% for skills (including handling information, solving problems, practical, experimental and investigative skills) and for knowledge and understanding. Teachers' schemes of work and the sequence of learning activities should reflect this balance, so that the aims of the syllabus may be met, and the candidates fully prepared for the assessment.
assessment
A: Knowledge with understanding
B: Handling information and problem solving
C: Experimental skills and investigations
Conventions (e.g. signs, symbols, terminology and Syllabuses and question papers conform with generally accepted international practice. In particular, attention is drawn to the following documents, published in the UK, which will be used as guidelines.
(a) Reports produced by the Association for Science Education (ASE): Sl Units, Signs, Symbols and Abbreviations (1981)Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for use in School Science (1985)Signs, Symbols and Systematics: The ASE Companion to 16–19 Science (2000) (b) Report produced by the Institute of Biology (in association with the ASE): Biological Nomenclature, Standard terms and expressions used in the teaching of biology (2000). Litre/dm3
To avoid any confusion concerning the symbol for litre, dm3 will be used in place of l or litre.
Attention is drawn to alterations in the syllabus by black vertical lines on either side of the text. These indicate where changes have been made to wording, order or content.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 5. Syllabus
The syllabus content below is a guide to the areas on which candidates are assessed. It is important that, throughout this course, teachers should make candidates aware of the relevance of the concepts studied to everyday life, and to the natural and man-made worlds. Specific content has been limited in order to encourage this approach, and to allow flexibility in the design of teaching programmes.
Cambridge also provides schemes of work, which can be found on the Cambridge Teacher Support website.
Candidates may follow the Core syllabus only or they may follow the Extended syllabus which includes
both the Core and the Supplement.
Candidates will be expected to give biologically correct definitions of any of the terms printed in italics. Section I: Characteristics and classification of living organisms
(5% of teaching time)

1. Characteristics of living organisms
Core
• List and describe the characteristics of living organisms
• Define the terms:
nutrition as taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them • excretion as removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements • respiration as the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy • sensitivity as the ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses • reproduction as the processes that make more of the same kind of organism • growth as a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both • movement as an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 2. Classification and diversity of living organisms
2.1 Concept and use of a classificatory system
Core
• Define and describe the binomial system of naming • Know that there are other classification species as a system in which the scientific name of an systems e.g. cladistics (based on RNA/ organism is made up of two parts showing the genus DNA sequencing data) • List the main features used in the • List the main features of the following vertebrates: classification of the following groups: bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals viruses, bacteria and fungi, and their adaptation to the environment, as appropriate 2.2 Adaptations of organisms to their environment (to be illustrated by examples wherever possible) Core
• List the main features used in the classification of the
following groups: flowering plants (monocotyledons and eudicotyledons (dicotyledons)), arthropods (insects, crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods), annelids, nematodes and molluscs 3. Simple keys
Core
• Use simple dichotomous keys based on easily
identifiable features Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content Section II: Organisation and maintenance of the organism
(50% of teaching time)

1. Cell structure and organisation
• State that living organisms are made of cells Relate the structures seen under the light • Identify and describe the structure of a plant cell microscope in the plant cell and in the animal (palisade cell) and an animal cell (liver cell), as cell to their functions seen under a light microscope • Describe the differences in structure between typical animal and plant cells 2. Levels of organisation
Core
• Relate the structure of the following to their
functions:• ciliated cells – in respiratory tract• root hair cells – absorption• xylem vessels – conduction and support• muscle cells – contraction• red blood cells – transport tissue as a group of cells with similar structures, working together to perform a shared function organ as a structure made up of a group of tissues, working together to perform specific functions organ system as a group of organs with related functions, working together to perform body functions using examples covered in Sections II and III 3. Size of specimens
Core
• Calculate magnification and size of biological
specimens using millimetres as units Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 4. Movement in and out of cells
4.1 Diffusion
Core
• Define
diffusion as the net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of their random movement • Describe the importance of diffusion of gases and solutes and of water as a solvent 4.2 Active Transport Supplement
• Define
active transport as movement of ions in or out of a cell through the cell membrane, from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration against a concentration gradient, using energy released during respiration • Discuss the importance of active transport as an energy-consuming process by which substances are transported against a concentration gradient, e.g. ion uptake by root hairs and uptake of glucose by epithelial cells of villi osmosis as the diffusion of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration (dilute solution) to a region of their lower concentration (concentrated solution), through a partially permeable membrane • Describe the importance of osmosis in the • Describe and explain the importance of a uptake of water by plants, and its effects on water potential gradient in the uptake of water plant and animal tissues Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content Define the term catalyst as a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction and is not changed by the reaction Define enzymes as proteins that function as Explain enzyme action in terms of the ‘lock biological catalysts Investigate and describe the effect of changes in • Explain the effect of changes in temperature temperature and pH on enzyme activity and pH on enzyme activity Describe the role of enzymes in the germination of seeds, and their uses in biological washing products and in the food industry (including pectinase and fruit juice) Outline the use of microorganisms and fermenters to manufacture the antibiotic penicillin and enzymes for use in biological washing powders Describe the role of the fungus Penicillium in the production of antibiotic penicil in Define nutrition as taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them 6.1 Nutrients
Core
• List the chemical elements that make up:
• carbohydrates• fats• proteins Describe the synthesis of large molecules from smaller basic units, i.e.
• simple sugars to starch and glycogen• amino acids to proteins fatty acids and glycerol to fats and oils Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content • Describe tests for: • starch (iodine solution)• reducing sugars (Benedict's solution)• protein (Biuret test)• fats List the principal sources of, and describe the Describe the use of microorganisms in the food industry, with reference to yoghurt and • carbohydrates single cell protein Describe the uses, benefits and health hazards associated with food additives, including colourings • vitamins (C and D only)• mineral ions (calcium and iron only)• fibre • Describe the deficiency symptoms for: • vitamins (C and D only)• mineral ions (calcium and iron only) 6.2 Plant nutrition Define photosynthesis as the fundamental State the balanced equation for process by which plants manufacture photosynthesis in symbols carbohydrates from raw materials using energy 6CO + 6H O  Investigate and state the effect of varying State the word equation for the production of light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration simple sugars and oxygen and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis Investigate the necessity for chlorophyll, light (e.g. in submerged aquatic plants) and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, using Define the term limiting factor as something appropriate controls present in the environment in such short Describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water supply that it restricts life processes Explain the concept of limiting factors in Explain that chlorophyll traps light energy and converts it into chemical energy for the Explain the use of carbon dioxide enrichment, formation of carbohydrates and their subsequent optimum light and optimum temperatures in glasshouse systems Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 6.2.2 Leaf structure
Core

Identify and label the cuticle, cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, as seen in cross-section under the light microscope, and describe the significance of these features in terms of functions, to include: • distribution of chloroplasts – photosynthesis• stomata and mesophyll cells – gas exchange• vascular bundles (xylem and phloem) – transport and support 6.2.3 Mineral requirements
Core
• Describe the importance of: Explain the effects of nitrate ion and • nitrate ions for protein synthesis magnesium ion deficiency on plant growth • magnesium ions for chlorophyll synthesis Describe the uses, and the dangers of overuse, of nitrogen fertilisers 6.3 Animal nutrition 6.3.1 Diet
Core

State what is meant by the term balanced diet and describe a balanced diet related to age, sex and activity of an individual Describe the effects of malnutrition in relation to starvation, coronary heart disease, constipation and obesity 6.3.2 Food supply
Core
Discuss ways in which the use of modern • Discuss the problems of world food supplies technology has resulted in increased food Discuss the problems which contribute to production (to include modern agricultural famine (unequal distribution of food, drought machinery, chemical fertilisers, pesticides and and flooding and increasing population) herbicides, artificial selection) Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 6.3.3 Human alimentary canal
Core

Define ingestion as taking substances (e.g. food, drink) into the body through the mouth Define egestion as passing out of food that has not been digested, as faeces, through the anus Identify the main regions of the alimentary canal and associated organs including mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine: duodenum and ileum, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, large intestine: colon and rectum, anus Describe the functions of the regions of the alimentary canal listed above, in relation to ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food (cross reference 6.3.4, 6.3.5, 6.3.6 and 6.3.7) 6.3.4 Mechanical and physical digestion
Core
Define digestion as the break-down of large, insoluble food molecules into small, water-soluble molecules using mechanical and chemical processes Identify the types of human teeth and describe their structure and functions State the causes of dental decay and describe Describe how fluoride reduces tooth decay the proper care of teeth and explain arguments for and against the • Describe the process of chewing addition of fluoride to public water supplies Describe the role of longitudinal and circular muscles in peristalsis Outline the role of bile in emulsifying fats, to increase the surface area for the action of enzymes 6.3.5 Chemical digestion
Core

State the significance of chemical digestion in the alimentary canal in producing small, soluble molecules that can be absorbed State where, in the alimentary canal, amylase, protease and lipase enzymes are secreted State the functions of a typical amylase, a protease and a lipase, listing the substrate and end-products Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content Define absorption as movement of digested food • Describe the structure of a villus, including the molecules through the wall of the intestine into role of capillaries and lacteals the blood or lymph State the role of the hepatic portal vein in the Identify the small intestine as the region for the transport of absorbed food to the liver absorption of digested food Identify the role of the small intestine and Describe the significance of villi in increasing the colon in absorption of water (the small internal surface area of the small intestine intestine absorbs 5–10 dm3 per day, the colon 0.3–0.5 dm3 per day) Define assimilation as movement of digested Define deamination as removal of the food molecules into the cells of the body where nitrogen-containing part of amino acids to they are used, becoming part of the cells form urea, followed by release of energy from Describe the role of the liver in the metabolism the remainder of the amino acid of glucose (glucose → glycogen) and amino State that the liver is the site of breakdown of acids (amino acids → proteins and destruction of alcohol and other toxins excess amino acids) Describe the role of fat as an energy storage substance 7.1 Transport in plants
Core
• State the functions of xylem and phloem

Identify the positions of xylem and phloem tissues as seen in transverse sections of unthickened, herbaceous, dicotyledonous roots, stems and leaves 7.1.1 Water uptake
Core
Identify root hair cells, as seen under the light Relate the structure and functions of root microscope, and state their functions hairs to their surface area and to water and State the pathway taken by water through root, stem and leaf (root hair, root cortex cells, xylem, mesophyll cells) Investigate, using a suitable stain, the pathway of water through the above-ground parts of a plant Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content Define transpiration as evaporation of water at Explain the mechanism of water uptake and the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by movement in terms of transpiration producing loss of water vapour from plant leaves, through a tension (‘pull') from above, creating a water potential gradient in the xylem, drawing Describe how water vapour loss is related to cell cohesive water molecules up the plant.
surfaces, air spaces and stomata Discuss the adaptations of the leaf, stem Describe the effects of variation of temperature, and root to three contrasting environments,
humidity and light intensity on transpiration rate to include pond, garden and desert, with • Describe how wilting occurs emphasis on local examples (where appropriate) and the factors described in the core Define translocation in terms of the movement Describe translocation throughout the plant of sucrose and amino acids in phloem; of applied chemicals, including systemic • from regions of production to regions of storage OR to regions of Compare the role of transpiration and utilisation in respiration or growth translocation in the transport of materials from sources to sinks, within plants at different seasons 7.2 Transport in humans
Core

Describe the circulatory system as a system of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure one-way flow of blood Describe the double circulation in terms of a low pressure circulation to the lungs and a high pressure circulation to the body tissues and relate these differences to the different functions of the two circuits 7.2.1 Heart
Core

Describe the structure of the heart including the muscular wall and septum, chambers, valves and associated blood vessels Describe the function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of the valves Investigate, state and explain the effect of physical activity on pulse rate Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the blockage of coronary arteries and state the possible causes (diet, stress and smoking) and preventive measures Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 7.2.2 Arteries, veins and capillaries
Core
Name the main blood vessels to and from the Explain how structure and function are related heart, lungs, liver and kidney in arteries, veins and capillaries Describe the structure and functions of arteries, Describe the transfer of materials between veins and capillaries capillaries and tissue fluid Identify red and white blood cells as seen under Describe the immune system in terms of the light microscope on prepared slides, and in antibody production, tissue rejection and diagrams and photomicrographs List the components of blood as red blood cells, Describe the function of the lymphatic white blood cells, platelets and plasma system in circulation of body fluids, and the • State the functions of blood: production of lymphocytes red blood cells – haemoglobin and oxygen Describe the process of clotting (fibrinogen to white blood cells – phagocytosis and antibody formation • platelets – causing clotting (no details)• plasma – transport of blood cells, ions, soluble nutrients, hormones, carbon dioxide, urea and plasma proteins Define respiration as the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy State the uses of energy in the body of humans: muscle contraction, protein synthesis, cell division, active transport, growth, the passage of nerve impulses and the maintenance of a constant body temperature 8.1 Aerobic respiration
Core
Define aerobic respiration as the release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen • State the word equation for aerobic respiration State the equation for aerobic respiration using symbols (C H O + 6O → 6CO + 6H O) Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 8.2 Anaerobic respiration
Core
Define anaerobic respiration as the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen State the word equation for anaerobic respiration • State the balanced equation for anaerobic in muscles during hard exercise (glucose → respiration in muscles (C H O → 2C H O ) lactic acid) and the microorganism yeast (glucose and the microorganism yeast (C H O → → alcohol + carbon dioxide) 2C H OH + 2CO ), using symbols Describe the role of anaerobic respiration in Describe the effect of lactic acid in muscles yeast during brewing and bread-making during exercise (include oxygen debt in outline Compare aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration in terms of relative amounts of energy released 8.3 Gas exchange
Core
List the features of gas exchange surfaces in Describe the role of the ribs, the internal and external intercostal muscles and the Identify on diagrams and name the larynx, diaphragm in producing volume and pressure trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and changes leading to the ventilation of the lungs associated capillaries Explain the role of mucus and cilia in State the differences in composition between protecting the gas exchange system from inspired and expired air pathogens and particles Use lime water as a test for carbon dioxide Explain the link between physical activity to investigate the differences in composition and rate and depth of breathing in terms of between inspired and expired air changes in the rate at which tissues respire Investigate and describe the effects of physical and therefore of carbon dioxide concentration activity on rate and depth of breathing and pH in tissues and in the blood Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 9. Excretion in humans
Define excretion as the removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements. Substances should include carbon dioxide, urea and salts Describe the function of the kidney in terms of Outline the structure of a kidney (cortex, the removal of urea and excess water and the medulla, and the start of the ureter) and reabsorption of glucose and some salts (details outline the structure and functioning of a of kidney structure and nephron are not required)
kidney tubule including: State the relative positions of ureters, bladder role of renal capsule in filtration from and urethra in the body blood of water, glucose, urea and salts State that urea is formed in the liver from excess role of tubule in reabsorption of glucose, most of the water and some salts back State that alcohol, drugs and hormones are into the blood, leading to concentration of broken down in the liver urea in the urine as well as loss of excess water and salts Explain dialysis in terms of maintenance of glucose and protein concentration in blood and diffusion of urea from blood to dialysis fluid Discuss the application of dialysis in kidney machines Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplants, compared with dialysis Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 10. Coordination and response
10.1 Nervous control in humans
Core
Describe the human nervous system in terms Distinguish between voluntary and involuntary of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord as areas of coordination) and the peripheral nervous system which together serve to coordinate and regulate body functions Identify motor (effector), relay (connector) and sensory neurones from diagrams Describe a simple reflex arc in terms of sensory, relay and motor neurones, and a reflex action as a means of automatically and rapidly integrating and coordinating stimuli with responses State that muscles and glands can act as effectors Describe the action of antagonistic muscles to include the biceps and triceps at the elbow joint Define sense organs as groups of receptor cells responding to specific stimuli: light, sound, touch, temperature and chemicals Describe the structure and function of the eye, Distinguish between rods and cones, in terms including accommodation and pupil reflex of function and distribution Define a hormone as a chemical substance, Discuss the use of hormones in food produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver State the role of the hormone adrenaline in chemical control of metabolic activity, including increasing the blood glucose concentration and pulse rate Give examples of situations in which adrenaline secretion increases • Compare nervous and hormonal control systems 10.3 Tropic responses
Core
Define and investigate geotropism (as a Explain the chemical control of plant response in which a plant grows towards or growth by auxins including geotropism and away from gravity) and phototropism (as a phototropism in terms of auxins regulating response in which a plant grows towards or differential growth, and the effects of away from the direction from which light is synthetic plant hormones used as weedkillers Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content Define homeostasis as the maintenance of a Explain the concept of control by negative constant internal environment Identify, on a diagram of the skin: hairs, sweat Describe the control of the glucose content glands, temperature receptors, blood vessels of the blood by the liver, and by insulin and glucagon from the pancreas Describe the maintenance of a constant body temperature in humans in terms of insulation and the role of temperature receptors in the skin, sweating, shivering, vasodilation and vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying skin-surface capillaries and the coordinating role of the brain Define a drug as any substance taken into the Explain why antibiotics kill bacteria but not body that modifies or affects chemical reactions Describe the medicinal use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection Describe the effects of the abuse of heroin: a powerful depressant, problems of addiction, severe withdrawal symptoms and associated problems such as crime and infection e.g. HIV/AIDS Describe the effects of excessive consumption of alcohol: reduced self-control, depressant, effect on reaction times, damage to liver and social implications Describe the effects of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, smoke particles) on the gas exchange system Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content Section III: Development of the organism and the continuity of life
(25% of teaching time)

1.1 Asexual reproduction
Core
Define asexual reproduction as the process Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to resulting in the production of genetically identical a species of asexual reproduction offspring from one parent Describe asexual reproduction in bacteria, spore production in fungi and tuber formation in potatoes 1.2 Sexual reproduction
Core
Define sexual reproduction as the process Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a a species of sexual reproduction diploid zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring 1.2.1 Sexual reproduction in plants
Core
Identify and draw, using a hand lens if necessary, the sepals, petals, stamens, anthers, carpels, ovaries and stigmas of one, locally available, named, insect-pollinated, dicotyledonous flower, and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs State the functions of the sepals, petals, anthers, stigmas and ovaries Use a hand lens to identify and describe the anthers and stigmas of one, locally available, named, wind-pollinated flower, and examine the pollen grains under a light microscope or in photomicrographs Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content Candidates should expect to apply their understanding of the flowers they have studied to unfamiliar flowers Define pollination as the transfer of pollen Distinguish between self-pollination and grains from the male part of the plant (anther of cross-pol ination stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma) Discuss the implications to a species of self- • Name the agents of pollination pollination and cross-pollination Compare the different structural adaptations of insect-pollinated and wind-pol inated flowers Describe the growth of the pollen tube and its
entry into the ovule followed by fertilisation
(production of endosperm and details of
development are not required)
Investigate and describe the structure of a non-endospermic seed in terms of the embryo (radicle, plumule and cotyledons) and testa, protected by the fruit Outline the formation of a seed (limited to embryo, cotyledons, testa and role of mitosis) and fruit (produced from the ovary wall) State that seed and fruit dispersal by wind and by animals provides a means of colonising new areas Describe, using named examples, seed and fruit dispersal by wind and by animals Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 1.2.2 Sexual reproduction in humans
Core
Identify on diagrams of the male reproductive Compare male and female gametes in terms system, the testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, of size, numbers and mobility prostate gland, urethra and penis, and state the functions of these parts Identify on diagrams of the female reproductive system, the ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina, and state the functions of these parts Describe the menstrual cycle in terms of Explain the role of hormones in controlling changes in the uterus and ovaries the menstrual cycle (including FSH, LH, Outline sexual intercourse and describe progesterone and oestrogen) fertilisation in terms of the joining of the nuclei of male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg) Outline early development of the zygote simply in terms of the formation of a ball of cells that becomes implanted in the wall of the uterus • Outline the development of the fetus Indicate the functions of the amniotic sac and Describe the function of the placenta and umbilical cord in relation to exchange of dissolved nutrients, gases and excretory products (no structural details are required) Describe the ante-natal care of pregnant women • Describe the advantages and disadvantages including special dietary needs and maintaining of breast-feeding compared with bottle- feeding using formula milk Outline the processes involved in labour and birth 1.3 Sex hormones
Core
Describe the roles of testosterone and Describe the sites of production and the oestrogen in the development and regulation of roles of oestrogen and progesterone in the secondary sexual characteristics at puberty menstrual cycle and in pregnancy (cross reference 1.2.2) 1.4 Methods of birth control
Core
• Outline the following methods of birth control: Outline artificial insemination and the use of • natural (abstinence, rhythm method) hormones in fertility drugs, and discuss their • chemical (contraceptive pill, spermicide) social implications mechanical (condom, diaphragm, femidom, IUD) • surgical (vasectomy, female sterilisation) Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 1.5 Sexually transmissible diseases
Core
Describe the symptoms, signs, effects and treatment of gonorrhoea Describe the methods of transmission of human • Outline how HIV affects the immune system immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the ways in a person with HIV/AIDS in which HIV/AIDS can be prevented from spreading 2. Growth and development
Define growth in terms of a permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both Define development in terms of increase in complexity Investigate and state the environmental conditions that affect germination of seeds: requirement for water and oxygen, suitable temperature Define inheritance as the transmission of genetic information from generation to generation 3.1 Chromosomes
Core
• Define the terms:
chromosome as a thread of DNA, made up of a string of genes gene as a length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. A gene may be copied and passed on to the next generation allele as any of two or more alternative forms of a gene haploid nucleus as a nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes (e.g. sperm and egg) diploid nucleus as a nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes (e.g. in body cells) Describe the inheritance of sex in humans (XX and XY chromosomes) Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 3.2 Mitosis
Core

Define mitosis as nuclear division giving rise
to genetically identical cells in which the
chromosome number is maintained by the exact
duplication of chromosomes (details of stages
are not required)
State the role of mitosis in growth, repair of damaged tissues, replacement of worn out cells and asexual reproduction 3.3 Meiosis
Core

Define meiosis as reduction division in which the
chromosome number is halved from diploid to
haploid (details of stages are not required)
State that gametes are the result of meiosis State that meiosis results in genetic variation so the cells produced are not all genetically identical 3.4 Monohybrid inheritance
Core
• Define the terms: genotype as genetic makeup of an organism in terms of the alleles present (e.g. Tt or GG) phenotype as the physical or other features of an organism due to both its genotype and its environment (e.g. tall plant or green seed) homozygous as having two identical alleles of a particular gene (e.g. TT or gg). Two identical homozygous individuals that breed together wil be pure-breeding heterozygous as having two different alleles of a particular gene (e.g. Tt or Gg), not pure-breeding dominant as an allele that is expressed if it is present (e.g. T or G) recessive as an allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present (e.g. t or g) Calculate and predict the results of monohybrid Explain codominance by reference to crosses involving 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 ratios the inheritance of ABO blood groups – phenotypes, A, B, AB and O blood groups and genotypes IA, IB, and IO Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content State that continuous variation is influenced by genes and environment, resulting in a range of phenotypes between two extremes, e.g. height in humans State that discontinuous variation is caused by genes alone and results in a limited number of distinct phenotypes with no intermediates e.g. A, B, AB and O blood groups in humans Define mutation as a change in a gene or chromosome Describe mutation as a source of variation, as shown by Down's syndrome Outline the effects of ionising radiation and Describe sickle cell anaemia, and explain its chemicals on the rate of mutation incidence in relation to that of malaria Describe the role of artificial selection in the Describe variation and state that competition production of varieties of animals and plants with leads to differential survival of, and increased economic importance reproduction by, those organisms best fitted Define natural selection as the greater chance to the environment of passing on of genes by the best adapted Assess the importance of natural selection as a possible mechanism for evolution Describe the development of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria as an example of natural selection 3.7 Genetic Engineering
Core
Define genetic engineering as taking a gene Explain why, and outline how, human insulin from one species and putting it into another genes were put into bacteria using genetic Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content Section IV: Relationships of organisms with one another and with their environment
(20% of teaching time)

1. Energy flow
State that the Sun is the principal source of energy input to biological systems • Describe the non-cyclical nature of energy flow 2. Food chains and food webs (emphasis on examples occurring locally)
• Define the terms: food chain as a chart showing the flow of Explain why food chains usually have fewer energy (food) from one organism to the next than five trophic levels beginning with a producer (e.g. mahogany Explain why there is an increased efficiency tree → caterpillar → song bird → hawk) in supplying green plants as human food and food web as a network of interconnected that there is a relative inefficiency, in terms of food chains showing the energy flow energy loss, in feeding crop plants to animals through part of an ecosystem producer as an organism that makes its own organic nutrients, usually using energy from sunlight, through photosynthesis consumer as an organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms herbivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating plants carnivore as an animal that gets its energy by eating other animals decomposer as an organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic matter ecosystem as a unit containing all of the organisms and their environment, interacting together, in a given area e.g. decomposing log or a lake trophic level as the position of an organism in a food chain, food web or pyramid of biomass, numbers or energy • Describe energy losses between trophic levels• Draw, describe and interpret pyramids of biomass and numbers Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 3. Nutrient cycles
• Describe the carbon and the water cycles • Describe the nitrogen cycle in terms of: the role of microorganisms in providing usable nitrogen-containing substances by decomposition and by nitrogen fixation in roots the absorption of these substances by plants and their conversion to protein followed by passage through food chains, death, decay nitrification and denitrification and the return of nitrogen to the soil or the atmosphere (names of individual bacteria are not required)• Discuss the effects of the combustion of fossil fuels and the cutting down of forests on the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere 4. Population size
Define population as a group of organisms of one species, living in the same area at the same time State the factors affecting the rate of population growth for a population of an organism (limited to food supply, predation and disease), and describe their importance Identify the lag, exponential (log), stationary and Explain the factors that lead to the lag phase, death phases in the sigmoid population growth exponential (log) phase and stationary phase curve for a population growing in an environment in the sigmoid curve of population growth with limited resources making reference, where appropriate, to the Describe the increase in human population size role of limiting factors and its social implications Interpret graphs and diagrams of human population growth 5. Human influences on the ecosystem
Outline the effects of humans on ecosystems, with emphasis on examples of international importance (tropical rain forests, oceans and important rivers) Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Syllabus content 5.1 Agriculture
Core

List the undesirable effects of deforestation (to include extinction, loss of soil, flooding, carbon dioxide build up) Describe the undesirable effects of overuse of fertilisers (to include eutrophication of lakes and rivers) Describe the undesirable effects of pollution to Discuss the effects of non-biodegradable plastics in the environment water pollution by sewage and chemical Discuss the causes and effects on the environment of acid rain, and the measures • air pollution by sulfur dioxide that might be taken to reduce its incidence air pollution by greenhouse gases (carbon Explain how increases in greenhouse gases dioxide and methane) contributing to global (carbon dioxide and methane) are thought to cause global warming pollution due to pesticides including insecticides and herbicides • pollution due to nuclear fall-out • Describe the need for conservation of: Explain how limited and non-renewable • species and their habitats resources can be recycled (including recycling natural resources (limited to water and non- of paper and treatment of sewage to make renewable materials including fossil fuels) the water that it contains safe to return to the environment or for human use) Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment 6. Practical
Scientific subjects are, by their nature, experimental. So it is important that an assessment of a candidate's knowledge and understanding of biology should contain a practical component (see Assessment Objective C).
Schools' circumstances (e.g. the availability of resources) differ greatly, so three alternative ways of examining the relevant assessment are provided. The three alternatives are: • Paper 4 – Coursework (school-based assessment)• Paper 5 – Practical Test• Paper 6 – Alternative to Practical (written paper).
Whichever practical assessment route is chosen, the following points should be noted: • the same assessment objectives apply • the same practical skills are to be learned and developed • the same benefits to theoretical understanding come from all practical work• the same motivational effect, enthusiasm and enjoyment should be experienced• the same sequence of practical activities is appropriate• teachers should not contravene any school, education authority or government regulations that restrict the sampling of saliva, blood, urine or other bodily secretions and tissues.
6.1 Paper 4: Coursework Teachers may not undertake school-based assessment without the written approval of Cambridge. This will only be given to teachers who satisfy Cambridge requirements concerning moderation and they will have to undergo special training in assessment before entering candidates.
Cambridge offers schools in-service training in the form of courses held at intervals in Cambridge and elsewhere, and also via distance training manuals.
The experimental skills and abilities to be assessed are: C1 Using and organising techniques, apparatus and materialsC2 Observing, measuring and recordingC3 Handling experimental observations and data C4 Planning and evaluating investigations The four skills carry equal weighting.
All assessments must be based on experimental work carried out by the candidates.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment It is expected that the teaching and assessment of experimental skills and abilities will take place throughout the course.
Teachers must ensure that they can make available to Cambridge evidence of two assessments of each skill for each candidate. For skills C1 to C4 inclusive, information about the tasks set and how the marks were awarded will be required. In addition, for skills C2, C3 and C4, the candidate's written work will also be required.
The assessment scores finally recorded for each skill must represent the candidate's best performances.
For candidates who miss the assessment of a given skill through no fault of their own, for example because of illness, and who cannot be assessed on another occasion, Cambridge procedure for special consideration should be followed. However, candidates who for no good reason absent themselves from an assessment of a given skill should be given a mark of zero for that assessment.
Criteria for assessing experimental skil s and abilitiesEach skill must be assessed on a six-point scale, level 6 being the highest level of achievement. Each of the skills is defined in terms of three levels of achievement at scores of 2, 4 and 6.
A score of 0 is available if there is no evidence of positive achievement for a skill.
For candidates who do not meet the criteria for a score of 2, a score of 1 is available if there is some evidence of positive achievement.
A score of 3 is available for candidates who go beyond the level defined by 2, but who do not meet fully the criteria for 4.
Similarly, a score of 5 is available for those who go beyond the level defined for 4, but do not meet fully the criteria for 6.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment Score Skill C1: Using and organising techniques, apparatus and materials
No evidence of positive achievement for this skill.
Some evidence of positive achievement, but the criteria for a score of 2 are not met.
Follows written, diagrammatic or oral instructions to perform a single practical operation.
Uses familiar apparatus and materials adequately, needing reminders on points of safety.
Is beyond the level defined for 2, but does not meet fully the criteria for 4.
Follows written, diagrammatic or oral instructions to perform an experiment involving a series of step-by-step practical operations.
Uses familiar apparatus, materials and techniques adequately and safely.
Is beyond the level defined for 4, but does not meet fully the criteria for 6. Follows written, diagrammatic or oral instructions to perform an experiment involving a series of practical operations where there may be a need to modify or adjust one step in the light of the effect of a previous step.
Uses familiar apparatus, materials and techniques safely, correctly and methodically.
Score Skill C2: Observing, measuring and recording
No evidence of positive achievement for this skill.
Some evidence of positive achievement, but the criteria for a score of 2 are not met.
Makes observations or readings given detailed instructions.
Records results in an appropriate manner given a detailed format.
Is beyond the level defined for 2, but does not meet fully the criteria for 4.
Makes relevant observations, measurements or estimates given an outline format or brief guidelines.
Records results in an appropriate manner given an outline format.
Is beyond the level defined for 4, but does not meet fully the criteria for 6.
Makes relevant observations, measurements or estimates to a degree of accuracy appropriateto the instruments or techniques used.
Records results in an appropriate manner given no format.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment Score Skill C3: Handling experimental observations and data
No evidence of positive achievement for this skill.
Some evidence of positive achievement, but the criteria for a score of 2 are not met.
Processes results in an appropriate manner given a detailed format.
Draws an obvious qualitative conclusion from the results of an experiment.
Is beyond the level defined for 2, but does not meet fully the criteria for 4.
Processes results in an appropriate manner given an outline format.
Recognises and comments on anomalous results.
Draws qualitative conclusions which are consistent with obtained results and deduces patterns in data.
Is beyond the level defined for 4, but does not meet fully the criteria for 6.
Processes results in an appropriate manner given no format.
Deals appropriately with anomalous or inconsistent results.
Recognises and comments on possible sources of experimental error.
Expresses conclusions as generalisations or patterns where appropriate.
Score Skill C4: Planning and evaluating investigations
No evidence of positive achievement for this skill.
Some evidence of positive achievement, but the criteria for a score of 2 are not met.
Suggests a simple experimental strategy to investigate a given practical problem.
Attempts ‘trial and error' modification in the light of the experimental work carried out.
Is beyond the level defined for 2, but does not meet fully the criteria for 4.
Specifies a sequence of activities to investigate a given practical problem.
In a situation where there are two variables, recognises the need to keep one of them constant while the other is being changed.
Comments critically on the original plan, and implements appropriate changes in the light of the experimental work carried out.
Is beyond the level defined for 4, but does not meet fully the criteria for 6.
Analyses a practical problem systematically and produces a logical plan for an investigation.
In a given situation, recognises there are a number of variables and attempts to control them.
Evaluates chosen procedures, suggests/implements modifications where appropriate and shows a systematic approach in dealing with unexpected results.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment Guidance on candidate assessmentThe following notes are intended to provide teachers with information to help them to make valid and reliable assessments of the skills and abilities of their candidates.
• The assessments should be based on the principle of positive achievement: candidates should be given opportunities to demonstrate what they understand and can do.
• It is expected that candidates will have had opportunities to acquire a given skill before assessment takes place.
• It is not expected that all of the practical work undertaken by a candidate will be assessed.
• Assessments can be carried out at any time during the course. However, at whatever stage assessments are done, the standards applied must be those expected at the end of the course, as exemplified in the criteria for the skills.
• Assessments should normally be made by the person responsible for teaching the candidates.
• A given practical task is unlikely to provide opportunities for all aspects of the criteria at a given level for a particular skill to be satisfied; for example, there may not be any anomalous results (Skill C3). However, by using a range of practical work, teachers should ensure that opportunities are provided for all aspects of the criteria to be satisfied during the course.
• Extended experimental investigations are of great educational value. If such investigations are used for assessment purposes, teachers should make sure that the candidates have ample opportunity for displaying the skills and abilities required by the scheme of assessment.
• It is not necessary for all candidates within a teaching group, or within a Centre, to be assessed on exactly the same practical work, although teachers can use work that is undertaken by all of their candidates.
• When assessing group work, teachers must ensure that each candidate's individual contribution is • Skill C1 may not generate a written product from the candidates; it will often be assessed by watching the candidates carrying out practical work.
• Skills C2, C3 and C4 will usually generate a written product from the candidates; this will provide evidence for moderation.
• Raw scores for individual practical assessments should be recorded on the Individual Candidate Record Card. The final, internally moderated total score should be recorded on the Coursework Assessment Summary Form (examples of both forms, plus the Sciences Experiment Form, are at the back of this syllabus).
• Raw scores for individual practical assessments may be given to candidates as part of the normal feedback from the teacher. The final, internally moderated, total score should not be given to the
candidate.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment When several teachers in a Centre are involved in internal assessment, arrangements must be made within the Centre for all candidates are assessed to the same standard. It is essential that the marks for each skill assigned within different teaching groups (or classes) are moderated internally for the whole Centre entry. The Centre assessments will then be moderated externally by Cambridge.
External moderation of internal assessment is carried out by Cambridge. Centres must submit candidates' internally assessed marks to Cambridge. The deadlines and methods for submitting internally assessed marks are in the Cambridge Administrative Guide available on our website.
Once it has received the marks, Cambridge will draw up a list of sample candidates whose work will be moderated (a further sample may also be requested), and will ask the Centre to immediately send every piece of work which has contributed towards these candidates' final marks. Individual Candidate Record Cards and Coursework Assessment Summary Forms must also be sent with the coursework. All remaining coursework and records should be kept by the Centre until results are published.
Ideally, Centres should use loose-leaf A4 file paper for practical written work, as this is cheaper to send by post. Original work is preferred for moderation, but authenticated photocopies can be sent if absolutely necessary.
Pieces of work for each skill should not be stapled together. Each piece of work should be clearly and
securely labelled with:
• the skill being assessed• the Centre number• the candidate's name and number• the title of the experiment• a copy of the mark scheme used• the mark awarded.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment 6.2 Paper 5: Practical TestExercises may be set requiring the candidates to: • follow carefully a sequence of instructions• use familiar, and unfamiliar, techniques to record observations and make deductions from them• perform simple physiological experiments, e.g. tests for food substances and the use of hydrogencarbonate indicator, litmus and Universal Indicator paper • use a scalpel or a razor blade, forceps, scissors and mounted needles skilfully• use a hand lens of not less than x6 magnification to recognise, observe and record familiar, and unfamiliar, biological specimens • make a clear line drawing of a specimen provided, indicate the magnification of the drawing and label, as • perform simple arithmetical calculations.
Candidates may be required to do the following: • record readings from apparatus• describe, explain or comment on experimental arrangements and techniques• complete tables of data• draw conclusions from observations and/or from information given• interpret and evaluate observations and experimental data• plot graphs and/or interpret graphical information• identify sources of error and suggest possible improvements in procedures• plan an investigation, including suggesting suitable techniques and apparatus.
Candidates will not be required to carry out weighing for the practical test.
It is expected that glassware and instruments normally found in a laboratory, e.g. beakers, test-tubes, test-tube racks or other holders, funnels, thermometers, specimen tubes, Petri dishes, syringes, droppers, glass rods, means of heating the equipment referred to above, x6 (at least) hand lenses and so on, should be available for these experiments, along with reagents (e.g. for food tests), hydrogencarbonate indicator, litmus paper and Universal Indicator paper.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment 6.3 Paper 6: Alternative to PracticalThis paper is designed to test candidates' familiarity with laboratory practical procedures.
Questions may be set requiring the candidates to: • follow carefully a sequence of instructions• use familiar, and unfamiliar, techniques to record observations and make deductions from them• recall simple physiological experiments, e.g. tests for food substances, the use of a potometer and the use of hydrogencarbonate indicator, litmus and Universal Indicator paper • recognise, observe and record familiar, and unfamiliar, biological specimens• make a clear line drawing from a photograph (or other visual representation) of a specimen, indicate the magnification of the drawing and label, as required • perform simple arithmetical calculations• record readings from apparatus• describe, explain or comment on experimental arrangements and techniques• complete tables of data• draw conclusions from observations and/or from information given• interpret and evaluate observations and experimental data• plot graphs and/or interpret graphical information• identify sources of error and suggest possible improvements in procedures• plan an investigation, including suggesting suitable techniques and apparatus.
6.4 Laboratory equipmentThe following is a list of the conditions, materials and equipment that are considered appropriate for the teaching of Cambridge IGCSE Biology.
In accordance with the COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health) Regulations operative in the UK, a hazard appraisal of the list has been carried out. The following codes are used where relevant.
C = corrosive substance
F = highly flammable substance
H = harmful or irritating substance
O = oxidizing substance
T = toxic substance
N = harmful to the environment
Adequate bench space (more than 1m × 1m for each candidate)Water supply – not necessarily mains supplyGas supply (for heating) – mains/cylinderElectrical supply – mains/batteries/generatorSecure area for preparation and storage of items made for practical lessons and tests Apparatus and materials
Safety equipment appropriate to the work being planned, but at least including eye protection such as safety
spectacles or goggles
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment Chemical reagents • hydrogencarbonate indicator (bicarbonate indicator)
• [H] iodine in potassium iodide solution (iodine solution)
• [H] Benedict's solution (or an alternative such as Fehling's)
• [C] Biuret reagent(s) (sodium or potassium hydroxide solution and copper sulfate solution)
• [F] ethanol/methylated spirit
• cobalt chloride paper
• pH indicator paper or universal indicator solution or pH probes
• litmus
• glucose• sodium • aluminium foil or black paper • rulers capable of measuring to 1 mm• mounted needles or seekers or long pins with large head• means of cutting biological materials e.g. scalpels, solid-edged razor blades or knives• scissors• forceps• means of writing on glassware (e.g. wax pencil, water-resistant marker, small self-adhesive labels and Glassware and similar (some of which may be glass, plastic or metal) • beakers or other containers• test-tubes, test-tube racks and test-tube holders• funnels• droppers or teat pipettes or plastic or glass dispensing bottles• dishes such as Petri dishes or tin lids• means of measuring small and larger volumes of liquids such as syringes, graduated pipettes or measuring cylinders Thermometers (covering at least the range 0–100°C; any range starting below 0 and ending above 100°C is suitable)Means of heating such as Bunsen or other gas burner or spirit burnerGlass slides and coverslipsWhite tile or other suitable cutting surfaceVisking tube or other partially permeable membrane materialHand lens (at least X6) Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Practical assessment Desirable apparatus and materials
Microscope with mirror and lamp or with built in light, at least low-power (X10) objective, optional high-
power (X40) objective will greatly increase the range of cellular detail that can be resolved.
Chemical reagents in addition to those listed above: • [H] copper sulfate (blue crystals)
• [H] dilute (1 mol dm–3) hydrochloric acid
• a source of distilled or deionised water
• eosin/red
• [H] limewater
• [H] methylene blue
• [C] potassium hydroxide
• sodium hydrogencarbonate (sodium bicarbonate)
• Vaseline/petroleum jelly (or similar)
Mortar and pestle or blender
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
7. Appendix
The scheme of assessment is intended to encourage positive achievement by all candidates.
Candidate must show mastery of the Core curriculum and the Extended
curriculum

• relate facts to principles and theories and vice versa • state why particular techniques are preferred for a procedure or operation • select and collate information from a number of sources and present it in a clear • solve problems in situations which may involve a wide range of variables• process data from a number of sources to identify any patterns or trends• generate a hypothesis to explain facts, or find facts to support a hypothesis Candidate must show mastery of the Core curriculum, plus some ability to
answer questions which are pitched at a higher level.

• link facts to situations not specified in the syllabus • describe the correct procedure(s) for a multi-stage operation • select a range of information from a given source and present it in a clear logical • identify patterns or trends in given information• solve a problem involving more than one step, but with a limited range of variables• generate a hypothesis to explain a given set of facts or data Candidate must show competence in answering questions based on the Core
curriculum.

• recall facts contained in the syllabus • indicate the correct procedure for a single operation • select and present a single piece of information from a given source• solve a problem involving one step, or more than one step if structured help is • identify a pattern or trend where only minor manipulation of data is needed• recognise which of two given hypotheses explains a set of facts or data Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Terminology, units, symbols and presentation of data for These terms will be used by Principal Examiners during the setting of papers. Candidates should be made aware of the terminology during teaching and practical work.
This section follows the practice laid down in the documents: (a) Association for Science Education (ASE) Signs, Symbols and Systematics: The ASE Companion to 16–19 Science (2000) (b) Institute of Biology (in association with ASE) Biological Nomenclature, Standard terms and expressions used in the teaching of biology (2000). 7.2.1 NumbersThe decimal point will be placed on the line, e.g. 52.35.
Numbers from 1000 to 9999 wil be printed without commas or spaces.
Numbers greater than or equal to 10 000 will be printed without commas. A space will be left between each group of three whole numbers, e.g. 4 256 789.
7.2.2 UnitsThe International System of units will be used (SI units). Units will be indicated in the singular not in the plural, e.g. 28 kg.
(a) SI units commonly used in biology
N.B. Care should be taken in the use of mass and weight. In most biological contexts, the term mass is correct, e.g. dry mass, biomass. Name of unit
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
amount of substance (b) Derived SI units
joule (calorie is obsolete) (c) Recommended units for area, volume and density
square centimetre square mil imetre cubic decimetre (preferred to litre) dm3 (not l)
cm3 (not ml)
kilogram per cubic metre gram per cubic centimetre Use of solidus
The solidus (/) will not be used for a quotient, e.g. m/s for metres per second.
In practical work, candidates will be expected to use SI units. The use of imperial/customary units, such as the inch and the degree Fahrenheit, should be discouraged. Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
7.2.3 Presentation of dataThe solidus (/) is to be used for separating the quantity and the unit in tables, graphs and charts, e.g. time/s for time in seconds.
Each column of a table will be headed with the physical quantity and the appropriate unit, e.g. time/s.
There are three acceptable methods of stating units, e.g. metres per sec or m per s or m s–1.
The column headings of the table can then be directly transferred to the axes of a constructed graph.
• Each axis will be labelled with the physical quantity and the appropriate unit, e.g. time/s.
• The graph is the whole diagrammatic presentation. It may have one or several curves plotted on it.
• Curves and lines joining points on the graph should be referred to as ‘curves'.
• Points on the curve should be clearly marked as crosses (x) or encircled dots (☼). If a further curve is included, vertical crosses (+) may be used to mark the points.
These should be drawn with the sectors in rank order, largest first, beginning at ‘noon' and proceeding clockwise. Pie Charts should preferably contain no more than six sectors.
These are drawn when one of the variables is not numerical, e.g. percentage of vitamin C in different
fruits. They should be made up of narrow blocks of equal width that do not touch.
These are drawn when plotting frequency graphs with continuous data, e.g. frequency of occurrence
of leaves of different lengths. The blocks should be drawn in order of increasing or decreasing
magnitude and they should be touching.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
7.2.4 TaxonomyTaxonomy is the study of the principles of the organisation of taxa into hierarchies. There are seven levels of taxon – kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. These may be used when teaching the concept and use of a classificatory system, the variety of organisms, and the binomial system. The following should apply: (a) Five Kingdoms are now recognised as (Prokaryotae), including bacteria and blue-green bacteria (Protoctista), including green, red and brown algae and protozoans fungi (Fungi)plants (Plantae)animals (Animalia) The viruses cannot be fitted into this classificatory system.
(b) The binomial system of naming gives each organism a two-word name, e.g. Homo sapiens. The first word is the generic name (genus) and the second word is the specific name (species).
Generic and species names are distinguished from the rest of the text either by being set in italics (in print) or by underlining (when written or typed).
(d) The generic name always takes an initial capital (upper case) letter. It can be accepted as a shorthand for the specific name where the intent is obvious, e.g. Plasmodium, and in these circumstances can stand alone. The specific name always has an initial small (lower case) letter when following the generic name, e.g. Escherichia coli.
The scientific name should generally be written in full when it is first used, but may then be abbreviated when subsequently used, e.g. Escherichia coli becomes E. coli.
The common name should not normally be written with an initial capital letter, e.g. cat and dog. The exception is Man, where it is the common name for a species where the two sexes are distinguished by the terms man and woman.
(g) A species is not easy to define but an acceptable general definition is as follows: ‘A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring'.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
7.2.5 Genetics(a) The terms gene and allele are not synonymous.
A gene is a specific length of DNA occupying a position called a locus. A specific function can be assigned to each gene. An allele is one of two or more different forms of a gene.
(b) A standard form of presenting genetic crosses should be adopted. The following symbols should be used as shown:P designates the cross of pure-breeding (homozygous) individualsF1 designates the offspring of homozygous parentsF2 designates the offspring produced by crossing F1 parents.
(c) The format for the course of a genetic cross should be labelled as shown: parental phenotypesparental genotypesgametesoffspring genotypesoffspring phenotypesetc.
(d) The gene should be designated by a letter or letters so that upper and lower case versions are easily distinguishable, e.g. B and b. The upper case letter indicates the dominant allele and the lower case letter indicates the recessive allele.
(e) The symbols for gametes should be circled to indicate the discrete nature of each gamete.
(f) Some form of checkerboard should be used to demonstrate genotypes that can result from random fusion of gametes. Candidates should understand that genotypes are only possible combinations and that only a very large number of offspring can result in all combinations being achieved.
(g) The term incomplete dominance should be discontinued and in the particular case where alleles are equally dominant it should be called codominance. Thus codominance should be used where the influence of both alleles is shown in the phenotype, e.g. the AB blood group in humans.
7.2.6 Terminology(a) Wherever possible, English terms should be used in preference to Latin or Greek terms, e.g. the term
red blood cell should be used and not erythrocyte.
(b) Generalised terms should be stated in English, e.g. small intestine.
(c) Where no suitable English terms exist, Latin terms are unavoidable and will need to be used, e.g. atrium, bronchi, vil i.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
7.3 Glossary of terms used in science papersThis glossary (which is relevant only to Science subjects) will prove helpful to candidates as a guide, but it is neither exhaustive nor definitive. The glossary has been deliberately kept brief not only with respect to the number of terms included but also to the descriptions of their meanings. Candidates should appreciate that the meaning of a term must depend in part on its context.
Define (the term(s) . ) is intended literally, only a formal statement or equivalent paraphrase being required.
What do you understand by/What is meant by (the term(s) . ) normally implies that a definition should be given, together with some relevant comment on the significance or context of the term(s) concerned, especially where two or more terms are included in the question. The amount of supplementary comment intended should be interpreted in the light of the indicated mark value.
State implies a concise answer with little or no supporting argument, e.g. a numerical answer that can readily be obtained ‘by inspection'.
List requires a number of points, generally each of one word, with no elaboration. Where a given number of points is specified, this should not be exceeded.
Explain may imply reasoning or some reference to theory, depending on the context. It is another
way of asking candidates to give reasons for. The candidate needs to leave the examiner in no doubt
why something happens.
(b) Give a reason/Give reasons is another way of asking candidates to explain why something happens.
Describe, the data or information given in a graph, table or diagram, requires the candidate to state the key points that can be seen in the stimulus material. Where possible, reference should be made to numbers drawn from the stimulus material.
(b) Describe, a process, requires the candidate to give a step by step written statement of what happens during the process.
Describe and explain may be coupled, as may state and explain.
7. Discuss requires the candidate to give a critical account of the points involved in the topic.
8. Outline implies brevity, i.e. restricting the answer to giving essentials.
9. Predict implies that the candidate is not expected to produce the required answer by recall but by making a logical connection between other pieces of information. Such information may be wholly given in the question or may depend on answers extracted in an earlier part of the question.
Predict also implies a concise answer, with no supporting statement required.
10. Deduce is used in a similar way to predict except that some supporting statement is required, e.g. reference to a law or principle, or the necessary reasoning is to be included in the answer.
11. (a) Suggest is used in two main contexts, i.e. either to imply that there is no unique answer (e.g. in Biology, there are a variety of factors that might limit the rate of photosynthesis in a plant in a glasshouse), (b) Suggest may also be used to imply that candidates are expected to apply their general knowledge and understanding of biology to a ‘novel' situation, one that may be formally ‘not in the syllabus' – many data response and problem solving questions are of this type.
12. Find is a general term that may variously be interpreted as calculate, measure, determine, etc.
13. Calculate is used when a numerical answer is required. In general, working should be shown, especially where two or more steps are involved.
14. Measure implies that the quantity concerned can be directly obtained from a suitable measuring instrument (e.g. length, using a rule, or mass, using a balance).
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
15. Determine often implies that the quantity concerned cannot be measured directly but is obtained by calculation, substituting measured or known values of other quantities into a standard formula, e.g. relative molecular mass.
16. Estimate implies a reasoned order of magnitude statement or calculation of the quantity concerned, making such simplifying assumptions as may be necessary about points of principle and about the values of quantities not otherwise included in the question.
17. Sketch, when applied to graph work, implies that the shape and/or position of the curve need only be qualitatively correct, but candidates should be aware that, depending on the context, some
quantitative aspects may be looked for, e.g. passing through the origin, having an intercept, asymptote
or discontinuity at a particular value.
In diagrams, sketch implies that a simple, freehand drawing is acceptable; nevertheless, care should be taken over proportions and the clear exposition of important details.
In all questions, the number of marks allocated are shown on the examination paper, and should be used as a guide by candidates to how much detail to give. In describing a process the mark allocation should guide the candidate about how many steps to include. In explaining why something happens, it guides the candidate how many reasons to give, or how much detail to give for each reason.
7.4 Mathematical Calculators may be used in all parts of the examination.
Candidates should be able to: • add, subtract, multiply and divide• understand averages, decimals, fractions, percentages, ratios and reciprocals• recognise and use standard notation• use direct and inverse proportion• use positive, whole number indices• draw charts and graphs from given data• interpret charts and graphs• select suitable scales and axes for graphs• make approximate evaluations of numerical expressions• recognise and use the relationship between length, surface area and volume and their units, on metric • use usual mathematical instruments (ruler, compasses)• understand the meaning of radius, diameter, square, rectangle.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Appendix B: Forms 8. Appendix B: Forms
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Appendix B: Forms Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Appendix B: Forms Please read the instructions printed overleaf.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Appendix B: Forms Instructions for completing sciences experiment form1. Complete the information at the head of the form.
2. Use a separate form for each syllabus.
3. Give a brief description of each of the experiments your candidates performed for assessment in the Cambridge IGCSE Biology Syllabus. Use additional sheets as necessary.
Copies of the Experiment Forms and the corresponding Worksheets/Instructions and Mark Schemes will be required for each assessed task sampled, for each of skills C1 to C4 inclusive.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 061 Individual Candidate Record Card
IGCSE 2015
Please read the instructions printed on the previous page and the General Coursework Regulations before completing this form.
Centre number
Teaching group/set 1 0 Syllabus title
Date of assessment Experiment number from Assess at least twice: ring highest two marks for Relevant comments (for example, if help was given) Sciences Experiment Form (Max 6 each assessment) Marks to be transferred to Coursework Assessment Summary Form Cambridge IGCSE Biology 061 Instructions for completing individual candidate record cards 1. Complete the information at the head of the form.
2. Mark each item of Coursework for each candidate according to instructions given in the Syllabus and Training Manual.
3. Enter marks and total marks in the appropriate spaces. Complete any other sections of the form required.
4. Ensure that the addition of marks is independently checked.
5. It is essential that the marks of candidates from different teaching groups within each Centre are moderated internally. This means
that the marks awarded to all candidates within a Centre must be brought to a common standard by the teacher responsible for co-ordinating
the internal assessment (i.e. the internal moderator), and a single valid and reliable set of marks should be produced which reflects the relative
attainment of all the candidates in the Coursework component at the Centre.
6. Transfer the marks to the Coursework Assessment Summary Form in accordance with the instructions given on that document.
7. Retain all Individual Candidate Record Cards and Coursework which will be required for external moderation. The deadlines and methods for
submitting internally assessed marks are in the Cambridge Administrative Guide available on our website.
Note: These Record Cards are to be used by teachers only for students who have undertaken Coursework as part of their Cambridge IGCSE.
SCIENCES
Coursework Assessment Summary Form
IGCSE 2015

Please read the instructions printed overleaf and the General Coursework Regulations before completing this form.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 061 or examination in 20 Name of teacher completing this form Name of internal moderator Cambridge IGCSE Biology 061 A. Instructions for completing coursework assessment summary forms 1. Complete the information at the head of the form.
2. List the candidates in an order which will allow ease of transfer of information to a computer-printed Coursework mark sheet MS1 at a later stage (i.e. in candidate number order, where this is known; see item B.1 below). Show the teaching group or set for each candidate. The initials of the teacher may be used to indicate group or set.
3. Transfer each candidate's marks from his or her Individual Candidate Record Card to this form as follows: (a) Where there are columns for individual skills or assignments, enter the marks initially awarded (i.e. before internal moderation took place).
(b) In the column headed ‘Total Mark', enter the total mark awarded before internal moderation took place.
(c) In the column headed ‘Internally Moderated Mark', enter the total mark awarded after internal moderation took place.
Both the teacher completing the form and the internal moderator (or moderators) should check the form and complete and sign the bottom portion.
B. Procedures for external moderation University of Cambridge International Examinations sends a computer-printed Coursework mark sheet MS1 to each Centre (in late March for the June examination and in early October for the November examination) showing the names and numbers of each candidate. Transfer the total internally moderated mark for each candidate from the Coursework Assessment Summary Form to the computer-printed Coursework mark sheet MS1.
The top copy of the computer-printed Coursework mark sheet MS1 must be despatched in the specially provided envelope. The deadlines and methods for submitting internally assessed marks are in the Cambridge Administrative Guide available on our website.
Cambridge will select a list of candidates whose work is required for external moderation. As soon as this list is received, send candidates' work, with the corresponding Individual Candidate Record Cards, this summary form and the second copy of MS1, to Cambridge.
Experiment Forms, Work Sheets and Marking Schemes must be included for each task that has contributed to the final mark of these
candidates
.
5. Photocopies of the samples may be sent but candidates' original work, with marks and comments from the teacher, is preferred.
6. (a) The pieces of work for each skill should not be stapled together, nor should individual sheets be enclosed in plastic wallets.
(b) Each piece of work should be clearly labelled with the skill being assessed, Centre name, candidate name and number and the mark awarded. For each task, supply the information requested in B.4 above.
7. Cambridge reserves the right to ask for further samples of Coursework.
Other information Equality and inclusionCambridge International Examinations has taken great care in the preparation of this syllabus and assessment materials to avoid bias of any kind. To comply with the UK Equality Act (2010), Cambridge has designed this qualification with the aim of avoiding direct and indirect discrimination.
The standard assessment arrangements may present unnecessary barriers for candidates with disabilities or learning difficulties. Arrangements can be put in place for these candidates to enable them to access the assessments and receive recognition of their attainment. Access arrangements will not be agreed if they give candidates an unfair advantage over others or if they compromise the standards being assessed.
Candidates who are unable to access the assessment of any component may be eligible to receive an award based on the parts of the assessment they have taken. Information on access arrangements is found in the Cambridge Handbook which can be downloaded from
the website www.cie.org.uk
LanguageThis syllabus and the associated assessment materials are available in English only.
Grading and reportingCambridge IGCSE results are shown by one of the grades A*, A, B, C, D, E, F or G indicating the standard achieved, A* being the highest and G the lowest. ‘Ungraded' indicates that the candidate's performance fell short of the standard required for grade G. ‘Ungraded' will be reported on the statement of results but not on the certificate. The letters Q (result pending); X (no results) and Y (to be issued) may also appear on the statement of results but not on the certificate.
Entry codes To ma intain the security of our examinations we produce question papers for different areas of the world, known as ‘administrative zones'. Where the component entry code has two digits, the first digit is the component number given in the syllabus. The second digit is the location code, specific to an administrative zone. Information about entry codes, examination timetables and administrative instructions can be found in the Cambridge Guide to Making Entries.
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Additional information for England, Wales and Northern Ireland Additional information for England, Wales and
This syllabus appears on the Register of Regulated Qualifications (http://register.ofqual.gov.uk) as a
Cambridge International Level 1/Level 2 Certificate. In other contexts it is known as a Cambridge IGCSE.
Cambridge International Level 1/Level 2 Certificates are approved for regulation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and are eligible for inclusion in school and college performance tables. For up-to-date information on the performance tables, including the list of qualifications which count
towards the English Baccalaureate, please go to the Department for Education website
(www.education.gov.uk/performancetables).
Candidates who are awarded grades D to G will have achieved an award at Level 1 of the National Qualifications Framework. Candidates who are awarded grades A* to C will have achieved an award at Level 2 of the National Qualifications Framework.
Prior learningWe recommend that candidates who are beginning this course should have previously studied a science curriculum such as that of the Cambridge Lower Secondary Programme or equivalent national educational frameworks. Candidates should also have adequate mathematical skills for the content cintained in this syllabus. ProgressionCambridge International Level 1/Level 2 Certificates are general qualifications that enable candidates to progress either directly to employment, or to proceed to further qualifications.
This syllabus provides a foundation for further study at levels 2 and 3 in the National Qualifications Framework, including GCSE, Cambridge International AS and A Level GCE, and Cambridge Pre-U qualifications.
Candidates who are awarded grades C to A* are well prepared to follow courses leading to Level 3 AS and A Level GCE Biology, Cambridge Pre-U Biology, IB Certificates in Biology or the Cambridge International AS and A Level Biology.
Grading and reportingCambridge International Level 1/Level 2 Certificate results are shown by one of the grades A*, A, B, C, D, E, F or G indicating the standard achieved, A* being the highest and G the lowest. ‘Ungraded' indicates that the candidate's performance fell short of the standard required for grade G. ‘Ungraded' will be reported on the statement of results but not on the certificate. The letters Q (result pending); X (no results) and Y (to be issued) may also appear on the statement of results but not on the certificate.
Overlapping qualificationsEvery qualification is assigned to a national classification code indicating the subject area to which it belongs. Candidates who enter for more than one qualification with the same classification code will only have one grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of the school and college performance tables. Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Additional information for England, Wales and Northern Ireland Centres may wish to advise candidates that, if they take two qualifications with the same classification code, colleges are very likely to take the view that they have achieved only one of the two qualifications. Candidates who have any doubts about their subject combinations should seek advice, either from their centre or the institution to which they wish to progress.
Spiritual, moral, ethical, social, legislative, economic and cultural issuesThe syllabus provides a number of areas in which candidates may appreciate the moral, social, ethical, economic and cultural issues surrounding biotechnological industries, conservation and environmental issues, both on a local and on a global scale. Candidates should gain a deeper appreciation and understanding of the life science workings of the world around them, becoming aware of the interdependence of all living things with their environment, and the implications this has in terms of human responsibility. There are also opportunities to discuss aspects of human health and healthy living.
Whilst gaining experience of practical skills, candidates have the opportunity to develop their ability to work as a team, where appropriate, and to value the contribution of others' ideas.
There are no legislative issues in this syllabus.
Sustainable development, health and safety considerations and international developmentsThis syllabus offers opportunities to develop ideas on sustainable development and environmental issues, health and safety, and the international dimension.
Sustainable development and environmental issues Aspects of environmental education and sustainable development occur in relation to reducing the impact of human influences and biotechnology on the environment and conservation, balanced against the need to improve efficiency of food production.
Environmental education and sustainable development Aspects of these are covered in section II (topics, 6.1, 6.3.2, 10.2) and section IV.
Health and safety The following health and safety issues feature in this syllabus:– good health and safety practice in the laboratory– Issues associated with the impact of biotechnological industry on human health, food production and the environment Health and safety issues are covered in Section II (topics 6.1, 6.3, 7.2.1, 10.5), Section III (topic 1.5) and Section IV (topics 5.2, 5.3) • The international dimension There are opportunities in this syllabus to investigate local, national and international contributions to the subject field and to appreciate the global significance of biology. For example: Section I Classification; Section II Enzymes (topic 5), Animal nutrition (topic 6.3) and Adaptation to environments (topic 7.1.2); Section III Birth control (topic 1.4); STD (topic 1.5) and Genetic engineering (topic 3.7); and Section IV Human influences on ecosystems (topics 5.1, 5.2) and Conservation (topic 5.3).
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Additional information for England, Wales and Northern Ireland Key Skil sThis syllabus provides opportunities for learners to develop the following Key Skills at Level 1 and/or Level 2: • Application of number• Communication• Information • Improving own learning and performance• Working with others• Problem The extent to which this evidence fulfulls the Key Skills criteria at these levels will be totally dependent on
the style of teaching and learning. Further information on Key Skills can be found on the Ofqual website
www.ofqual.gov.uk
Cambridge IGCSE Biology 0610. Syllabus for examination in 2015.
Cambridge International Examinations 1 Hills Road, Cambridge, CB1 2EU, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1223 553554 Fax: +44 (0)1223 553558 Email: info@cie.org.uk www.cie.org.uk ® IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations. Cambridge International Examinations 2013

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