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ACSM Information On…
Selecting and Effectively UsingHydration for FitnessWater is the most essential component of the human body as it provides an important role in the function of cells. Important functions of waterinclude transportation of nutrients, elimination of waste products, regulation and maintenance of body temperature through sweating,maintenance of blood circulation and pressure, lubrication of joints and body tissues, and facilitation of digestion. More than half of the humanbody is composed of water, and it is impossible to sustain life without it.
A COMPLETE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAM
important to drink before you feel thirsty
A well-rounded physical activity program includes
Exercise produces an elevation in body
and to drink throughout the day. Thirst is
aerobic exercise and strength training exercise, but
temperature, which depends on the
not a good indicator of hydration and
not necessarily in the same session. This blend helps
intensity and duration of exercise,
should not be used to monitor hydration
maintain or improve cardiorespiratory and muscular
environmental conditions, clothing worn,
fitness and overall health and function. Regularphysical activity will provide more health benefits than
and metabolic rate. In order to get rid of
One way to check your hydration status is
sporadic, high intensity workouts, so choose
the excess heat, your body secretes
to weigh yourself before and after exercise.
exercises you are likely to enjoy and that you can
sweat, which is primarily composed of
incorporate into your schedule.
The before-exercise measurement is best
water and electrolytes such as sodium.
as a nude weight first thing in the morning
ACSM's physical activity recommendations for healthy
The evaporation of sweat is the primary
after urinating. Comparing your body
adults, updated in 2011, recommend at least 30
mechanism of heat loss during exercise.
weight before and after exercise can be
minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity(working hard enough to break a sweat, but still able
Exercise can lead to substantial water and
used to estimate your sweat loss and your
to carry on a conversation) five days per week, or 20
electrolyte loss from sweat leading to
fluid requirements. Any weight loss is likely
minutes of more vigorous activity three days per
dehydration and, in cases of excessive
from fluid loss, so drinking enough to
week. Combinations of moderate- and vigorous-
fluid intake, hyponatremia (low sodium in
replenish these losses will maintain
intensity activity can be performed to meet this
the blood). However, considerable
hydration. The table below shows us that
variability exists from person to person
over a one percent loss in body weight
Examples of typical aerobic exercises are:
with regard to sweat loss. Therefore, the
indicates dehydration and over five percent
fluid and electrolyte requirements needed
indicates serious dehydration. These fluid
• Running• Stair climbing
for the athlete are variable from person to
losses need to be replaced.
person as well. If water and electrolytes
% Body Weight Change
are not replaced from these losses, the
• Cross country skiing
athlete will have a decrease in
performance and perhaps an adverse
In addition, strength training should be performed a
effect on his or her overall health.
minimum of two days each week, with 8-12repetitions of 8-10 different exercises that target all
major muscle groups. This type of training can be
Thirst is a signal that your body is headed
Serious Dehydration >
accomplished using body weight, resistance bands,
toward dehydration. Therefore, it is
free weights, medicine balls or weight machines.
Another way to check hydration status is
Carbohydrate consumption helps to
STAYING ACTIVE PAYS OFF!
the urine color test. A large amount of
sustain and improve exercise performance
Those who are physically active tend to live longer,
light-colored urine means you are well
during high-intensity exercise longer than
healthier lives. Research shows that moderate
hydrated. The darker the color, the more
one hour as well as lower-intensity
physical activity – such as 30 minutes a day of brisk
dehydrated you are.
exercise for longer periods. You should
walking – significantly contributes to longevity. Even a
ingest one-half to one liter of a sports
person with risk factors like high blood pressure,
diabetes or even a smoking habit can gain real
drink each hour to maintain hydration.
benefits from incorporating regular physical activity
Also, sports drinks should not exceed a
into their daily life.
carbohydrate concentration of eight
As many dieters have found, exercise can help you
stay on a diet and lose weight. What's more – regular
HYDRATION BEFORE EXERCISE
exercise can help lower blood pressure, control blood
Check your hydration status before
sugar, improve cholesterol levels and build stronger,
exercise because there is a wide
variability in fluid needs for each person.
THE FIRST STEP
• Drink 16-20 fluid ounces of water or
Before you begin an exercise program, take a fitness
sports beverage at least four hours
test, or substantially increase your level of activity,
make sure to answer the following questions. This
• Drink 8-12 fluid ounces of water 10-15
physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q) will
minutes before exercise.
help determine if you're ready to begin an exercise
routine or program.
Consuming a beverage with sodium (salt)
• Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart
and/or small meal helps to stimulate thirst
condition or that you should participate in physical
and retain fluids.
activity only as recommended by a doctor?
Dehydration is the loss of fluids and salts
• Do you feel pain in your chest during physical
HYDRATION DURING EXERCISE
essential to maintain normal body
• Drink 3-8 fluid ounces of water every 15-
function. Dehydration occurs when the
• In the past month, have you had chest pain when
20 minutes when exercising for less than
you were not doing physical activity?
body loses more fluids than it takes in.
• Do you lose your balance from dizziness? Do you
Dehydration can lead to:
• Drink 3-8 fluid ounces of a sports
ever lose consciousness?
• Muscle fatigue
beverage (5-8 percent carbohydrate with
• Do you have a bone or joint problem that could be
• Loss of coordination
electrolytes) every 15-20 minutes when
made worse by a change in your physical activity?
• Inability to regulate body temperature
• Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs for your
exercising greater than 60 minutes.
• Heat illness (e.g., cramps, heat
blood pressure or a heart condition?
Do not drink more than one quart/hour
exhaustion, heat stroke)
• Do you know of any reason you should not
• Decreased energy and athletic
participate in physical activity?
HYDRATION GUIDELINES AFTER
If you answered yes to one or more questions, if you
are over 40 years of age and have recently been
Moderate caffeine intake does not affect
inactive, or if you are concerned about your health,
Obtain your body weight and check your
hydration status or urine output. However,
consult a physician before taking a fitness test or
urine to estimate your fluid losses. The
alcohol will increase your urine output and
substantially increasing your physical activity. If you
goal is to correct your losses within two
answered no to each question, then it's likely that you
hours after exercise.
can safely begin exercising.
Enhancing palatability of a fluid will help to
• Drink 20-24 fluid ounces of water or
PRIOR TO EXERCISE
encourage fluid consumption. This can be
sports beverage for every one pound
Prior to beginning any exercise program, including the
done with proper flavoring, proper salt
activities depicted in this brochure, individuals should
(sodium) content and drinking a cold
seek medical evaluation and clearance to engage in
beverage (15-21 degrees Celsius).
Overhydration, also called water
activity. Not all exercise programs are suitable for
everyone, and some programs may result in injury.
intoxication, is a condition where the body
Activities should be carried out at a pace that is
Carbohydrates within a sports beverage
contains too much water. This can result in
comfortable for the user. Users should discontinue
help to replenish your sugar (glycogen)
behavioral changes, confusion,
participation in any exercise activity that causes pain
stores and electrolytes help to accelerate
drowsiness, nausea/vomiting, weight gain,
or discomfort. In such event, medical consultation
rehydration. Sports beverages for use
muscle cramps, weakness/paralysis and
should be immediately obtained.
during prolonged exercise should
risk of death.
generally contain four to eight percent
In general, overhydration is treated by
carbohydrate, 20-30 meq/L of sodium, and
limiting your fluid intake and increasing
2-5 meq/L of potassium. The need for
the salt (sodium) that you consume. If
carbohydrates and electrolytes within
overhydration is suspected, you should
sports beverages increases with
see your doctor for appropriate lab tests
and treatment. You should not consumemore than one liter per hour of fluid.
This brochure was created and updated by Michael R. Simpson, D.O., M.S., and Tom Howard M.D. ACSM grants permission to reproduce this brochure, if it is reproduced in itsentirety without alteration. The text may be reproduced in another publication if it is used in its entirety without alteration and the following statement added: Reprinted withpermission of the American College of Sports Medicine. Copyright 2011 American College of Sports Medicine. This brochure is a product of ACSM's Consumer InformationCommittee.
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Faith2Share Leaders' Retreat, Consultation and Training Modules 3-10 October 2014 Red Cross Training Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia When two walk together The senior leaders of the member agencies and movements of Faith2Share have met together about every 15 months for the past 14 years. In 2000 it was just six people who met together but this year we gathered almost 70 from over twenty different nations. Our theme this year was "When two walk together: Building effective partnerships in mission leadership for global impact". This was an allusion to Amos 3:3 which asks, "Do two walk together, unless they have agreed to do so?" As one of our Bible study leaders reminded us we need to read this whole thing backwards, ie. Global impact comes from mission leaders who are in effective partnerships because they walk together before God. Our fellowship together was also blessed by meeting together in a land, Ethiopia, where Christians have walked together before God for at least fourteen centuries. We had a strong participation during this time of mission and church leaders from Ethiopia and we hope that our time together was also a blessing to them. Together in three ways Following discussions at our last Leadership Consultation in Bangkok in 2013, we decided this time to meet together in three different ways, or for three different stages. We began with