Release Information for PSS®SINCAL 8.5
This document describes the most important additions and changes to the new program version. See the
PSS SINCAL manuals for a more detailed description.
PSS SINCAL 8.5 uses the same license file as the preceding PSS SINCAL 8.0 version. Simply copy the existing license file to the "Bin" directory of PSS SINCAL Installation (normally this is "C: Program
Files PTI PSS SINCAL 8.5 Bin").
If you need a new license file or have any questions about the licensing, please contact the PSS SINCAL Support
(phone +43 699 12364435, e-mail.
PSS SINCAL's Instal ation Program has been optimized to reduce the time needed for installation. All the external components are already installed in the system as prerequisites before the actual installation begins. Among other things, these include the redistributables from Microsoft Visual Studio and Intel Visual Fortran 12. Crystal Reports 11 is also attached as a prerequisite. PSS SINCAL installation is even faster if the required prerequisites have already been installed in the
Another new feature in the installation program is that you can select program components. The
following programs can be installed if you want:
PSS SINCAL PSS PDMS PSS NETOMAC Beta
On 64-bit systems, you can decide whether you want to install the 64-bit program components in addition to the 32-bit components. For reasons of compatibility, we recommend that you also use the 32-bit version on a 64-bit operating system so that you have the full range of functions without any limitations. The only real advantage of the 64-bit version is the practically unlimited range of addressable memory. Even on a 64-bit operating system, PSS SINCAL's 32-bit version cannot
address more than two gigabytes of memory. The 64-bit version does not have this limitation.
The new Master Database makes it possible for multiple users to work on a network simultaneously. The Master Database works similar to a source control system and centrally manages the changes of the different users. Users can still do the actual editing in local databases assigned to them, and
these can be synchronized with the Master Database.
Concept of the Master Database
The Master Database can be generated from any PSS SINCAL network. This network is simply converted to a Master Database and individual users (called clients) make changes to a copy of the network. This allows maximum flexibility in planning tasks, since no limits are placed on the users still
working as with a normal PSS SINCAL network.
Special synchronization functions with conflict management are used to transfer changes made by the users to the global Master Database. This assures that the data in both the Master Database and
in the local client databases remain consistent.
Client database 1
Client database 2
Client database n
Illustration: Concept of use distribution
The basic philosophy behind the PSS SINCAL Master Database is the optimistic administration of
data versions. The advantages of this system are independent editing of the network by the user, the
mobility of the data, and the unlimited use of the local data by PSS SINCAL.
The Master Database acts as a data container that documents any changes in individual data
To assure data consistency, variant information cannot be used in the Master Database. The client database, on the other hand, has all the normal PSS SINCAL functions including variant
Users and the Master Database
Basically the users still work with PSS SINCAL the same way they used to. The user interface menu
– Master Database
does, however, have some new functions for connecting to the
Master Database, synchronizing the data and disconnecting from the Master Database.
Synchronizing with the Master
Synchronizing with the Client
Illustration: Functions for data exchange
Creating a connection:
This transfers a replication of the internally consistent data from the Master
Database to the new client database. This is like taking a snapshot of the Master Database.
This method permanently removes an existing connection between a client
database and the Master Database. You cannot reconnect to the Master Database.
You need to merge different data (replication), if different people are working
on this data simultaneously. This is done to match the data being worked on at separate locations at
This transfers any changes in data at the Master Database to the client
Administrators and Master Database Administration
Administrators are responsible for overseeing the users in the Master Database, reviewing any changes the users made and then either releasing the changes for all the other users or rejecting
Administrators open Master Databases the same way as normal PSS SINCAL networks. The administrator then sees a "global" network that is available to all the users. The actual administrative
functions are found under the menu point File
– Master Database
Convert to Master Database:
The administrator uses this function to convert an existing network (without variants) or an empty stored network into a Master Database.
Master Database Administration:
This opens a view allowing access to all the administrative functions.
Publishing by the Administrator:
This function is used to transfer any changes in the network to the Master Database.
This function undoes any changes made by the administrator and removes the preview of changes by the user from the Network View.
The illustration below shows the Administration View of the Master Database.
Illustration: Start Page of the Master Database Administration
The Active Master Database
section displays information on the currently open master database.
Active Connected Database
lists all the connected client databases. Client databases currently
linked to the Master Database are listed in lines at the bottom of the page. This shows which user created the connection, when the data were last refreshed or published, or whether the Master
Database has been blocked for this client.
accesses the additional administrative functions.
defines the users allowed to use the Master Database as well as any
authorizations they have.
Check and Release Changes
lets administrators display the changes. This page displays any
active publications by the user and a detailed log of any changes.
Important to Note on Master Databases
To use the Master Database, you need to have a special license. The licensing procedure is equal to that for the calculation methods (PC licenses, Dongle licenses or network licenses are available).
The Master Database needs a "proper" RDBMS, since large amounts of data need to be managed.
This means the Master Database is stored either in Microsoft SQL Server or in ORACLE. You cannot
This section briefly presents various new features as well as improvements to existing functions.
New Start Page
PSS SINCAL has a new Start Page that automatically opens when the program starts.
Illustration: Start Page when the program starts
The Start Page lists the PSS SINCAL files opened last and lets you access a number of functions.
The User Interface
– Application Settings
tab in the Options dialog box is used to set parameters
for the Start Page display.
Storing View Positions in the Database
For a long time, PSS SINCAL has had View Positions to assign names to zoomed sections in a view.
Now the File
dialog box lets you jump directly to this section.
Before, however, the View Positions were stored in .sin files and, as such, could not be used for
coupling solutions. Now the View Positions are available in the GraphicAreaPos
Improvements to the Diagram System
The functions for automatic scaling and axis annotations in diagrams have been improved. Now,
automatic axis annotation also works very well in small diagrams. If you want, you can even define
the major interval of the axis annotation manually. This is done for each axis separately in the Format Diagram
Illustration: Dialog box for formatting diagrams
Manual definition can be quite useful, particularly if you do not want intervals based on 1, 2 or 5 (e.g.
when you want to display angles in degrees).
Enhanced Add Elements Copying
A number of important changes have been made to how add elements (protection devices, switches, fault observations, element switch times, etc.) are copied. Now all add elements and graphic data can be copied. This can be done within a network and between different networks. Now you can even use this function in catalogues. When you copy, both the network data for the add elements
and the graphic data are copied.
Enhanced Dialog Positions
In PSS SINCAL, the positions for almost all the dialog boxes can be stored after closing and reopened later. This position is always relative to the upper-left fixing point of the application window and not absolutely in screen coordinates. This makes it possible for you to use these positions, even
when working with multiple screens.
You can switch ON the use of stored dialog positions under User Interface
– Application Settings
in the Options dialog box. If this option is switched OFF, dialog boxes reopen as before at the center
of the application window.
Improved Variant Change
The functions for changing variants have been improved. Variants can even be changed even when you are in Tabular View or Diagram View. After variants are changed, PSS SINCAL automatically
updates the data in all the open views.
Master Resources in the Network Browser
In PSS SINCAL, master resources are used to assign any identification key you want to network elements and equipment. These are used, for example, in CIM Import and Export as well as in Smart Load Flow. For example, these keys can even be used by users to store connection information to
Up to now, master resources could be displayed directly at the network element, but there was no clearly arranged overview of all the used master resources. This possibility is particularly useful when, for example, there are a large number of assignments in a network for Smart Load Flow Calculations. Normally, the master resource of the meter is automatically assigned to individual loads in such networks. To evaluate and check the results, you need use elements to identify assigned
master resources or master resources to identify assigned elements.
The Network Browser has been enhanced to simplify visualizing master resources in networks.
Illustration: Network Browser with Master Resource Display
To administer and edit master resources, the network browser has two display modes:
The list at the top displays element types and elements with master resources. If you select an element, PSS SINCAL displays the assigned master resources in the list at the bottom.
The list at the top displays all the master resources according to category. If you select a master resource, PSS SINCAL displays the network elements assigned to it in the list at the bottom.
Graphical Link Object
Click a graphical link object in the network diagram to switch ON a different view and display a specific part of the screen. This function is basically the same as a hyperlink in a Web browser. These kinds of functions are mainly useful in complex networks that have multiple views, e.g.
overviews and detailed views of substations.
Graphical link objects are based on a graphic object that is already available: the frame. The pop-up
menu of the frame object switches ON the Update link data
Illustration: Graphical Link Object
A dialog box opens with the available views and the assigned positions. Simply select a view of one of these positions. Then double-click on the frame object in the network diagram to open the view
and go to the corresponding zoom position.
The algorithms of the Newton Raphson load flow calculations have been optimized. On the one hand, we were able to increase the calculation speed (now 10% to 20% faster). At the same time,
however, we were to improve the convergence behavior in difficult networks.
PSS SINCAL has enhanced the way you control the regulations for load flow calculations. Up to now,
controllers for transformers, shunt elements and generators could only be switched ON or OFF for
load-curve calculations. Now you can also do this in all the simulation procedures. The Load Flow
tab in the Calculation Settings
dialog box is used to set the parameters. There is even a new option
to switch controlling for zone exchange power ON or OFF.
Smart Load Flow
Smart load flow has been available since PSS SINCAL 7.5. This allows you to use the product for Smart Grid calculations. The important thing here is to connect current measured values to the network model. In planning calculations, the network model is adapted to real conditions by trimming with factors, considering simultaneity, using load curves, or by a combination all this methods. In calculations with measured values, however measured consumption should be used as a basis for the calculations. In the ideal case, timely plant management calculations can be done with this. These results let you become active in the network operation so you use energy and existing resources more efficiently. Of course, they also help you to recognize problem situations before they
become serious, and eliminate them if possible.
The following illustration shows the basic architecture used to dynamically supply data for the
calculation methods with the Smart-LF interface.
Demand data using
the interface to
Start the simulation
Load the network from network
Illustration: PSS SINCAL Simulation's dynamic data supply
This illustration shows the functions basically work. PSS SINCAL starts the simulation to solve the load flow problem for a specific time t1 (1). The simulation loads the entire network with all input data from the PSS SINCAL database (2). The network is analyzed and completely set up. Then a defined COM interface sends off a query to get the current network state for the time t1 (3). All the network
element UUIDs that need to be supplied with measured values are transferred to the COM interface. Normally there are only a few thousand consumers in the current network model. Finally, the data query is forwarded to the metering system (4), or the corresponding RDBMS server, and then the stored measured values are delivered for the time t1. These data return to the simulation via the COM interface and are assigned to the respective network elements. Then the actual calculations
Smart Load Flow interfaces are primarily intended for use in symmetrical networks. Their use in unbalanced networks was, of course, also possible, but a bit complicated, since you needed to create an individual consumer in PSS SINCAL (for each phase) for each unbalanced measured value. This meant that larger networks needed to have a large number of network elements. Coupling to the actual data from the meters was also difficult, since this meant PSS SINCAL had to
assign three different consumers to each measuring device.
To simplify the way unbalanced network elements are connected in Smart Load Flow, the COM APIs have been enhanced. Now, for loads, either the phase values P1, P2, P3, P12, P23, P31 or Q1, Q2,
Q3, Q12, Q23, Q31 can be transferred with the APIs.
In modern network concepts, more and more elements for short and long-term energy storage have been implemented. To simulate these types of networks in PSS SINCAL, basic functions for
simulating energy storage devices have been implemented in the new PSS SINCAL version.
Energy storage can either be assigned to a synchronous machine or a DC-infeeder. This completely
changes how these elements operate, since they then function as energy storage devices.
Illustration: Synchronous Machine with Energy Storage
The Type of Storage
field documents the type of storage and is only for documentation.
designates the current energy storage level.
The fields for Maximal Storage
and Minimal Storage
define the storage capacity. The minimum
value is the level that can never be undercut.
and Efficiency Out
can be used to define two different degrees of efficiency for
loading energy to the storage and removing energy from the storage.
Loading and unloading energy storage is only considered in load profile calculations. Load profile calculations are a geo-stationary simulation of the network over a predefined observation period. The
powers of consumers and infeeders vary depending on what profiles are assigned.
EST2 – Pumped storage
EST1 – Battery
Lithium ion battery
Illustration: Sample network with energy storage devices
The illustration above shows a simple network with decentralized infeeders and two energy storage
This is an energy storage device assigned to a synchronous machine. This is an easy way to simulate pumped storage, for example.
This is an energy storage device assigned to a DC element that could be used to recreate a modern energy storage device based on lithium ion batteries with an inverter.
What power is supplied or removed from the storage device depends on the current network state. If the network has too much power, the energy storage is filled. If, on the other hand, the network does
not have enough power, the energy storage is emptied. The network element assigned to the energy storage (synchronous machine or DC-infeeder) adds or removes the power. The network element's basic data are used to determine the maximum power that is currently possible. The energy storage device determines how much energy is stored. Because of the time sequence for geo-stationary
simulation, power and time are used to calculate how much energy the storage device has.
Enhanced Protection Documentation
In PSS SINCAL 8.0, protection documentation has been reorganized. The aim was to make
protection device documentation that is much easier for the user to work with.
Based on the user's return messages in everyday use, the documentation functions have been
Optional Generation of Network Diagram View
This lets you generate your own network diagram view with grading. This function was already available in older PSS SINCAL versions, but we removed them in Version 8.0, since this made it
impossible to document comprehensive networks with several thousand protection devices.
Many users, however, want to use protection documentation for small networks with only a few
protection devices and would prefer to be free to model the protection documentation in their own
network diagram view. For this reason, this function has been included once again.
A new option in the dialog box for protection documentation settings defines how the network
diagram view is generated.
Illustration: Create Protection Documentation dialog box
option lets you select between Create diagram page
and Create view
. Create view
generates a new network diagram view with selected grading. This adds the legends for protection
device settings to the view and positions the appropriate It diagram in the view.
New Options in Diagram View
The most important function of protection documentation is, of course, still the display in Diagram
The main improvement was adjusting the network diagram display. PSS SINCAL's auto-layout function generates the network diagram in the Diagram View. This network diagram cannot be edited. To simplify how you display the network diagram, the control settings you need are in the Format dialog box in Diagram View. This can be used to enter settings for terminal distances, colors,
symbol sizes, etc., for network elements.
Illustration: New Format dialog box in Diagram View
Freely Positioning Protection Devices and Protection Device Legends
In Diagram View, protection devices can now be selected and moved at the network element terminal. The layout can be customized manually, if more than one protection device is located at the same terminal. Now you can double-click on protection devices to display their input data. This is an
easy way to modify settings directly in the network diagram.
Illustration: New protection documentation in Diagram View
Now the legends for protection device settings can also be positioned. By default, legends are positioned relative to protection device positions, but they can then be placed manually anywhere you want. These new positions are stored in the diagram page (always relative to the center of the
protection device) and even remain there when the layout is modified.
Now network element coloring can be synchronized to the diagram. This makes it much easier to assign the characteristics in the diagram to different equipment. When you change colors or line
styles in the diagram, PSS SINCAL automatically updates these changes in the network diagram.
Enhanced Capacitor Placement
The optimization procedure for capacitor placement has been comprehensively reworked. The
following optimization variants are now available:
Optimized Placement of Available Capacitors Optimized Placement of Capacitors Placement of Available Capacitors Placement of Available Capacitors (Extended)
The aim of this optimization procedure is to reduce transmission losses by adding capacitors. PSS SINCAL estimates the costs for the capacitors and the expected savings from reducing
transmission losses. Based on costs and savings the "Return on Investment" can be determined.
Optimized Placement of Available Capacitors
This is the algorithm that normally delivers the best optimization results using predefined capacitors.
The available capacitors as well as the nodes where these can be placed need to be defined. The capacitor placement optimization procedure then attempts to place available capacitors at those
nodes where they will produce the least possible network losses.
The sequence diagram below shows how the optimization method works:
Unload and check all network data
Calculate load flow of the complete network,
determine losses and necessary compensation
Place capacitors at all nodes requiring compensation
Calculate load flow, determine losses and
Place or remove capacitor
Illustration: Sequence diagram
At the end of the calculations, loss reduction and the costs are determined.
The difference in loss compared to the original network is the loss reduction:
The acquisition cost is the total outlay for all the installed capacitors:
The annual savings can be determined from the reduced active losses:
dP Energy cos ts / kWh 8760
The annual savings is used to determine the number of years required for return on investment:
Optimized Placement of Capacitors
This optimization procedure works the same as Optimized Placement of Available Capacitors
with one difference: the available capacitors are not considered. Instead, power capacitors with
appropriate power are assigned to the nodes requiring compensation. This determines the
compensation power for the selected node.
Placement of Available Capacitors
This optimization procedure is based on a simple combinatorial approach. An attempt is made to place already available capacitors so that they reduce losses in the network.
The sequence diagram below shows how the optimization method works:
Unload and check all network data
Calculate load flow of entire network and determine losses
Select largest available capacitor
Select available insert node
Calculate load flow and determine losses
If there is a reduction in loss and this is within
the limits, note where inserted position
Are additional insert
Install capacitor at best insert node
Are additional capacitors
Illustration: Sequence diagram
Because of the combinatorial basis used, this method can attain the "best possible" results. But if there are a lot of capacitors and there is a large pre-selection of different nodes, it can take an
extremely long time to do the calculations.
Placement of Available Capacitors (Extended)
This algorithm is essentially the same as for the Placement of Available Capacitors
, but with a
small difference. Before the actual combinatorics, a check is made to determine which of the
selected nodes require any compensation at all. Only these nodes are then considered.
Enhanced Functions for Dynamics
PSS SINCAL Dynamics Calculations have a new calculation core integrated directly in the simulation module. The new calculation core for dynamics is a "slim" module based on PSS NETOMAC. This new calculation core is also used in the new PSS NETOMAC user interface. The new core of the
calculations improves performance (now 30 % to 50 % faster) and the quality of the error output.
Signal Output as a Space Vector at EMT
In EMT simulation, there can now be three different kinds of output for currents and voltages:
The output is the signal's instantaneous value.
The output is a root mean square. This creates mean values for half a cycle (10 ms at 50 Hz or 8.333 ms at 60 Hz).
The signal output is done by a space vector that is available in the simulation.
Parameters for the signal output can be set in the Plot Definition for Dynamics
Illustration: Dialog box for Plot Definition for Dynamics
GNE-V BOSL Model in PSS SINCAL Load Flow
The GNE-V BOSL model is used to model the dynamic behavior of a three-phase voltage source.
This new GNE-V BOSL model can be used at infeeders and synchronous machines. The operating
state model type determines how this model is used.
Illustration: Synchronous Machine data screen form with the data for Dynamics
If you assign a GNE-V model, however, you need to match the operating point of the network element to the model. This means you need to use "voltage and angle" as the load flow type. If this is
not done, PSS SINCAL displays an error message.
New Controllers for Synchronous Machines
In PSS SINCAL, many different kinds of controllers can be attached to synchronous machines – from speed controllers to stabilizer models. When you want to simulate dynamics, however, two additional
controllers are often still required:
COMP Turbine Load Controller
Both these new controllers can be assigned to synchronous machines and used in the dynamics
Modified Diagram Connection
Up to now, the diagrams in Stability Simulation and EMT Simulation were prepared separately. This is not very practical if you want to make a simplified analysis of the same network with Stability Simulation and then another one in greater detail with Dynamics Simulation. All the diagrams have to
be defined twice. Now there is a new option for using shared diagrams for both these simulation procedures. Depending on what is simulated in the diagrams, PSS SINCAL either displays the
signals for Stability Simulation or those for EMT Simulation.
The new display can even be switched ON for individual networks. The Options dialog box in the Document Settings
tab switches this function ON.
CIM 15 Import/Export
CIM Import/Export in PSS SINCAL has been improved once more. Now the CIM Format 15 with the
ENTSO-E Profile is supported.
A special new feature in CIM Format 15 is that graphic network data export has been included in the
Standard version. This makes it much easier to exchange networks between different programs.
CIM 15 Standard now also contains dynamics data for machines and controllers. These can either be predefined controller classes or freely defined model blocks. Both machine data and predefined
controllers can be processed. At this time, however, there is no way to process free model blocks.
Cymdist 5.0 Import/Export
SINCAL 8.5 has importing and exporting functions for Cymdist 5.0 ASCII data-exchange format.
These new import and export functions can be used both for network data and graphic data. Cymdist's and PSS SINCAL's network models are, however, very different. Not all the data in the Cymdist files can be used in PSS SINCAL. Now, when you import, PSS SINCAL only actually processes the basic network data, i.e. the network elements with their topological and electrical data. At the present time, protection devices, harmonic filters and other add elements such as, for
example, FailureEvents are not included.
The Cymdist elements that can currently be processed are listed below:
o Line o Shielded Cable o Unshielded Cable o Line Unbalanced o Generator o Motor o Breaker o Switch o Transformer o Series Capacitor o Series Reactor o Shunt Capacitor o Shunt Reactor
o Source o Node o Node Connector o Line Configuration o Generator Setting o Transformer Setting o Switch Setting o Breaker Setting
o Motor Setting o Series Capacitor Setting o Series Reactor Setting o Shunt Capacitor Setting o Shunt Reactor Setting
o Allocated Load o Unallocated Load
PSS NETOMAC Beta
PSS SINCAL 8.5 also has a "pre-release version" of the new PSS NETOMAC User Interface that is
intended to replace the old version in the medium term.
The actual release is planned for PSS SINCAL 9.0 in October 2012, but the pre-release version
already exists for Load Flow and Dynamics.
PSS NETOMAC has basically been designed for users that need very flexible network modeling, something that is impossible with PSS SINCAL. This system is much more complicated to use than PSS SINCAL. Modeling networks with PSS NETOMAC is, in fact, very similar to programming. Instead of writing a program, PSS NETOMAC models the network and the equipment in structured ASCII files, defines the corresponding malfunctions and network changes and programs the
controlling elements (directly with FORTAN or with BOSL).
PSS NETOMAC's new graphic user interface is similar to a modern software development environment. The networks being inspected are structured as projects. In these projects, both the
input data and the results are administered.
Illustration: New PSS NETOMAC User Interface
The new user interface has a specially optimized text editor to work with PSS NETOMAC files. When the message system was implemented, a lot of attention was given to make it easy to identify and locate input errors and modeling problems.
The functions for evaluating simulation results are, of course, also directly integrated in the user interface. The load flow results (and input data) can be displayed in Tabular View. This makes it easy to visualize the new flexible .xres results files (XML format) and access the appropriate evaluation
Illustration: Displaying input data and results
To display signals in EMT or Stability Simulation, of course PSS NETOMAC also has an integrated
Illustration: Diagram system in PSS NETOMAC
PSS NETOMAC's diagram system is very similar to that of PSS SINCAL, but PSS NETOMAC's
version is more flexible for data connection. Using Drag & Drop, you can pull signals that are displayed in the Signal Explorer directly into the diagram. If you want you can assign a projection formula to each signal that is used to display and convert the signals. This is used to convert the
signal values anyway you want before actually displaying them.
Doro PhoneEasy® 624 15. Charging socket 16. Headset socket 17. Assistance button Left selection button 20. External display Input method/Silent 22. Green light = New message 10. Message shortcut 23. Red light = Battery level low 11. Volume control 24. Charging stand 12. End call/Power on/off 14. Right selection button The items supplied with your phone might vary depending on the soft-ware and accessories available in your region or offered by your serviceprovider. You can obtain additional accessories from your local Doro deal-er. The supplied accessories provide the best performance with yourphone.
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Mitochondrion 7 (2007) 359–366 G. Cannino, C.M. Di Liegro, A.M. Rinaldi * Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare e dello Sviluppo ‘‘A.Monroy'', University of Palermo, Italy Received 3 April 2007; received in revised form 24 July 2007; accepted 24 July 2007 Available online 2 August 2007 The biogenesis of mitochondria depends on the coordinated expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Consequently, the