Unit five puberty [compatibility mode]
This unit addresses the physical changes that occur
for boys and girls during puberty, the reproductive
anatomy of males and females, and the ins and outs
of what happens during menstruation and spermatogenesis.
PUBERTY WITH SAM AND SALLY
HiTOPS, Inc./Princeton Center for
Activities help students to learn that there is a wide
range of "normal" in each change of puberty.
MENSTRUATION: HOW DOES IT WORK?
This unit lays the foundation for future units (e.g.,
SPERMATOGENESIS: HOW DOES IT
birth control methods, HIV prevention, STI prevention, etc.) and will prepare students to
conduct the "Puberty Education: When It's Time to Change" workshop with younger audiences.
A pre-test helps students focus on the
subject and appreciate what they need to learn
Students fill out pre-tests and put aside
to correct and discuss at the end of puberty instruction.
Young women should
Exercise helps to reduce
avoid heat and swimming
unpleasant symptoms of
and reduce the amount
affects a woman's
menstruation for some
that they exercise during
ability to think.
Exercise is especially helpful in
Menstruating women may exercise or swim or heat
up as much as they choose.
A girl can get pregnant
during one's period) is related to
if she has sex during
A girl can figure out an
prostaglandin release and can
absolutely safe time
be relieved by medication.
between periods when she
can not get pregnant.
Suppose a girl's period lasts 7 days
and she has sex at the end of her
Advil or Motrin are anti-prostaglandin medication
period. The sperm can live for 7 days,
and are very useful in relieving cramps.
which means sperm could be present
A girl should never assume she is "safe."
at ovulation on day 14.
Ovulation can be unpredictable and some
women bleed lightly with ovulation.
The average menstrual
3-5 eggs are released
The endometrium or lining
cycle lasts 28 days with
each month in ovulation.
of the uterus is reabsorbed
ovulation occurring on
if a woman does not
One egg is usually released each month.
Occasionally, more than one egg may be
Ovulation occurs on day 14 of a 28 day average cycle.
released, resulting in twins or triplets.
The endometrium or lining of the uterus is shed as
(Day one is the first day of menstruation, so ovulation
menstrual fluid if the woman does not become
is in the middle.)
If a teenage girl has
A girl cannot use a
Girls can wash their hair,
irregular periods, she
tampon if she is a
but shouldn't get a perm,
when they have their
With practice, anyone can use a tampon. It
Irregular periods can be normal for
will not affect virginity.
The male hormone
Boys can tell when a
which causes puberty
girl is having her
changes in males is
The male hormone is called testosterone.
Sperm are made in
The epididymis is
times a day will cause
Sperm are made in the testicles.
Masturbation does not cause physical or psychological
damage. However, anything that interferes with daily
living can become a problem.
The tubule inside the
Fresh sperm is made
The maturation of sperm
testes, if stretched end-
every 24 hours in the
in the epididymis takes
to-end, would be the
about 4-6 weeks.
length of a yard stick.
It would be the length of a football field.
If you masturbate before
The testicles are
The amount of semen
having sex with a
positioned outside the
female, then she won't
body because sperm
ejaculation is about 1/8 of
will not be produced at
Masturbation before sex will decrease sperm
The amount of semen in one ejaculate is
count but does not ensure that a female will
about one teaspoon.
not get pregnant.
The sperm are mixed with
Having sex in a hot tub
There are about 100
fluids from the seminal
will decrease the risk
million sperm in each
vesicles, prostate and the
of pregnancy due to
bladder before passing out
heating of the testicles.
of the penis.
There are about 300-500 million sperm
Keeping the testicles too warm will decrease
in one ejaculate.
current sperm production, not sperm that is ready
Semen is not mixed with urine.
Look at The Female Reproductive System diagram and identify each body part in the drawing and read the name
How Does it Work?
and function from the definitions.
It is important to know proper names for
anatomical parts so that peer educators can talk about puberty in a professional manner.
It is necessary to understand menstruation
in order to understand how contraceptive methods work.
Typically only one egg will come to full maturity and be released
Average menstrual cycle is 28 days long.
out of the ovary on day 14.
It can be shorter than 28 days, some longer and
The egg then travels down the fallopian tube, where tiny hairs
called cilia move the egg along the tube into the uterus.
some are irregular, meaning they vary from month to month.
By this time the uterus has built up a nice spongy lining, called the
endometrium, that is ready for a fertilized egg which will turn into a
In an average 28 day cycle…
baby in 9 months.
If the egg is not fertilized, it disintegrates and is shed with the
1st day of the menstrual period is considered day 1,
endometrium – the menstrual period.
with ovulation halfway through on day 14.
This whole process repeats…
Then the period begins after another 14 days,
making a 28 day cycle.
This happens over and over again every month from puberty until
menopause, when the ovaries stop functioning between the ages
During the first half of the cycle from days 1-14 the
of 45 and 55.
eggs are ripening in the ovary.
Pregnancy & Conception…
If a woman has sexual intercourse and does not use a reliable
Usually, only one will penetrate the outer shell of the
form of birth control, pregnancy can occur.
egg and fertilization occurs.
The Sperm's journey
The fertilized egg travels though the tube and
Semen containing sperm is deposited in the vagina.
implants in the endometrium, where the fetus grows.
The sperm travel through the cervix, into the uterus and out the
Twins --- occur in two ways.
Many do not survive this long hazardous journey.
Fraternal twins -Two eggs get fertilized by two
Some go up the wrong tube, since a woman usually
alternates which tube she ovulates from each month.
Identical - One egg is fertilized by
Even though there are 300-500 million sperm in
one sperm and the fertilized egg
one ejaculate, only about 50 get to the egg.
splits in two
How Does it Work?
Look at the Male
It is important to know proper names for
anatomical parts, so that peer educators can
diagram and identify
talk about puberty in a professional manner.
each body part on the diagram and read
It is also necessary to understand
spermatogenesis to be knowledgeable about
how contraceptive methods work.
The Male Reproductive
Ejaculation & Ejaculate
Just prior to ejaculation, the sperm mix with semen or
The testicles are located within the scrotum.
seminal fluid made in the seminal vesicle and
The scrotum's function is to keep the testicles at the
correct temperature for sperm production.
Seminal fluid provides energy for the sperm to travel.
Sperm production starts during puberty and continue
for the rest of their lives.
At the point of ejaculation, a valve shuts off the
urethra, so that urine cannot be discharged with the
Sperm collect in the epididymis where they are
matured for 4-6 weeks.
Semen is released and travels down the urethra and
When mature they travel out of the scrotal sac and up
out of the head of the penis.
the vas deferens - two 14-inch long tubes - and are
stored in the ampula until ejaculation.
Ejaculate is about 1 teaspoon of fluid, 9/10 of which is
semen and the other tenth is sperm.
How many does it
in one ejaculate?
How much fluid is in
How long can sperm
If you stretched the
live in the female
tubules in the testicle end
to end, how long would it be?
The length of a football field
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