Sri shankaracharya sadhana panchakam
SHARP AS EDGE OF A RAZOR,
AND DIFFICULT TO TREAD
IS THE PATH TO PERFECTION.
SO THE SAGES DECLARE.
Narrow and ancient is the Path,
that stretches far.
That has been found by me,
has been realised by the Wise.
The Knowers of Brahman traverse afar
to go to the heavenly world, after their bodies here fall.
On that Path, they say, there is
white, blue, yellow, green and red.
That Path has been found by Knowers of Brahman.
By that Path go the seekers of Brahman,
The auspicious and the luminous.
While we are here we may know,
if not, being ignorant, great is the destruction.
Those who know this become immortal,
While others go only to sorrows.
They who know life of the life, eye of the eye,
ear of the ear and mind of the mind,
they have realized the ancient primordial Brahman.
May this life enter the immortal Breath,
then may this body here end in ashes.
O Intelligence, remember, remember what is done,
Remember, O Intelligence, what has been don
NADESH D. SONDE 318, Raheja Crest – 3,
Link Road, AndheroWst,
New Age Printing Press
Sayani Road, Mumbao 400 025
More than twenty years have passed since the author came
across Sadhana Panchakam, containing the instructions which Sri Shankara had prescribed for new seekers inclined to traverse the Path to Perfection. Captivated by the simplicity of the style and lucidity of thoughts, the instructions were adopted as the first steps on his journey. They clarified many truths contained in scriptures, primarily the Rigveda, Upanishads, Itihas and some puranas. The notes taken on studying Shankara's commentaries on Upanishads and other hymns fortified the search further.
The present book is the result of those notes. It is hoped
that the attempt would be useful for other seekers as well, as it did help him, whereupon the purpose will be served.
Philosophy is the love for Wisdom, which
begins when mind doubts the insufficiency of
Knowledge which it has gathered through the
sensory organs and proceeds to inquire about things
which are beyond the sensory perception. The Path
to Perfection is said to be sharp as edge of a razor,
hard to cross and difficult to tread - 'xaUrsya Qaara inaiSata
dur%yayaa dugMa- pqast%kvayaao vadint ' (Kath Up.(I.iii.15). Brihad
Aranyaka Up. (IV.iv.9) says that on that Path there
are obstacles - ‘tismaHCuu@lamaut naIlamaahu: ip=galaM hirtM laaoihtM ca eYa
pnqaa ba *maNaa hnauiva<a: tonaOit ba *maiva%puNyakR<aOjasaSca '. In that
process, therefore, one has to climb step by step,
pdaina and stage by stage Qaamaaina towards to reach the
final abiding place, prma pd, making his vision
becomes broader and understanding deeper, the
divine powers presiding over the sensory organs
assuming the role of luminous gods with illumined
wisdom and energetic powers guiding and inspiring
the seekers on that Path to Perfection
The journey becomes difficult especially
when one observes that the primordial world as nothing but the projection of an unending stream of thoughts of what one experiences through sensory influences. Even at the end of one's sadhana if one becomes enlightened, the experiencer finds it impossible to express completely, wholly and on entirety the experience in human speech, constrained as it is by the words which are required to give expression to the experience it being declared 'yatao vaacaao inavat-nto Ap aPya manasaa sah'.
Sadhana is a conscious performance of
disciplined actions in furthering one's journey on the Path to Perfection understanding the seer's experiences and through that awareness be conscious of the essence behind the words, symbols and legends which they used to express their experiences of that Supreme Essence, sa%ya or the Prime Existence, knowing well that their experience cannot be translated and transferred in equal measure and fullness of the effulgence to them, by whatever name they may call That One, without preferring some words, symbols and legends one
and rejecting others, but in absolutely receptive, reflective and meditative form of mind to the resonance of the primal word !, surrendering one's Mind without being conditioned by one's own experiences, thoughts, ideas, concepts and symbols. Each experience will be reflected and meditated no on the basis which of the seers speaks reality of the Supreme Essence, sa%ya or the Prime Existence, but how they have expressed their experiences in language in which they were familiar.
Sadhana is not being loyal to a faith, a
belief, a method or a Path or to a Teacher, an institution with rules and regulations or rites and ritual laid down and prescribed. Sadhana is independent of all these constraints, attuning one's self to one's own course, though not within any frame work but being free of all restraining influences, restraining the five senses together with the mind, and intellect too not stirring, as Ktha Up. (II.3.ii) declares. When empirical experiences are flushed out from the Mind, only then is the seeker is unburdened from the memories of the past or by the expectations of the future. Shankara says in Vivekachudamani, ‘na yaaogaona na saaM#yaona kma-Naa nao na ivaVyaa
ba *maa%maOkbaaoQaona maaoxa: isaw yait naanyaqaa ' – Neither by Yoga nor by Sankhya, neither by performance of actions or by Knowledge but through Wisdom of the harmony between Brahman, the universal Self and the individual self alone is deliverance is established, not otherwise.
Shankaracharya's saaQanaa pHcakma is likened to an
Inclined Ladder because Sadhana is a constant and continuous endeavour to ascend, an ]pasana , disciplined awareness with which one climbs step by step, even as one becomes aware of the obstacles and impediments, sensory attractions and allurements cropping on the wayside, treading the Path carefully and climbing the ladder cautiously, the dark night recedes slowly and surely even as the Sun dawns on the horizon unfailingly and assuredly. In awareness there is nothing to prefer, choose or select as good or bad, as pleasant and unpleasant, as beauty or ugly, as noble or ignoble, as auspicious or inauspicious. Awareness is being with one's own self within, as one great concentric psychological effulgence of divine essence as well as spiritual energy for regeneration. Shankara, therefore, defines ]pasanaa as ‘]pasanaM naama yaqaaSaas M ]pasyaaqa-sya ivaYayaIkrNaona
saamaIPyamaupgamya tOlaQaaravat samaanap %yayap vaahoNa dIGa-kalaM yadasanama ' – upasana is that science by which an object is approached by visualizing, dwelling on it for long period of time, as one continuous uninterrupted flow of oil. On this Path the saadhaka rejects intellectual stagnation and strengthens his resolve to travel, every faltering step on the Path to Perfection encouraging him to improve his subsequent strides. Krishna assures in Gita that on this Path, no effort is ever lost and no obstacles ever prevail; even a little of this righteousness saves one from fear - ‘naohaiBak manaaSaao ist p %yavaayaao na ivaVto svalpmasya Qama-sya ayato mahtao Bayaat '.
Sadhana is gradual enfoldment of Reality to
human Mind slowly and cautiously, rising above the physical, to the subtle, to the mental, to the psychological level with increasing clarity of the contours as one reaches the peak, till perspective itself becomes luminous, and the seer, the act of seeing and the things seen become one. Enslaved in the dark and desolate caves and finding comfortable in the obscurity of darkness and ignorance, frightened of the shadows that fall on the walls people are afraid to come out in the open to face the
fresh breeze, let alone dare to perceive the luminous light or bask in its warmth. Sadhaka is one who ventures and dares to take a peek outside the cave and though efforts, which may often time fail, rises up from where he has fallen to stride outside with assured steps, making himself bold to bathe in the luminous light.
What Mysticism conceals what awareness
reveals is the Wisdom, which is neither mine nor yours but which belongs to every one, universal in essence and deeper and wider in forms. The experience attunes the infinite values to the finite world, bringing back the overtly divisive world to the stability of firm foundations. On such trail, Sadhaka's purpose would be purity of heart, clarity of mind and harmony of his vision, progressing from the obscurity and impermanence of non-Existence to clarity of the real, eternal of the Prime Existence, from the darkness to light and from death to immortality - ‘Asatao maa sad gamaya tmasaao maa jyaaoitga-maya maR%yaaoma -maR%yauga-maya ', unfolding glory of the divine, dimly and haltingly in the beginning, brightly and bursting out resplendence in the end. Such an approach from the finite to the infinite needs complete cessation of the
impermanent empirical influences on mind, without affecting and interfering the performance of daily actions. Wisdom imposes nothing on Mind but opens its closed quarters to be receptive and receive every sight, sound and breath that life offers in variety and in abundance.
Sadhana Panchakam is testimony and
testament of the one who has traversed the Path to Perfection and experienced enlightenment. The Teacher knows and the student should also know that ‘sharp as the edge of a razor and hard to cross, difficult to tread is that Path' therefore, halfhearted attempts would not be encouraged, the supreme Prime Existence, stern Cosmic Law, consecration, austerity, penance and sacrifice alone uphold the worlds - 'sa%yaM baRhd ?tM ]ga M dIxa tpao ba *ma ya&: pRiqavaIM Qaaryaint '. While feeble persons can not face the perils on the Path, contemptible ones who take comfort in sensual pleasures and superstitious beliefs would be not qualified. The one who undertakes sadhana has to be sincere and confident of his resolve and determined in his purpose, without having to accept, at the same time, anything as whole truth or wholly untruth. He has to be cautious of words spoken
because even best or the most sensitive of the Teachers have found it difficult to be fully receptive to what the seers have to communicate. Taiitiriya Up enjoins one 'sa%yaM vad QamMa- car svaaQyaayaanmaa p mad: sa%yaanna p maidtvyama Qamaa-n a p maidtvyama kuSalaanna p maidvyatma BaR%yaO p maidtvyama .yaannyanavVaaina kmaa-iNa taina saoivatvyaaina naao [traiNa yaanmasmaak M saucairtaina taina %vayaaopasyaaina naao [traiNa '. The sadhaka has to accept the sincerity of the Teachers with diligence and be assured of their words as their personal experience, neither awed or frightened of their hallowed presence nor skeptical of their enlightened experience. Religion becomes real only when one accepts diversity in perceptions since any thing like total expression of experiences and unrestrained belief or misplaced devotion to the Teacher, takes away something of the Teachings.
The present study and reflection on
Shankara's instructions contained in Sadhana Panchakam is one such small but significant attempt to understand the steps to reach out to ba *malaaok:, which is the highest goal - prmaa gait:, the highest treasure - prmaa saMpt , the highest world - prmaao laaok:, the greatest bliss - prma AanMad:, on a particle of which bliss other creatures live – ‘etsyaOvaanandsyaanyaaina
BaUtaina maa amaupjaIvaint' (Brihad AranyakaUp.IV.iii.32). Shankara is jagad gauru - universal Teacher, par excellence highly analytical in Mind and rational in interpretation of the scriptures. As a Teacher, he gave as much importance to man's inherent attributes (gauNa), natural inclination (svaBaava) and kma- (performance of actions) in the finite empirical life as he gave primacy to the spiritual essence within, the potential to becomes potent, nothing in life being un-important or irrelevant, something personal or public, esoteric or exoteric everything being the entirety of comprehensive Wisdom, every thing and every thought co-existing and finding a balance with others in universe.
No one could be true to his calling as a
Teacher, if he insists the seekers to be his followers without encouraging them to be seekers of the Prime Existence. A Teacher as an artist, a poet, a man of letters is not satisfied with communicating only his experiences and his own creative impulse but also in initiating the required discipline, making himself a conduit a sense of inquiry to ignite the imagination. While alive he observes majority of his disciples following him rather than his teachings, he
disapproves and dissuades from their wayward enterprise. But it is a tragedy that when he departs from his gross body, he ends up being an icon, his teachings ceasing to be pointers or as raft that leads to the Supreme Self, but transformed as structured philosophy, to be followed rather than to be experienced.
The author does not claim competent to
offer a commentary on the series of instructions given by so competent and enlightened luminaries like Shankara. But even as the Author climbs up, not knowing on which step he presently is, he offers only the material which he has gathered from the scriptures and words of wise men hoping that they may help others as they seem to be help him on the spiritual Path to Perfection.
vaodao ina%yamaQaIyataM tduidtM kma- svanauYzIyatama
tonaoSasya ivaQaIyataM Apicait: kamyao maits%yajyatama
papaOGa: pirQaUyataM BavasauKo daoYaao AnausaMQaIyatama
Aa%maocCa vyavasaIytaM inajagaRhaaUNMa- ivainaga-myatama 1
Veda should always be assiduously reflected.
Actions in furtherance of that Wisdom should be
pursued. By those actions, (That Prime Existence)
should be propitiated. Desires should be
disengaged from Mind. The stream of de-merits
should be cleansed. Imperfection in temporal
pleasures should be identified. Desire for one's Self
should be properly organized. One should return
again to one's own true abiding place.
Veda should always be assiduously reflected.
Veda is comprehensive Wisdom and not
aggregate of words, therefore, one will not be enlightened
by acquiring Knowledge about
Brahman unless one is wise in Wisdom of Brahman. When some one asked a Zen master to speak about the First Principle, he was told the moment the Master speaks it would turn out to be the Second Principle, speech returning without attaining it, or at best the words spoken being more like the echo of the sound and not the Eternal Sound. It would be like the things seen in a mirror and not what is seen in reality.
Mundaka Up. refers Rig, Sama, Yajur and
Atharva vedic and eight subsidiary scriptures as &ana, inferior Knowledge and awareness of That Immutable One alone as iva&ana, superior Wisdom. Shivasvarodaya, therefore, declares that vedic scripture is not to be referred as Veda because there is no Veda in vedic scriptures, that alone being Veda by which one becomes aware of the supreme Self. Shankara says that the scriptures is the basis for meditation, Wisdom (iva&ana) being the supreme goal. Wisdom is being wise in wisdom contained in
scriptures; Knowledge is being proficient in various avenues to Wisdom.
The fundamental distinction between
Knowledge and Wisdom was brought by sage Sanatsujati when he spoke to Dhritarashtra. Veda is the supra-sensory experience of Brahman which seers of the ancient era revealed in hymns. If one does not understand the essence of the Brahman from those hymns, then such one cannot be said to be truly a man of Wisdom – ‘CMdaMisa naama xai ya tanyaqavaa- pura jagaaO mahiYa-sa= Ga eYa: CMdaoivadsto ya ]t naaQaItvaoda na vaodvaoVsya ivaduih- t%vama '. The one who knows only the words of the vedic scriptures will not be enlightened of the mystery of supreme Self. Only he who is established in the Prime existence, he alone called enlightened to the First Principle because no one can access the Vedas or Brahman through the instruments of perception. The knower of vedic scriptures neither knows the mystery nor the Vedas. – ‘na vaodanaaM vaoidta kiSacadist kiScat %vaotana bauQyato vaaip rajana yaao vaod vaodana na sa vaod vaoVM sa%yao isqatao yastu sa vaod vaoVma na vaodanaaM vaoidta kiScadist vaoVona vaodM na ivaduna- vaoVma yaao vaod vaodM sa ca vaod vaoVM yaao vaod vaoVM na sa vaod sa%yama yaao vaod vaodana sa ca vaod vaoVM na tM ivaduvao-divadao na vaoda: tqaaip vaodona ivadint vaodM yao ba a*maNaao vaodivadao Bavaint '.
Just as the moon is indicated by pointing
branch of the tree, even so Wisdom of the Vedas is revealed using vedic scripture as pointer ; thus do men of Wisdom declare. Only he who has experienced the mystery of Brahman can express that experience; he whose doubts are resolved and can destroy doubts in the minds of others. It is not necessary for one to go the east or west, south or the north in search of the Self for he can neither search Wisdom in any quarters nor in any directions but only through restraint of senses, ceasing thought and intellect. Therefore, one should devote intelligently to one's own self within. Not by restraint of speech or stay in forest does one become a Muni but only when enlightened to one's own Self within – ‘QaamaaMSaBaagasya tqaa ih vaoda yaqaa ca SaaKa ih mahIruhsya saMvaodnao caOva yaqaa manaint tismana ih sa%yao prmaa%manaao qao- AiBajaanaaima ba a*maNaM vyaa#yaatarM ivacaxaNama yaiSCn aivaicaik%sa: sa vyaacaYTo sava-saMSayaana naasya pyao-YaNaM gacCot p acaInaM naaot dixaNama naavaa-caInaM kutistya-= naaidSaM tu kqaHcana
tsya pyao-YaMNaM gacCot p %yaiqa-Yau kqaHcana AivaicanvaainnamaM vaodo tp: pSyait t M p Bauma tUYNaIMBaUt ]pasaIt na caoYTonmanasaaip ca ]pavat-sva td ba *ma Antra%maina ivaEautma maaOnaan a sa mauinaBa-vait naarNyavasanaanmauina: svalaxaNaM tu yaao vaod sa mauina: EaoYz ]cyato '.
Just as one who clarifies meaning of the
words is known as grammarian - vaOyaakrNa, the man
who clarifies meaning of the words is accordingly considered a supreme grammarian. One who observes worlds with clarity is called a seer, he who is established in Brahman alone is celebrated as wise in Wisdom of Brahman – ‘savaa-qaa-naaM vyakrNaad vaOyakrNa ]cyato tnmaUlatao vyaakrNaM vyaakraotIit tt tqaa p %yaxadSaI- laaokaanaaM sava-dSaI- Bavaon at: sa%yao vaO ba a*maNaistYzMstd ivaWana savaa-ivad Bavaot '. When a Zen Master was asked to speak about the First Principle, he replied the moment he speaks that would then be the Second Principle. It is said that when Bhalaki, an upanishadic teacher was asked to speak about Brahman, he kept silent. When the disciple repeated the question the seer said, I have been speaking but you do not understand. Brahman is Silence. It cannot be spoken. Taittiruya Up, declares Brahman is that from which words return not attaining it ‘yatao vaacaao inavat-nto Ap aPya manasaa sah'
Aharvavedic seer saw Veda as the aggregate
Wisdom of the world, lauding the earth that shelters people speaking varied languages, with various religious rites and rituals according to their place of living. He desired to be enriched with that splendour flowing in thousand streams like a milch-cow that never fails, seeking them to flow from
different quarters as noble thoughts,
comprehensive and perennial Wisdom, immutable and eternal in essence and universal in form. Veda is Wisdom, Brahman, the Prime Existence, which is behind and beyond the flux of the diverse mystical expressions communicated to the eligible and qualified disciples as Knowledge, the means to further awareness of Brahman.
Krishna communicated to Arjuna both
Knowledge and Wisdom – ‘&anaiva&anasaihtma ' using the former to attain the latter, which Katha Up. refers as shade and Light, to make the picture complete. Shankara describes vedic scriptures as the instruments for furnishing Knowledge of the spheres beyond one's senses and mind, being only informatory and not mandatory, clarifying what is desirable and what is not, establishing a relationship between the ends and the means to achieve them. Therefore he refers Veda as aggregation of Wisdom, 'vaodSabdona tu sava- SabdraiSaiva-vaixat: ' 'seen' by different seers of different periods and places including the - 'vaodSabdona tu sava- SabdraiSaiva-vaixat: ', including the rites and rituals for performance of sacrifices contained in Brahmanas,
the reflections and mediations
commended in Aranyakas and Upanishads, even the clarifications contained in eight auxiliary documents.
Shankara cautions that awareness of
Brahman referred as pra ivaVa, supreme Wisdom of the imperishable Brahman is not possible without communication from an enlightened Teacher, even if one has the Knowledge of the words contained in the vedic scriptures - 'SabdraSyaaiQagamao ip ya%anaantrmantroNa gauvaiBagamanaaidalaxaNaM vaOragyaM ca naaxariQagama: samBatIit pRqa@krNaM ba *maivaVaayaa: pra ivaVaoit '. Since Knowledge &ana is enveloped by ignorance, ]pasana should be like uninterrupted flow of oil through continuous and constant receptivity, reflection and meditation and not spasmodic, sporadic or intermittent. One should ensure that one's every action becomes tpsa - energized austerity of external body and internal consciousness, a ya& - performance of actions to keep in motion the wheel set by the Lord. iva&ana, on the other hand is ivaSaoYa &ana, extra-ordinary Wisdom sourced through supra-sensory medium ‘yaqaa ivaVu<a ' like a sudden flash of lightening, as Brihad Aranyak Up. puts it. Therefore, only ascetics who purify their thoughts through renunciation (of the fruits of action) and
ascertain well the meaning of the Vedanta and dwell in the world of Wisdom (Brahma) become liberated at the end of their time, says Mundaka Up. Shankara assures that temporal activities and rites rituals prescribed by vedic and other scriptures cease when Wisdom, dawns. Then the energized mind, drives out all obscurity from the mind - [nd vaQa-ntao APtur: kRNvamtao ivaSvaM Aaya-ma ApGnantao Arava:
The primary instruction – vaodao ina%yamaQaIyatama ,
commends not the Knowledge of the vedic scriptures but the comprehensive and all-inclusive Wisdom. AQaIyatama - not memorizing the words but being
consciously receptive, reflective and
meditative. If the purpose is well established in mind, the fulfillment
fulfilled. The mind having access to every noble thought coming from all quarters – ‘Aa naao Bad a: k tvaao yantu ivaSvat: ', one becomes comprehensively enlightened ‘as it were like lightening which flashes forth or the winking of the eye'.
By the Way:
There is a beautiful Sufi song which with
slight modification gives depth to what vaodao ina%yamaQaIyatama commends : Concealed is the Ocean It is only the waves that are visible, Concealed is the Wind, Dust is all that we see. Interpretation of a scripture is true, if it stirs your being, Your mind, your hopes, your action initiates awe. If it numbs your mind in submission, confuses your hope in despair, slackens you action and benumbs your law. Discard the interpretation for they ensnare you with thistles and thorns. Seek scriptures: Vedas, Bible and the Koran drinking from fountain, For they reveal the Truth exclusively to you, as no one else did earlier. On being created we were neither distinct nor separate. Creator and his creation was one and united. Then essence within the breast of the Creator stirred, that gave a form. Even as God said I am before the creation and Creation is verily I.
Aa naao Bad a: k tvaao yantu ivaSvat: (Rigveda.I.89.i)
Bad M kaNao-iBa: SaRNauyaama dovaa: Bad M pSyaomaaxaiBaya-ja a: isqarOr
gaOstuYTuvaaMsastnaUiBa: vyaSaoma dovaihtM yadayau: (Rigveda I.89.viii)
[nd M vaQa-ntao APtur: kRNvantao ivaSvaM Aaya-ma ApGnantao Arava:
ya&ona vaaca: pdvaIyamaana taM Anvaivandn aM ?iYaYau p ivaYTma taM AvaR%yaa
vyadQau: puru a taM saPt roBaa AiBa saM navanto (Rigveda,X.71.iii)
yaqaomaaM vaacaM klyaaNaIM Aavadaina janaoBya: ba *marajanyaaByaaM SaUd aya
caayaa-ya ca svaaya caarNaaya ca ' (Rigveda.26.XVIII)
janaM ibaBa it bahuQaa ivavaacasaM naana Qamaa-NaM pRiqavaI yaqaaOksama
sahsa Qaara d ivaNasya mao duhaM Qa uvaova Qaonaur Anausfurint
ABayaM ima ad ABayaM Aima ad ABayaM &atad ABayaM puraoya: ABayaM
na@tM ABayaM idvaa na: savaa- AaSaa mama ima M Bavantu
‘Wo ivaVo vaoidtvyao . pra caOvaapra ca. t apra ?gvaodao yajauvao-
d: saamavaodao qava-vaod: iSaxaa klpao vyaakrNaM inaru>M Cndao jyaaoitYaimait Aqa
pra yayaa tdxarmaiQagamyato (Mundaka Up. I.i.4-5).
‘vaodant iva&ana sauinaiScataqa-: saMnyaasa yaaogaat yatya: SauQdsa%vat: to
ba *malaaokoYau prantkalao pravaRt: pirmaucyanto sava- evaM vaa Ar [dM mahd BaUtM
AnaMtM AparM iva&anaGana eva (Brihad Aranyaka Up.).
na vaodM vaod [it Aahur vaodo vaodao na ivaVto pra%maa vaoVto yaona sa vaodao
vaod ]cyato (Shivasvarodaya).
‘&anaM to hM saiva&anaimadM vaxaamyaSaoYat: yaj&a%vaa naoh
BaUyaao nyaj&atvyamavaiSaYyato '. (Bhagavad Gita).
]pinaYaVaxarivaYata ih iva&anaM [h pura ivaVoit p‘aQaanyaona ivavaixatma
na [pinaYad raiSa: vaidSabdona tu sava- SabdraiSa: ivavaixat:
vaodSabdraSyaiQagamaoip ya%naantrmantroNa gauvaa-iBagamanaaid laxaNaM vaOragyaM ca
na AxaraiQagama: smBavatIit pRqa@krNaM ba *maivaVayaa Aqa p itivaVoit
'iva&anaM Saas aqa-ivaYayaM &anaM tsya QyaanakarNa%vaw yaanaat BaUyas%vama
.iva&anaM Saas aqa-ivaYayaM &anaM AnyaivaYayaM naOpuNyaM tWd iBayau-
>a Mllaaokanp aPnaaotI%yaqa-: ' (Shankara).
'&apkM ih Saas M na tu karkimait isqait: EauitSca na: p‘maaNaM
AtIind yaivaYayaiva&ananaao%p<aaO, Sas aiddmaova Bavait [dM [YTsaaQanaM [dM
ivaVupas%yaaoSca vaodantoYau AvyaitrokONava p yaaogaao dRSyat'.
‘vaodaopasanaSabdyaao: ekaqa-ta Avagamyato' (Shankara).
‘Bavait ih SabdBaod: -vaod, ]paisat', or ‘sa k t-uM kuvaI-t
[%yamaovaaid: [h na Aqa-Baod: savao-YaamaovaOYaaM manaaovaR%yaqa-%vaa Baodat Aqa-ntraM saMBava cca
ikmaqMa- tih- Ba@tO: pUjaaidlaxaNaM yaagadanahaomaaidkM ca saukRtM p yaujyato
[%yaah A&anaonaavaR<aM ivavaok&anaM tona mau(int kraoima [%yaovaM maohM gacCint
Aivavaoikna: p ak ba *maa%maTvadSa-naat ivaYayaaid p pMcaao vyavaistqarUpao Bavait
]pasanaa - tOlaQaaravat santtao AivacCn ap %yayaao Qyaanama
tduidtM kma- svanauYzIyatama Actions in furtherance of that Wisdom should be pursued.
It is common for all animate and inanimate
creatures to perform actions and no one can remain without performing them - 'na ih kiSca%xaNamaip jaatu itYz%yakma-kRt kaya-to (vaSa: kma- sava-: p kRitjaOgau-NaO: ' says Krishna at the same time pointing out that 'p kRtO: ik yaamaaNaaina gauNaO: sava-Sa: Ah= karivamaUZa%maa kta-mahmaimait manyato '. However, in spite of the creatures generally performing their actions impelled by attributes and inclinations, the human beings have a distinguishing attribute, ivavaok, which distinguishes them from the others in animate world, the sense of discrimnaion between what is Proper (Eaoya) and what is Pleasant (p oya). perform their actions on the basis of their sense of discrimination.
According to Katha Up. (I.ii.2) both the
Proper (Eaoya) and the Pleasant (p oya) approach and the wise one prefers the Proper (Eaoya) and not the Pleasant (p oya), just as a swan separates milk from
water as Shankara points out, 'Atao hMsa[vaamBasa: pya:, taO Eaoya: p oya:pdaqaa-O samprI%ya samya@pirgamya manasaalaaocya gaurulaaGavaM ivaivanai> pRqa@kraoit QaIrao QaImaana ' This distinctive characteristic makes the human beings superior to all other creatures.
as a philosophical concept,
represents both the Cause as well as the Effect of the performance as well as non-performance of actions, according to which one becomes responsible for the actions performed as well as for actions not performed. Each action is performed with definite intent in Mind, many responses being in conformity to each one's gauNa attributes and svaBaava, inclination born of p kRit.
When actions are spontaneous then they
become sourced from the one's essence, the self within, uninfluenced by the attributes and inclinations, like a dancer would perform his dance, the movements and gestures responding and conforming to totality of the dance. In a dance each movement and gesture is as important as the dancer is. Each movement and gesture emanates from and owes its existence to the essence which is within the dancer. Once the dance begins, each movement and
gesture weaves its own individual and distinct pattern. The dance ends as one common, composite and comprehensive form, the movements and gestures not remaining as distinct and independent. The movement and gesture cannot be the dance, cannot have affinity with or can they be like the dance, even as luminous rays cannot be the Sun. They can be part of the essence without having the fullness of the essence. Once the dance ends, the act of performing and the person performing cease, only the dance remaining eternal as composition.
The Cause and the Effect are essentially
cyclical. Therefore, it is difficult to say whether Karma as Cause was earlier or the Effect, whether Karma as Effect initiates further Karmas. Krishna says that performance of action should be performing a ya&, which as an institution Prajapati had established to regulate the maintenance of the world order, in which mutual obligation both gods and human beings exist in participation. He recommends actions to be performed, free from desire, egoism, with neither any reservation nor with any expectation of fruits, with conscious commitment to the divine Will. Upanishads
compare human life to an extended ya&, performing actions during the different phases of life.
Brihad Aranyaka Up. (IV.iv.23) declares that
the eternal glory of a knower of Brahman is not increased by performance of actions not is it diminished by non-performance. Therefore one should be aware of that, and having found he is not tainted. Becoming calm, self-controlled, withdrawn in the self within, with patience and concentrated he perceives the Self within his own self, whereupon evil does not overcome him, he overcomes the evil. Free from evil, free from taint, free from doubt he becomes knower of Brahman. Shankara says that such Wisdom is the eternal glory of the knower of Brahman neither increasing nor decreasing, all other glories are the result of actions performed, therefore, not permanent - 'eYa naoit nao%aaidlaxaNaao ina%yaao maihmaa Anyao tu maihmaana: kma-kRta [%yaaina%yaa: '. The glory of the knower of Brahman is eternal because it does not increase with performance of actions or decrease by non-performance of actions, - 'kutao sya ina%ya%vaimait hotumaah -kmaa-Naa navaQa-to SauBalaxaNaona kRtona vaRiwlaxaNaaM ivaik yaaM na p aPnaaoit '. Therefore one should be aware the nature of that glory - 'tsmaa<asyaOva maihmna: syaad Bavao%pdsya vao<aa ' by being calm, self-
controlled, withdrawn in the self within, with patience and concentrated.
By tduidtM kma- svanauYzIyatama Shankara suggests
conforming one's actions to the Will of the Divine and not from instincts born of nature, being attuned to ?t, the divine Wisdom, sa%ya – the Prime Existence and based on Dharma, the perennial principles. Since human tendency is to lapse in ignorance and obscurity with efflux of Time, one is called upon to look back and review consciously, periodically and continuously the actions performed and not performed in the past in the present and desired to be performed in the future. Since the Will finds manifestation in diverse forms, characters and nature, contributing to different planes of existence, performance of actions to Divine Will. Universe neither exists for the manifest creation nor in isolation of the manifest creation nor evolves in separation or distinct from segments of the creation but as complementary, varying in form with essence eternally posited therein. Therefore one should perform actions with Wisdom – the Vedas. Those who spend time in memorizing hymns rather than be consciously aware are knowledgeable of the
form, without being wise of its essence of the Supreme Self.
Effulgence is all-pervading and
comprehensive, there being no duality as ethical, moral or spiritual and physical, empirical or temporal influences on the other. Therefore, when Krishna displays his universal form ivaSvarUp Arjuna is confused and overwhelmed by the resplendent vision dazzling with the radiance as though thousands suns have flashed in the sky all at once or glowing as flaming fire scorching the worlds and consuming as the all-devouring Time as AxarM prmaM vaoidtvyama . Like him his creation is also comprehensive, not segmented in good and bad, beautiful and ugly, noble and ignoble on the foundational basis but to be preferred and selected as proper (Eaoya) and not as pleasant (p oya) for one spiritual enlightenment. Arjuna being familiar with his empirical form pleads him to show his human form -maanauYaM $pM tva saaOmya with crown, mace and discus, though in final analysis it is the spiritual awareness which liberates one, which is possible only when one responds to the spiritual foundation of Veda, the Wisdom.
tduidtM kma- means actions performed as ordain,
conducive to clarity of mind and purity of the heart. Karma is an inexorable law which does not deviate from its course, what one sows being what one reaps in spiritual world. Therefore one should be discriminative in attitude and approach, being sovereign over one's self and not slave to the senses. He should perform actions according to his attributes and inclination but being attuned to ?t and ordained Qama-. Katha Up. observes that the one who chooses the proper (Eaoya) gains and the one who chooses the pleasant (p oya) fails in his purpose - ‘tyaao Eaoya: Aaddanasya saaQau Bavait hIyato qaaV ] p oyaao vaRNaIto '. It is the power of discrimination – ina%yaaina%yaivavaok: which makes one performs the proper (Eaoya) actions and rejects the pleasant (p oya), through Eawa – receptivity.
Shankara says that Eawa receptivity is the
paramount instrument for realizing Brahman. Eawa is not faith or belief in one or the other views, it is keeping the five senses restrained along with Mind and even the intellect still to receive that which is to be unfolded. Seers use metaphor, allegory and exaggerated symbols to describe the indescribable. It is error to accept the metaphor as real. Metaphors constitute Knowledge; therefore, one should
transcend metaphors to reach to the Wisdom of
Brahman. Those who understand the metaphors
understand their religion. Otherwise metaphors
mislead diverting mind away from the Wisdom of
the prime principle. Rites and rituals, pilgrimage
and penance become preliminary steps on the
disciplined journey on the Path to Perfection.
‘tyaao Eaoya: Aaddanasya saaQau Bavait hIyato qaaV ] p oyaao vaRNaIto
'.(Katha Up. I.ii.1)
‘kuva-n aovaoh kmaa-iNa ijajaIivaYat M samaa: ' (Isha
na ih kiScai%xaNamaip jaatu itYz%yakma-kRt kaya-to (vaSa: kma- sava-
: p kRitjaOgauNaO: .ya&aqaa-t kma-Naao . mau>saMga: samaacar . tsmaadsa>: sattM
kaya-M kma-samaacar.maiya savaa-iNa kma -iNa saMnyasyaaQyaa%macaotsaa inaraSaIina-mamaao BaU%vaa
yauQyasya ivagatjvar: .(Bhagavad Gita)
inavaRi<arip maUZsya p vaRi<arupjaayato p vaRi<arip QaIrsya
inavaRi<aflaBaaiganaI (Ashtavakra Gita)
‘[YTainaYTp aiPtpirharaiq-ana: t%p oirtivaSaoYap vaR<ao: ina%yaadIinakama-iNa
ivaQaIyanto na kovalaM Saas inaima<amaova '(Shankara)
Eawa ca ba *maiva&anao prmaM saaQanaM p ak ba *ma %ma%vadSa-naat ivaYayaaid
p pMcaao vyavaistqarUpao Bavait (Shankara).
That (Prime Existence) should be propitiated.
What is That -to, which needs to be
propitiated? to is That One, the immutable Prime Existence, which is unseen, ungraspable, without identification, unclassifiable, without sight or hearing, hand or feet, eternal, all-pervading, omnipresent, exceedingly subtle, undecaying and which is the source of all creation conceived with name and a form. It is not the one which is adored here in the primordial world, says Kena Up. The abstract form of the Prime Existence is designated as Brahman, one whose effulgence bursts out as creation. The effulgence cannot contradict what effulgence is. Therefore what was alone in the beginning became effulgent in eightfold gross categories as earth, water, fire, air,, mind, intellect and ego-sense and yet in distinct category as the subtle Self by which this world is upheld. It is the Mind, the intellect an the ego sense which lead That
One seeing creation around to acknowledge as AhM - ‘I', as Aist - ‘Existence' and as ba *ma -as the effulgence. Therefore, That One is designated as AhM ba *maa isma, i.e. ‘I' (AhM) effulgence (ba *ma) and Existence (Aisma)'. That One further declared ‘AhM vaava saRiYTrisma' – I am verily is the creation, ‘AhM hIdM sava-MM Asa xaIit' – I am all that has been created. The Prime Existence became sat icat AanaMd the Existence, Awareness and Bliss.
With such realization, one experiences
presence of the Prime Existence within one's own being and concluding that in truth ‘I do nothing' when I see, hear, touch, smell, taste, walk, sleep, breathe, speak, grasp, open or close eyes but it is the Self within that is the hearer who hears, thinker who thinks, speaker who speaks, breath who breaths and eye which sees, as mentioned in Kena Up. When Ushasta Chakrayana asked Yajnavalkya, ‘explain to me the Brahman that is immediately present and directly perceived as the self in all things', he was told, ‘This is the Self, which is within all things, he who breathes in with your breathing in, he who breathes out with your breathing out, he who breathes about when you breathe about, he who
breathes up with your breathing up is the Self which is in all beings. When Ushasta Chakrayana protests that the explanation was as one might say, ‘This is a cow' ‘This is a horse' it was clarified further, ‘You can not see the seer of seeing, hear the hearer of hearing, think of the thinker of thinking, understand the understander of understanding. He is the Self, which is in all things. Every thing else is anguish'. Even so was Maitreyi initiated by him, ‘Where every thing has become the Self, then by what and whom should one smell . see . hear . speak . think . understand? By what should one know that by which all this is known? By what, my dear, should one know the Knower?'.
Shankara says that it is obscurity of the
Mind due to sensory influences that makes human being not aware that he is in essence the Self and is not his ego-sense. But this misconception becomes increased or decreased with the increase in the Wisdom of one's existence. When with Wisdom, his awareness reaches the highest point, the misconception becomes terminated and his identity with Brahman, the supreme Self becomes established.
Therefore, when Shankara says, ‘That
(Prime Existence) should be propitiated', it is the universal Self that is to be propitiated, rites, rituals and performance of sacrifice become subsidiary instruments.
1. yaScaayamasyaaM pRiqavyaaM tojaaomayaao maRtmaya: puruYa:, yaScaayamaQyaa%maM
SarIrstojaaomayaao maRtmaya: puruYa:, Ayamaova sa yaao yamaa%ma , [dmamaRtma , [dM ba *ma, [dM
sava-ma (Brihad Aranyaka Up.II.iv.1)
2. sa vaa Ayamaa%maa savao-YaaM BaUtanamaiQapit:, savao-YaaM BaUtanaaM rajaa, tVqaa rqanaaBaaO
ca rqanaomaaO caara:, savao- samaip-ta:, evamaovaaismannaa%maina sava -iNa BaUtaina, savao- dovaa:,
savao- laaoka:, savao- p aNaa:, sava- et Aa%maana: samaip-ta: (Brihad
3. ya: p aNaona p aiNait . yaao panaonaaipinait . yaao vyaanaona vyaainait . ya
]danaona ]dainait . sa t A%maa sava -ntr: eYa sa Aa%maa savaa-ntr: '
(Brihad Aranyaka Up.III.iv.1)
4. yaonaodM savMa-- ivajaanait tM kona ivajaainayaat ? iva&anaatarmaro kona ivajaainayaaidit
'(Brihad Aranyaka Up.II.iv.14)
‘naOva vaacaa na manasaa p PtuM Sa@yaao na caxauYaa AstIit ba uvantao nya
kqaM td ]plabQato '(Brihad Aranyaka Up.).
6. naayamaa%maa p vacanaona laByaao na maoQayaa na bahUnaa Eautona yamaovaOYa vaRNauto tona
laByastsyaOva Aa%maa ivavaRNauto tnau M svaama '. (Kath. Up.I.ii.23)
7. Anyadova tt ivaidtadqaao AivaidtadiQa . yad vaacaa naByauidtM yaona
vaagaByauVto . yanmanasaa na manauto yaona hur manaao matma . yaccaxauYaa na pSyait
yaona caxaU MiYa pSyait .yacC/
8. Aqa ya eYa samp saadao smaacCrIra%samau%qaaya prM jyaoitrupsampV svaona
rUpoNaaiBainaYpVt eYa Aa%maoit haovaacaOtdmaRtmaBayamaotd ba *maoit tsya h vaa etsya
ba *maNaao naama sa%yaimait (Chhandogya Up.VIII.iii.4)
9. BaUimarapao nalaao vaayau: KM manao bauiwrova ca AhMkar [tIyaM mao ibaNna
p kRitrYTQaa Apryaimats%vanyaa p kRitM ivaiw mao prama jaIvaBautM mahabaahao
yayaodM Qaaya-to jagat (Bhagavad Gita.I.4)).
Eao oNa na EauNaaoit yaona Eaao imadM Eautma . yat p aNaona p aiNait yaona
p aNa: paNaIyato tdova ba *ma %vaM ivaiW naodM yaiddmaupasato (Kena Up.I.).
11. p k aSao [va GaTaid: ivaVayaaM sa%yaaM AivaBa-vait (Shankara).
Apicait: kamyao maits%yajyatama
Desires should be disengaged from Mind.
In Mahabharata, we find it mentioned, 'O
Desire, I know your source. You are born of thought, therefore, I will stop thinking of you and you will then cease to exist for me'. Krishna refers desire and anger to be all-devouring enemies of the self. Buddha too says that intense desire to possess something, to be something and to renounce
something is the cause of all suffering in life. In later times, Zen Buddhism even suggests that intense desire to be religious and to follow Buddha as Teacher and God too enslaves the mind. Therefore, one should desire to pursue and enjoin one self neither to the form of the Teacher nor to the Knowledge of his Teachings but to the essence and Wisdom of his Teachings.
Maitri Up. (VI.34) points out that saMsaar is
nothing but the aggregation of thought-responses from senses to the mind. Therefore, Shankara says in Vivekchudamani that disengagement of the mind is possible only when one detaches the mind from the influence of senses which are the primary cause of the desires. Unless desires are disengaged from mind, no one, not even one well-versed in all scriptures, would be eligible for deliverance. He points out significantly that the state of being desire less should be a constant and continuous enterprise even for one who is enlightened, considering himself only as performer of actions and not a participant in enjoying the fruits of such performance of actions.
Karma, actions when performed with desire
in mind makes the mind attached to it the actions following the result. It is only the discrimination of mind that makes human being separate and distinct from the desires and the causes which go to make up the thoughts and therefore freeing the mind from desires. Desire sneaks stealthily the Mind like a burglar, unasked and uninvited, without one being consciously aware. Elimination of desire is not denial of desire but refusing to be influenced and being enslaved by desire. Shankara says that even desire for actions enjoined by scriptures makes mind end up being enslaved. Therefore, men of wisdom caution seekers to not to be bound by desires to realize Self.
Narada declares in Bhakti Sutras that
performance of actions with detachment for fruits of desires is the sign of complete surrender and true renunciation. When Krishna suggests to Arjuna ‘sava-Qama-npir%yajyaaya', it is not giving up the performance of actions but giving up performance of actions taken up from ego-sense. Therefore Narada points out 'tt tu ivaYaya%yaagaat sa= ga%yaagaat ' disengaging the self from every sense attachment and denying all other refuge than the Self within ‘AnyaaEayaaNaaM %yaagaao nanyata'. Bliss is not
attaining any thing but detaching one's self from external supports.
It is as Patanjali says 'yaaogaiSca<avaRi<ainaraoQa: ', yoga
is restraint from all the activities of the mind or as Katha Up(II.iii.11) suggests, cessation of the five sensory instruments of Knowledge together with Mind and restraining even the intellect. Maitri Up.(IV.34) refers to Mind as two-fold, impure and pure; impure when associated with desire and pure when disassociated with desire. By freeing mind from apathy and distraction and making it steady, one becomes liberated of mind even here in this very life and attains supreme state. Because as Brihad Aranyaka Up.(IV.iv.6) says, the object to which mind becomes attached, the subtle self goes together with the deed attached to it. But when man does not desire, who is without desire, who is freed from desire, whose desire is satisfied and whose desire is his self, his breaths do not depart and being Brahman he goes to Brahman. Therefore, desires should be disengaged from Mind.
1. ‘tdova sa>: sah kma-NaOit ila= gaM manaao ya inaSa>masya .‘Aqaakamayamaana:,
yaao kamaao inaYkama AaPtkama Aa%makamaao na tsya p aNaa ]%k maint, ba *maOva
sanba *maaPyaoit (Brihad Aranyaka Up.IV.iv.6 ).
2. ‘yada pMcaavaitYzanto &anaaina manasaa saha bauiwSca na ivacaoYTit taM Aahu:
paramaM gait: ' (Katha Up.II.iii.11).
3. ‘manaao ih iWivaQaM p ao>M SauwM caSawM eva ca ASauwM kamasaMpka-t SauwM
kamaivavaija-tma layaivaxaop rihtM mana: kR%vaa sauinaiScalama yada yaait
AmaainaBaavaM tda tt prmaM pdma ' (Maitri Up.IV.34).
4. ‘kamaM jaanaaima to maUlama saMklpat %vaM ih jayase na%vaM saMklpiyaYyaaima tona mao
na BaivaYyaisa (Mahabharata).
5. ‘kama eva k aoQaao eva rjaaogauNasamaud Bava: mahaSanaao mahapaPmaa ivaVonaimah
6. ‘inaraoQastu laaokvaodvyaaparnyaasa:' (Narada in Bhakti Suta)
7. ‘ivaYayaaSaamahapaSaaVao ivamau>: saudus%yajaat sa eva klpto mau>O naanya:
YaT Saas vaoVaip ' (Shankara)
8. ‘&ato vastunyaip balavatI vaasanaaidroYaa kta- Baao>aPyhimait dRZa yaasya
saMsaarhotu: p %yagdRYT yaa%maina inavasata saapnaoyaa p yaanaanmai>M p ahustidh maunayaao
vaasanaataanavaM yat ' (Shankara)
9. ‘Saas ivaihtivaYaya: kma-maaga-: banQahotu: '(Shankara)
10. ‘kma-inaima<aM na Saas kRtM sava-p aiNaYau dSa-nama '(Shankara)
11. ‘kamap va<ao: &anap itkUlata sava-Saas oYau p isawa '(Shankara)
The stream of de-merits should be cleansed.
The concept of eternal Sin is alien to Hindu
philosophy. The idea that haunted them was ?t, the Cosmic Law or the Divine Will which regulates the manifest universe created. Meritorious acts (puNya) being the consequence of righteous actions in conformity of ?t, the Cosmic Law and de-merits (pap) being the direct consequence of performance of unenlightened actions contrary to ?t, under the influence of the senses. Even as Brihad Aranyaka Up. spells out that both dovaas and Asauras are the progeny of the same Prajapati, dovaas perform actions in conformity of ?t, the Cosmic Law the Asauras perform unenlightened actions contrary to ?t, under the influence of the senses.
Katha Up. (I.ii.2) speaks that both the
Proper (Eaoya) and the Pleasant (p oya) come before a person. The enlightened person pondering over them, chooses the proper in preference to the pleasant. The unenlightened person for the sake of worldly pleasures prefers Pleasant to the Proper. Shankara commenting on this mantra explains that the wise one is like a swan which drinks the milk
separating it from the water whereas a person of little wisdom, due to the lack of discrimination, chooses the pleasant for the sake of bodily well being.
Brihad Aranyaka Up. (IV.iv.5) declares the
general proposition that as one acts, so does one become. Performer of good actions becomes good and of bad actions becomes bad. Since human beings perform acts according to their attributes (gauNa) and inclinations (svaBaava) born of nature, enlightened persons perform acts as ordained by scriptures and unenlightened persons perform acts as influenced by the senses. With determined mind and resolve one can change performance of one's actions from negative to the positive, accepting the fundamental proposition that entire human race having been born from Prajapati have equal opportunity to become enlightened dovaas without being unenlightened Asauras. Shankara explains that dovaas and Asauras are nothing but the organs, like the speech and the rest. How can the organs become dovaas and Asauras. They becomes dovaas because they ‘shining under the influence of thoughts and actions taught inscriptures' and Asauras because ‘they are
influenced by their natural instincts and actions, based on perception and inference and directed to visible ends'.
Since in world, there are more
unenlightened beings than the enlightened ones, upanishad says that Asauras are more and the dovaas are less, there always being a conflict of interest between them each vying for supremacy over one another. There is no absolute division between the two and an enlightened dovaas can behave like an unenlightened Asauras, there being many instances where asuras, becoming enlightened have reached supreme stage and the dovaas performing actions which are unenlightened have fallen ignominiously failing to abide by ?t. The bench mark is performance of actions Paap and puNya being within the reach of every one, the position of the Lord being only that of a saaxaI, Witness, supervisor, dispensing justice according to the performance of enlightened and unenlightened actions.
Karma is the aggregation of the luminous
actions as well as non-luminous actions, it being accepted that the cause-effect syndrome does nor cease with the death of the body, balance of the
aggregation of previous life being carried forward to shape the future life. Till the cycle is terminated by performing desire less actions without giving rise to results, the self continues to seek gross body to work out the effect of the precious Karmas. Enlightenment is the natural state of the self and the moment the unenlightened obstacle on mind ceases to obstruct the vision, the self shines in its own luminous light, even as the space reveals the death and vast extent once the clouds intervening the vision are removed.
The inevitability of Karma was the subject
matter of the conversation between Artabhag Jaratkaru and Yajnavalkya, where the former is informed that after the body decays and disintegrates and the parts and the deities presiding over them revert back to the origin from where they were sourced, Karma alone remains. Karma is the focal point of Krishna's discourse in Bhagavad Gita, being neither a religious concept nor having anything to do with any people, place or period. It is nature's Law over which the ?t presides inexorably. The aggregate mass of puNya increases with enlightened actions and decreases with pap as the unenlightened actions. One's Mind should be
guided by sense of discrimination ivavaok and perform enlightened actions without being influenced by the unenlightened sensory influence, putting in course the cycle set in motion by Praajapati, in earlier times. Cleansing one's Mind of the impure sensory influences and supplemented by ethical and moral actions one becomes enlightened to the Brahman which is the source of all effulgence.
Yudhishthira says in Mahabharata when
one is confused hearing contradictory statements, one should pursue Dharma which is accepted by large number of wise ones. Krishna declares that the disciplined performance of actions is the true meaning of ya&, because all other actions end up being a bondage. Shankara says, the auspicious and in-auspicious results caused by ignorance can only be destroyed by Wisdom along with daily purificatory rites and rituals. The important purpose being termination of taints in one‘s mind.
1. EaoyaSca p oyaSca manuYyamaotstaO samprI%ya ivaivanai> QaIr: Eaoyaao ih QaIrao iBa
p oyasaao vaRNaIto p oyaao mandao yaaogaxaomaad vaRNaIto (Katha Up.I.ii.2).
2. ‘Wyaa h p ajap%yaa: dovaaScaasauraSca' (Brihad Aranyak
3. ‘yaqaakarI yaqaacaarI tqaa Bavait; saaQaukarI saaQauBa-vait, papkarI papao
Bavait' (Brihad Aranyak Up. IV.iv.5)
4. ‘manaao ih iWivaQaM p ao>M SauwM caaSauwM eva ca ASauwM kamasaMklpM SauwM
kamaivavaija-tma ' MaitriUp.VI.34)
5. ‘tkao- p itYz: Eautyaao ivaiBanna naOkao mauinar yasyavaaca: p maaNaM Qama-sya t%vaM
inaihtM gauhayaaM mahajanaao yaona gat: sa pnqaa: ' (Mahabharat).
6. evaM p vait-tM cak M naanauvat-yatIh ya: AGaayauirind yaaramaao maaoGaM paqa- sa jaIvait
7. ya&aqa -t kama-Naao nya laaokao yaM kma-banQana: '(Bhagavad Gita)
8. ikM kma- ikmakmao-it kvayaa Pya maaoihta: . kma-Naao (ip baaowvyaM
baaoWvyaM ca ivakama-Na: Akma-NaSca baaowvyaM gahnaa km-Naao gait:
9. ttao hMsa [vaamBasa: pya: taOEaoya: p oya:pdaqaaO- samprI%ya samya@pirhaamya
manasaalaaocya gaurulaaGavaM ivaivanai> pRqa@kraoit QaIraao QaImaana .yastu
mandao lpbauiw: sa sadsaiWkasamaqyaat yaaogaxaomaaVaogaxaomainaima<aM
SarIraVupcayarxaNainaima<aima%yaott p ya: pSaupu aidlaxaNaM vaRNaIto '
10. dovaaScaasauraSca tsyaOva p aNaadya: kqaM punastoYaaM dovaasau%vama
svaaBaaivakp %yaxaanaumaanajainatdRYTp yyaojanakma-&anaaBaaivata Asaura:
11. ‘AivaVapUva-ksya kma-Naao ivaVOva SauBasyaaSauBasya vaa xayakarNaM na ina%yakama-
BavasauKo daoYaao AnausaMQaIyatama
Imperfection in temporal pleasures should be
Imperfection in primordial life is due to
inconsistency between the Intent and Desire leading to an imbalance in one's observance of the immutable
Cosmic Law. Eternal vigilance,
therefore, should be the guiding principle in life. Intelligent and wholesome performance of actions is the hall-mark of a man of Wisdom. It is general tendency for a human to reject the instincts of the heart and to follow thoughts fashioned by the influence of the senses. Heart is the place where Supreme Self is said to dwell and Mind being the place from where Indra transforms himself in many forms by his power of formatting. When the first impulse springs from the heart, the intellect and ego-sense hijack the intent and purpose manipulating the result. If it is so in temporal life then it is even more so in spiritual life. Eternal vigilance means committed, consistent and constant
awareness and not spasmodic, inconsistent and impulsive behaviour. Objects and events which unsettle Mind and vitiate mental poise, therefore, should be identified, distanced, avoided and eliminated. The things and practices which encourage and enhance equanimous intellect in mind, purity and peace in heart should be cultivated and pursued.
Isha Up.1 commends pursuit of only those
actions and enjoyments which are ordained by Lord in the spirit of renunciation, not coveting what is ordained for others, without craving and being attached to them. Krishna says in Bhagavad Gita (V) that a Yogi who performs actions merely with the body, mind and intelligence, abandoning the resultant fruits. Further, abiding in pure intelligence, firmly restraining oneself, turning away from sound and other sense instruments, casting aside attraction and aversion, dwelling in solitude, eating little, controlling speech, body and mind, even engaged in meditation and reflection, taking refuge in dispassion, casting aside all self-sense, power, arrogance, desire, anger, possessions, giving up ego, being tranquil in mind, he becomes worthy of becoming absorbed in Brahman. Therefore, one
who loathes neither illumination nor bewilderment and nor even any ambiguity; neither hankers nor hates when things appear or disappear, who sits like one unconcerned, unperturbed by attributes, standing unwavering, knowing that only the attributes act, for whom pleasures and pains are alike, who dwells within his own self, who looks upon clod, stone, or gold as of equal worth remains firm of mind amidst pleasant and unpleasant things, who considers blame and praise with firm mind, same in honour or dishonour, same to friends or foes, giving up all attachment to actions is said to be gauNaatIt, one whose has transcended rising above all human attributes. He is one who is qualified to experience the likeness of self with the Brahman the Supreme Self.
For such ones, as Shankara makes it clear,
the rites and rituals are operative, being aware that the temporal pleasures are fleeting and spiritual delight is the true goal which is the Wisdom of the Self.
'kayaona manasaa bauW yaa kovalaOirind yaOrip yaaoigana: kma- kuva-int sa= gaM
%ya@%vaa %maSauwyao (Bhagavad Gita V.11)
'bauwyaa ivaSauwyaa yau>ao QaR%yaa%maanaM inayamya ca
SabdadIinvaYayaaMs%ya@%vaa ragaWoYaaO vyaudsya ca ivaiva>saovaI laQvaaSaI
yatvaa@kayamaanasa: Qyaanayaaogaprao ina%yaM vaOragyaM samaupaiEat: AhMkarM balaM dp-M
kamaM k aoQaM pirga hma ivamaucya inama-ma: Saantao ba *maBaUyaaya klpto
na jaatu kama: kamaanaaM ]pBaaogaona Samyait hivaYaa kRYNavat-maova
BaUyaaevaaiBavaQanto (Manu Smriti).
Desire for one's Self should be properly organized.
Human life is not accidental event but
purposefully designed culmination in evolution. Therefore, Shankara suggests significantly in Vivekachudamani (2-3) that human birth is very rare for a creature, even thereafter, purposeful manly inclination and intelligence, even thereafter access to vedic righteousness and superior Wisdom is difficult. Therefore, one should discriminate between the Self and the not-Self for realization and reposing one's self in Brahman; otherwise deliverance is not possible even after cores of lives.
realization cannot be had through wealth and not for the sake of all that one becomes dear but for the sake of one's own self all becomes dear. One should be receptive to the self, should reflect and meditate.(Brihad Aranyak Up.II.iv.5). When Janaka asked him, ‘When the Sun sets and the Moon sets, the Fire goes out and the Speech too has stopped, what light has a person here have?', Brihad Aranyak Up.IV.iii.5), Yajnavalkya replied, ‘The self indeed is his light for with Self indeed as the light one sits, moves about does one's work and returns'. Therefore, Janaka, the King of Mithila, abiding in his own Self, exclaimed ‘Infinite indeed is my wealth of which nothing is mine. If Mithila burns, nothing that is mine would be burnt'.
Aitarey Up. (III.i.2) declares Self as one by
whom one sees, hears, smells odours, one articulates speech or discriminates the sweet and the un-sweet, that which is the heart, mind, consciousness, perception, discrimination, intelligence wisdom, insight, steadfastness, thought, thoughtlessness, impulse, memory, conception, purpose, life, desire, control all these and more. In
Aparokshanubhuti (135), Shankara says, ‘The nature of the cause inheres in the effect not vice versa; so through reflection one finds that in the absence of the effect, even the cause disappears'. Further, ‘One should therefore, verily, observe the cause in the effect and then dismiss the effect altogether. What then remains, that the sage himself becomes'.
For deliverance there is nothing superior to
Bai>, communion -‘Among the mediums which lead to deliverance, communion alone is said to be supreme, rather enjoining with one's self alone is said to be communion. Others say that communion with the Self itself being the prime principle, is communion'. Narada says in his Bhakti Sutras ‘It is not the result of desires but of the absences of desires . . It is superior to performance of actions, acquisition of Knowledge and Yoga the process of enjoining . It is consummation of all these preparatory actions ‘flarUp%vaat '.
The traditional interpretation of Bai> as ‘a
way to' ‘as a process' ‘as an instrument' to reach to
the Divine is not reasonable rendition. By
translating the word as devotion, the essential
characteristic as unity of the fragment with the
whole is lost. Bai> is communion and consummation of the differentiated with the undifferentiated, of the
particular with the universal. It is not Knowledge
(&ana) to be attained but Wisdom (iva&ana - ivaSaoYa &ana) to be fulfilled, of being enlightened to the unity of the
manifest creation with the unmanifest Brahman.
Thus Bai> is culmination, the goal itself not communication to the goal. Bai> is not an act to be performed but a state of being in. Madhva describes Bai> as ‘&anapUvaa-: pr: snaohao ina%yaao Bai>rIyato' the complete and unconditional companionship with the divine.
Krishna compares Bai> to the Brahmic status
also declares ‘the awareness by which the one Imperishable Being is perceived in all existence, undivided in the divided, know that knowledge is luminous'(Bhagavad Gita.XVIII.20), he existing as the undivided in beings and yet as if divided (Bhagavad Gita.XIII.17). Human beings generally are impervious to such vision. He further says, through communion he becomes aware of me as the Principle, that which is the extent of my being, thus knowing me in Principle; one comes in to my being (Bhagavad Gita.XVIII.55 and XIII,17-19). Bai> is
not simple devotion to Krishna as it is generally understood, but being in communion with Him as the Prime Principle, the state where there is no difference between the subject which sees, the object which one sees and act which one performs in seeing (Bhagavad Gita.XI.28-29). . It is the state where every thing has becomes one, leaving no space for the second to exist.
Bhagavata Purana says, ‘The men of
Wisdom declare that when Lord's powerful Maya in the form of (empirical) Knowledge is withdrawn, then Jiva becomes one with Brahman and becomes established in the glory of the Self'. Shankara says that such desire of every saadhaka to be one with the Divine should be encouraged towards this ultimate purpose of all spiritual enterprises.
‘na vaa Aro sava-sya kamaaya savMa- ip ya Bavait, Aa%maanastu kamayaa savMa-
ip yaM Bavait Aa%maa vaa Aro dRYTvyaao Eaaotvyaao inaidQyaaisatvyaao .' (Brihad Aranyak Up.II.iv.5). 2.
‘Astimait Aaid%yao yaa&val@ya, cand masyastimato, Santo gnaaO, SaantayaaM
vaaica ikMjyaaoitrovaayaM puruYa [it;Aa%maOvaasya jyaaoitBa-vait Aa%manaIvaayaM jyaaotIYaasto
plyaayato kmakuruto ivaplyaoit [it ' (Brihad Aranyak Up.IV.iii.5). 3.
'ya_otd )dyaM manascaOtt saM&anaM A&anaM iva&anaM p &anaM maoQaa id iYTQaR-
itma-itr mainaYaa jaUitsmaRit: saMklp: k turAsau: kamaao vaSa [it savaa-iNa evaOtaina p &anasya naamaQaoyaaina Bavaint (Aitareya Up.III.i.3). 4.
‘AnantM bat mao iva<aM yasya mao naaist ikMcana imaiqalaayaaM p dIPtayaM na mao
ikMicat p da(to' (Mahabharata). 5.
‘sava-BaUtoYau yaonaOkM BaavamavyayamaIxato AivaBa>M ivaBa>oYau tj&aanaM
ivaiw saai%vakma ' (Bhagavad Gita.XVIII.20). 6.
‘Ba@%yaa maamaiBajaanaait yaavaanyaScaisma t%vat: ttao maaM t%tvatao
&a%vaa ivaSato tdnantrma ' (Bhagavad GitaXVIII.55). 7.
'AivaBa>M ca BaUtoYau ivaBa>imava ca isqatma .jyaoitYaamaip
tjjyaaoitstmasaL prmaucyato &anaM &aoyaM &anagamyaM )id sava--sya ivaiSaiYztma [it xao M tqaa &anaM &aoyaM caao>M samaasat: mad Ba>M etiW&aaya mad BaavaayaaoppVto ' (Bhagavad Gita.XIII,17-19). 8.
'samaM savaa-BaUtoYau itYzntM prmaoSvarma ivanaSya%svaivanaSyantM ya:
pSyaqit sa paSyait samaM pSyana ih sava - samaavaisqatmaISvarma na ihnas%yaa%manaa%maanaM ttao yaait apraM gaitma ' (Bhagavad Gita.XI.28-29). 'saa na kamayamaanaa inaraoQa$p%vat ' (Bhakti Sutras). 10.
'saa tu kma-&anayaaogaoByaao PyaiQaktra ' (Bhakti Sutras).
‘jantunaaM narjanma dula-Bamat: puMs%vaM ivap ta tsmaaWOidkQama-maaga-prta
ivaW<vamasmaa%prma Aa%maanaa%maivavaocanaM svaanauBavaao ba *maa%manaa saMisqaitma-ui>naao- SatkaoiTsaukRtO: puuNyaOiva-naa laByato dula-BaM yamaovaOt_ovaanauga hhotukma manauYyas%vaM maumauxa%vaM mahapuruYasa<Eaya: ' (Shankara. Vivikachudmani 2-3). 12.
‘kayao- karNata yaata karNao na ih kaya-ta karNa%vaM ttao
Aparokshanubhuti.135). 13. ‘kayao- ih karNaM pSyaot pScaat kaya-M ivasaja-yaot karNa%vaM ttao gacCodvaiSaYTM Bavaonmamauina: ' (Shankara). 14.
‘maaoxakarNasaamaga yaaM Bai>rova garIyaisa svasvarUpanausanQaanaM
Bai>ir%yaiBaQaIyato sva%mat%vaanausanQaanaM Bai>ir%yapro jagau: '
One should return again to one's own true abiding
Which is the natural dwelling place – inajagaRh -
where the Self dwells? Chhandogya Up. (VIII.1) is specific about the dwelling place of Brahman when it declares that here in the body (ba *mapur) is an abode, a small lotus flower; within that is a small place. What is within that should be assuredly sought and understood. It is further clarified, that the Self abides in the heart, the etymological explanation being this one is the heart, and therefore, it is the
heart. The serene thing that rises from the body, reaching the supreme light appears in its own form. He is the Self, the fearless. This is Brahman, verily, the name of that Brahman is the Prime Existence. Shankra explains that as king has his palace in the city, within the body there is a small space wherein Brahman is to be realized, just as Vishnu is realized in Salagram stone. It is further clarified, that the Self abides in the heart a, of which the etymological explanation being this: This one is in the heart therefore it is the heart. Brihad Aranyaka Up. (II.v.18) says that since Brahman dwells in the body of every one, he is called Purusha, there being nothing that is not covered by him nothing that is not pervaded by him. Further the same upanishad says that Brahman, this Prime Existence ( sa%ya, from the root Asa to be, to exist) is like the essence, the honey for all beings, and all beings being the essence for this Prime Existence. Katha Up.(II.i.12) spells out that Purusha of the size of a thumb resides in the centre of the body.
Thus the heart is where Brahman dwells.
That is the inajagaRh of the self. Men of Wisdom seek within the heart to source ba *ma&ana, the Wisdom of
Brahman. ivainaga-myatama therefore, means going back to the source of all effulgence, where the true bliss lies. inajagaRh is not one's gross body but the subtle self within. Therefore, one should change the direction of one's attention from the external form to the internal essence, to experience the bliss of beatitude. Therefore, Brahman, That One is the inajagaRh – the true abiding place of That One from where all that was created came about, dwells. The source of consciousness therefore, lies not in Mind but in the heart within. Therefore, the seer pleads That one to reveal its face concealed behind the alluring golden disc, ‘ihrNmayaona pa oNa sa%yasyaaipihtM mauKma ' for whosoever Person that is, that verily is he himself – ‘yaao saavasaaO puruYa: saao hmaisma '. A Saadhaka should know that is his source from which he had become effulgent -‘ya<ao $pM klyaaNatmaM t<ao pSyaaima', requesting Pushan spread the luminous light gathering up the bewildering radiant rays, ‘vyaUh rSmaIna samaUh toja:'.
Shankara says that even as a householder
lives in one's home like a guest without ego-sense and attachment and without being affected by the
pains and pleasures of the house, dreams of going to one's own original place, even so a man of wisdom lives in his body without any concern, considering all sense caused and similar to gathering of the clouds, arriving if they are to arrive and departing if they have to depart.
ek evaaignar bahuQaa saimaw ek: saUyaao- ivaSvaM Anau p BaUt:
ekOvaaoYaa: savMa- [dM iva Baa%yaokM vaa [dM iva baBaUva sava-ma '
‘twodM t(-vyaakRtmaasaIt , tn aamarUpaByaamaova vyaak Iyat . sa eYa ih
p ivaYT Aa naKaga oBya: . AkR%snaao ih sa:, p aNannaova p aNaao naama Bavait, vadna
vaak , pSyaMScaxau:, SaRNvana Eaao ma , manvanaao mana:, tanyasayaOtaina kma-naamaanyaova sa
yaao t ekOkmaupasato na sa vaod, AkR%snaao (oYaao t ekOkona Bavait;
Aa%mao%yaovaaopasaIt, A (oto sava-M ekM Bavait tdot%pdnaIyamasya sava-sya
yadyamaa%maa, Anaona (ot%sava-M vaod '(Brihad Aranyak Up.I.iv.7)
Aa%maOvaodmaga AasaIt%puruYaivaQa:, saao navaIxya naanyadaa%manaao pSyat ,
saao hsmaI%yaga o vyaavart (Brihad Aranyak Up.I.iv.1)
‘saao vaot , ‘AhM vaava saRiYTr Aisma AhM hIdM sava-M AEaxaIit tt:
saRiYTrBavat (Brihad Aranyak Up.I.iv.5).
‘eYa p jaapitya-wRdyama ; etd ba *ma, et%sava-ma , tdot% yaxarma -
)dyaimait (Brihad Aranyak .V.iii.1).
‘ INyaa%manao ku$t [it manaao vaacaM p aNama tanyaa%manao kurut '.
(Brihad Aranyaka Up.I.iv.3).
‘$pM $pM p it$pao baBaUva tdsya $pM p itcaxaNaaya [nd ao maayaaiBa:
puru$p [-yato yau>a (sya hrya: Sata dSa ' (Brihad Aranyaka
sadova saaomyaodmaga AasaIdokmaovaaiWtIyama . tdOxat bahu sya M
pjaayaoyaoit.toYaaM KlvaoYaaM BaUtanaaM INyaova baIjaaina Bavan%yaaNDjaM
jaIvamauiBdjjaimait saoyaM dovatOxat hntahimamaaistsa ao dovata Anaona
jaIvaonaa%manaanaup ivaSya naama$po vyaakrvaaNaIit ' (Chhandogya Up.
‘Aqa yad [dM Aismana ba *mapuro dhrM puNDrIkM vaoSma dhrao ismana
AMtrakaSa: tismana yad AMt: td AnvaoYTvyama td vaa ivaija&aisatvyama
‘sava-M KilvadM ba *ma tjjaalainait Saant ]pasaIt Aqa Klau k tumaya:
puruYa: yaqaak turismnma Mlaaoko puruYaao Bavait tqaot: p o%ya Bavait sa k tuM kuvaI-t '
‘eYa ma Aa%maant)-dyao NaIyaanvaIhovaa- yavaaWa saYa-paWa SyaamaakaWa
SyaamaktNDulaaWOYa ma A%maant)-dyao jyaayaanpRiqavyaa jyaayaantirxaajjayaayaaindvaao
jyaayaanaoByaao laaokoBya: '(Chhandogya Up.III.xiv.3).
‘sa vaa eYa Aa%maa )id tsyaOtdova inar$>M )Vyaimait
samp saadao smaacCrIra%samau%qaaya prM jyaaoit$psampV svaona $poNaaiBainaYpVt eYa
Aa%maoit haovaacaOtdmaRtmaBayamaotd ba *maoit tsya h vaa etsya ba *maNaao naama sa%yaimait
taina h vaa etaina INyaxaraiNa satIyaimait tV%sa<admaRtmaqa yai<a tnma%ya-maqa
yaVM tonaaoBao yacCit tsmaVmahrhvaa- evaMiva%svaga-M laaokmaoit '
‘yat vaacaanaByauidtM yaona vaagaByauVto tdova ba *ma %vaM ivaiw
naodM yaiddMmaupasato yanmanasaa na manauto yaonaahur manaao matma tdova ba *ma %vaM ivaiw
naodM yaiddmaupasato ' (Kena Up.I.5-6).
‘ya: sava-&: sava-ivad yasya &anamayaM tp: tsma detd ba *ma
naamar$pM An aM ca jaayato ' (Mundaka Up.I.1.ix)
‘iva<amaova saMsaarma . ica<asya ih p saadona hint kma- SauBaSauBama .
laya ivaxaop rihtM Amana: kR%vaa sauinaScalaM yada yaait AmainaBaavama tda tt prmaM
pdma '(Maitri Up.).
‘sauKsyaanaMtrM du:KM du:KsyaanaMtrM sauKM cak vat pirvat-toto sauKdu:Ko
inarMtrma ' (Bhagavata Purana).
'itYzna gaoho gaRhoSaao Pyaitiqairva inajaM Qaama gaMtuM icakIYau-gao=-hsqaM
du:KsaaO#yaM na Bajaait sahsaa inama-ama%vaaiBamaana: Aayaa!aayaasyatIdM
jaladpTlavaVatR yaasya%yavaSyaM dohaVaM sava-maova p‘iavaidtivaYayaao yacca itYZ%yaya%na:
saMga: sa%sau ivaQaIyataM BagavataM Bai>dRZa QaIyatama
Saan%yaaid: pircaIyataM dRZtrM kma-sau saM%yajyatama
saiWWaanaupsaRjyata p itidna t%paduko saovyataama
ba *maOkaxarM Aqa-%yaaM EauitiSaraovaa@yaM samakNaya-tama 2
Companionship with the noble ones should be
cultivated. Communion with the Resplendent Lord
should be firmly established. One should
discriminate with equanimous Mind. With
determination one should renounce actions (born of
desire). One should associate with noble men of
Wisdom. One should devotedly serve That One
every day. The one immutable Brahman should be
the sole enterprise. One should be receptive to the
Supreme scriptural statements with equanimity.
saMga: sa%sau ivaQaIyatama
Companionship with the noble ones should
Scriptures lay down that sa%ya, the Prime
Existence manifests in forms with essence posited therein, establishes its Will as ?t -the Cosmic Law being the spiritual and temporal principle which keep the manifestation in balance for which are provided Qama- the Perennial Principles, the ordained injunctions for initiating, promoting and culmination of kma- the performance of the actions. The elements in manifestation are expected to be in consonance with the ordained Will of the divine and in balance with ?t - the Cosmic Law full the task assigned to fulfill the divine intent and purpose.
The elements in manifestation which
perform their actions following the ordained injunctions assist in maintaining the spiritual and temporal balance in creation, as Sun and the Moon follow their chartered Path, seasons follow one after another, the rains fall, the rivers flow and oceans filled the cycle gives rise to vapor to turn in to clouds, clouds to pour rains and begin the cycle again. Life begins with the seed, seed having been sown, becomes plants, the tree the flowers and the fruits bring the seeds again in the fruits to begin the
Every element in creation that is manifest is
assigned the role when they are born according to their attribute (gauNa) and inclination (svaBaava). Those who follow Qama- enjoined for them are known as the luminous ones, dovas while those who disregard Qama- influenced by the organs of senses are known as non-luminous or Asauras. Any deviation in the role assigned role to any one of the elements in creation is met with serious punishments necessitating for the divine Creator to descend in animate or inanimate forms to destroy the forces of darkness and obscurity which contribute to such imbalance in creation in the form of natural calamities or moral and ethical intransigence and to re-establish the Cosmic Law with Principles of righteousness suitable adjusted to the new situations.
Maitri Up (VI.43) says that Mind is the
samsaara, therefore let a man search with diligence. What a man thinks that he becomes; this is the eternal mystery. By serenity of one's mind alone actions are terminated, both good and the bad. Dwelling in the Self one revels in imperishable pleasure. Mind alone for human beings is the cause
for bondage and deliverance; bondage through association with senses and deliverance through their dispassion, thus one should understand.
Shankara too says Companionship with the
noble ones should cultivate, since the evil doers do not traverse the path of eternal Cosmic Law (Rigveda.IX.73.6). Kath Up (I.2.24) declares that he who has not desisted from evil ways, who is not tranquil, who has not restrained his mind, not even he who has not composed his mind can ever reach the Self. Therefore company of the noble ones is recommended. Because as Bhagavat Purana (III.xxv.21-24) says saints are forbearing, compassionate and composed. They are friendly to all and inimical to none. Their company is to be sought for avoiding pernicious influence of desires.
Seers are, verily the luminous beings the dovas
on earth. Therefore, they taken up the task which otherwise the Gods themselves would have to undertake or The supreme God himself descends for setting right the wrongs. Therefore, the vedic seers ever pray for good and noble thoughts to come to him from all side (Rigveda.I,89.i). Mundaka Up. (I.ii.12) recommends that human beings should for
the sake of Wisdom, approach a Teacher who is learned in scriptures and well established in Brahman with sacrificial fuel in his hand and Bhagavad Gita (IV.34) endorses saying that one should approach men of wisdom, seers of That Principle, through humble reverence, inquiry and through service, so that they may instruct them of the correct Qama-.
Saints are those who have sad Baava – saaQau Baava,
which Bhagavad Gita (XVII.26-27) explains as sat , the Prime Existence, leading to steadfastness, sobriety and charity in performance of actions, and every thing contrary leading to unwholesome actions. Noble people perform penance so that through that energy people may be enlightened (Bhagavat Purana). In Vivekachudamani Shankara says, noble people having crossed over the perilous ocean – samsaara, and desiring well- being of the world and helping others to cross over the same. They live like the spring season, therefore one should seek their company.
‘?tsya pnqaa na trint duYkRt: '(Rigveda.IX.73.6).
‘svaist pnqaaM Anaucaroma saUyaa-cand saaivava punad-dtaGnata jaanata saM
gamaomaih ' (Rigveda.V.51.xv) 3.
‘Aa naao Bad a: k tvaao yantu ivaSvat:' (Rigveda.I,89.i)
‘manasaa (ova pSyait manasaa EauNaaoit kama: saMklpao ivaicaik%saa
Eawa Eawa QaRiyrQaRit)I-QaI-BaI-ir%yaot%savMa- mana eva
Araanuyaka Up. I.v.3) 5.
‘yaqaa inairiQanaao vai*na: svayaaonaava ]pSamyato tqaa vaRi<axayaaicca<aM
svayaaonaava]pSamyato .ica<amaova ih saMsaarM tt p ya%naona SaaoQayaot yaiccatstnmayaao Bavait gau(M ett sanaatnama ica<asya p saadona hint kma- SauBaaSauBama p sannaa%maa%maina isqa%vaa sauKM AvyayaM AaSnauto . mana eva manauYyaanaaM karNaM banQamaaoxayaao: banQayaa ivaYayasaMgaIM maaoxaao inaiva-YayaM smaRtma (Maitri Up.VI.34). 6.
'naaivartao duScairtannaaSaantao naasamaiht: naaSaantmanasaao vaa ip
p &anaonaOnamaaPnauyaat (Kath Up (I.2.24). 7.
‘tiW&anaaqMa- sa gauurumaovaavagacCot saima%paiNa: Eaaoi yaM ba *mainaYzma '
(Mundaka Up.I.ii.12). 8.
‘tiWwI p iNapatona pirp Snaona saovayaa ]pdoxyaint to &anaM
&ainanast%vadaiSa-na:' (Bhagavad Gita.IV.34). 9.
mamaOvaaMSaao jaIvalqaoko jaIvaBaUt: sanaatna: mana: YaYzanaIind yaaiNa
p kR%yaaina kYa-it (Bhagavad Gita.XV.7). 10.
'sad Baavao saaQauBaavao ca said%yaotp yaucyato p Sasto kmaa-iNa tqaa sacCbd
paqa- yaujyato ya&o tpisa danao ca isqait: saidit caaocyato kma- caOva tdqaI-yaM said%yaovaaiBaQaIyato '.
BagavataM Bai>dRZa QaIyatama
Communion with the Resplendent Lord should be
Bhagavan is the luminous Prime Existence,
who becomes manifest with effulgent creativity designated as Brahman endowed with six attributes - supremacy, righteousness, eminence, affluence, wisdom and renunciation. As the Prime Existence, Krishna tells Arjuna (Bhagavad Gita. X.41) that he is to be identifies with every thing that is resplendent, glorious, beautiful or mighty and forceful. He is the seed of all existences, affirming the positive aspect of existence, without denying the negative aspects, affirming that the Prime Existence, is everything without any duality or contradictory, everything being the divine existence, there being nothing else in creation which does not owe origin in him..
effulgent attracts to itself the eightfold gross
elements of nature namely the earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect and ego-sense (Bhagavad Gita.VII.4). Therefore, the creatures need to engage themselves in the institution of sacrifice, ordained by Prajapati in the very beginning, to fulfill their role in participating the divine intent and purpose (Bhagavad Gita.III.10). If that is done, then whatever he does, eats, offers, gives in charity, performs as austerity all that would be as offering to Him (Bhagavad Gita.IX.27). If he acts in this manner, then he could be said to live in accordance with the Will of Brahman, always performing actions here in worlds, in accordance to his Will, with full understanding that such actions are in furtherance of the Divine Will.
Thus will he find fulfillment in the
Communion with the Resplendent Lord, which being nothing else than the effulgent fragment being enjoining with that from which it had become effulgent, performing actions according to one's svaBaava and svagauNa remaining not-attached to the fruits of his actions.
The Prime Existence becomes effulgent as
Brahman, becoming the breath that breathes, the
eye that sees, the ear of the hearer and mind of the thinker ; he becomes puruYaivaQa:, one in whom the divine essence has found abidance, the word Purusha having been defined in Brihad Aranyak Up. as the One dwelling in all bodies. There is nothing that is not covered by him, nothing that is not pervaded by him. Therefore, when Krishna exhorts Arjuna to surrender unconditionally, it is not to the fragment, the Krishna-form but to the whole, complete and entirety of Krishna-Consciousness within that human Krishna-form, the higher nature within the transient gross form. The ignorant fools not knowing his divine essence within do not understand that he is the supreme Krishna-Consciousness, the Prime Existence, all that IS, both good and the bad, noble and the ignoble, proper and the pleasant, the partial existence has no real basis and human beings have no reason to prefer, choose, select but surrender everything without any reservation, since everything done is now as ordained by him. Therefore, he asks him to surrender to him ‘sava- Qama -na pir%yajya', giving up his doership along with all his social, traditional, ethical and moral identification (Bhagavad Gita.XVIII.66). When the seeker thus becomes identified with the Krishna, communicated with the Communicator,
the dividing line between the two becomes
indistinguishable and even ceases, when union
between is well established.
‘p aNasya p aNaM ]t caxauSascaxau: ]t Eaao sya Eaao M manasaao yao mana o
ivadu:' (Brihad Aranayak Up.)
‘sa vaa AyaM puruYa: savaa-sau puYau- pirSaya: ; yaOnaona ikMcanaanaavaRtma , naOnaona
ikMcanaasaMvaRtma ' (Brihad Aranayak Up.II.v.18).
'sahya&a: p jaa: saRYvaa puraovaaca p ajaapit: Anaona p saivaYyaQvamaYa
vaao is%vaYTkamaQaRk ' (Bhagavad Gita.III.10).
‘yaViWBaUitma%sa<vaM EaImadUija-tmaova vaa t<adovaavagacC %vaM mama
tojaaoM SasamBavama (Bhagavad Gita.X.41)
5. ‘AvajaanaMit maaM maUZa maanaYaIM tnaUM AaiEatM prM BaavaM AjaanaMtao mama
BaUtmahoSvarma ' (Bhagavad Gita.IX.11)
6. ‘BaUimarapao nalaao vaayau: KM manaao bauiWrova ca AhMkaar [tIyaM mao iBan a
p kRitrYTQaa ' (Bhagavad Gita.VII.4).
7. ‘sava-Qamaa-npir%yajya maamaokM SarNaM va ja AhM %vaa sava-papoByaao maaoxaiyaYyaaima
maaSauca: ' (Bhagavad Gita.XVIII.66).
8. ‘ya%kraoiYa yadSnaaisa yajjauhaoiYa ddaisa yat ya<apasyaisa kaOntoya t%ku$Yva
madp-Nama ' (Bhagavad Gita.IX.27).
One should discriminate with equanimous Mind.
Human mind open to the influences of the
attributes born of nature, like saai%vak (luminous), rajaisak (energetic) and tamaisak (obscure) is a turbulent mind, never steady, never composed, therefore, never amenable to be receptive. Such mind is, therefore, unstable as rudderless boat in a stormy sea. Krishna refers the man who puts away all the desires of his mind and is content in his self, as isqatp & - a man of equanimous intelligence. When Arjuna complains that it is difficult to have equanimity of Mind, on account its restlessness, Krishna assures him that the mind being restless is undoubtedly difficult to be restrained. But it can be retrained by constant practice and non attachment to external responses. Yoga is hard to attain by one who is not controlled his self. He tells him that one whose receptivity and responses are free from all desires, whose performance of actions are
consumed in the fire of Wisdom, is called a yogi - a man of equanimous mind by men of wisdom. Having abandoned all attachment to the fruits of his actions, ever content without any dependence, he remains disengaged even though engaged in performance of actions. Being content with whatever he gain, raised above the dualities, freed from jealousies, equanimous in success and failure, he remains unbound by the actions performed.
Katha Upanishad (I.iii.3) represents body as
the chariot, intellect as charioteer, Mind as the reigns, senses as horses and the objects as the Path pursued, with Self as the master of the chariot. One with no understanding, and Mind unrestrained, senses would run out of control, like unruly horses. One with understanding, restrains the Mind and senses, reaches the goal. Both the Proper (Eaoya) and the Pleasant (p oya) approach him. The wise one using his sense of discrimination, chooses the Proper and not the Pleasant but a man of little wisdom, who under sensory influences, chooses the Pleasant and not the Proper, goes to destruction (Kath Up.I.ii-2).
calls for discrimination
‘ina%yaina%yaivavaok' of the eternal Proper (Eaoya) from the
non-eternal Pleasant (p oya). suggesting that it is the ignorance of the unassailable relationship of the individual self and the universal Self that gives to samsaara. Since these two are opposed to each other as Wisdom and ignorance, they cannot be both accepted. Therefore he who accepts the Eaoya descarding the p oya becomes well disposed.
Mundaka Up.(II.ii.7-8) declares that when
the one perceives with clarity of intellect and
through Wisdom, the blissful and immortal one
shine and then the knot of the heart is cut asunder,
all his doubts are dispelled and actions are
determined. In Bhakti Sutra, Narada considers
having communion with That is having the form
intense commitment, ‘AmaRtsvarUpa' having attribute of
immortality, one becoming perfect, and one
becomes immortal, one becomes contented. Having
such communion, he desires nothing else, thinks,
hates, revels or inspired by nothing else. On the
contrary having attained it one responds as if he
were mad, becomes quiet and revels in his self.
'yasya savao- samaarmBaa kamasa=klpvaija-t: &anaaignadgQaakmaa-Na
tmaahu: piDtM bauQa: %ya@%vaakma-flaasa= gaM ina%yatRPataao inaraEaaya: kma-
NyaiBap vaR<aao ip naOva ikiHca%karaoit sa: .yadRcCalaaBasaMtuYTao WnWatItao
ivama%sar: sama: isawavaisawaO ca kR%vaaip na inabaQyato (Bhagavad
‘EaoyaSca p oyaSca manauYyamaotstaO samprI%ya ivaivanai> QaIr: Eaoyaao ih
QaIrao iBa p oyasaao vaRNauto p oyaao mandao yaaogaxaomaad vaRNaIto .Aa%maana M riqanaM ivaiw
SarIr M rqamaova tu bauiwM tu saariqaM ivaiw mana: p ga hmaova ca ' (Katha
Up.I.ii-2 and I,iii.3)).
‘ekao vaSaI sava-BaUtantra%maa ekM $pM bahuQaa ya: kraoit tmaa%maMsqaM
yao naupSyaint QaIrastoYaaM sauKM SaaSvatM naotroYaama ' (Katha Up.II.ii-
‘tiW&anaona pirpSyaint QaIra Aanand$pmamaRtM yaiWBaait iBaVto
)dyaga inqaiSCVnto sava-saMSayaa: xaIyanto caasya kma -iNa tismana dRYTo pravaro '
‘saa %vaismana prma p omasvarUpa'.‘yallabQvaa pumaana isawao Bavait AmaRtao
Bavait tRPtao Bavait'.‘yat p aPya na ikMicad vaaMCit na Saaocait na WoiYT na rmato
naao%saahI Bavait (Bhakti Sutras).
dRZtrM kma-Sau saM%yajyatama
With determination one should renounce actions (born of desire).
Desire is said to be the root of all creativity.
According to Rigveda.X.129 when That One, Brahman, was alone, breathing by self impulse – ‘svaQayaa', when there was neither Existence nor non-Existence and everything was enveloped by obscurity, the potential yet to become potency. Upanishads speak of the creation coming out as effulgence, even as breath would come out when breathing, the words commonly used being saao kamayat, sa eoxat, or as in Chhandogya Up.IV.ii.3 says, ‘tdOxat bahu syaaM p jaayaoyaoit'. Krishna says in Bhagavad Gita (VII.11) that he is Desire which is not contrary to Dharma.
Mind is exceedingly complex instrument
whose source is desire, which gives rise to thoughts, ideas, concepts, beliefs, faiths and impressions to be aggregated through influence of the organs of senses. Brihad Araanyaka Up. (IV.iv.6) declares that the object to which mind gets attached to, towards that object the subtle self goes together with the deed. But the mind which does not desire or who is without desire or who is freed from desires, or whose desire is satisfied or whose desire is the self itself, such one does not suffer. He is like the falcon who having flown around in the sky becomes weary, folds its wings and comes to his
real abiding place, even so is the person who returns to his real abiding place, where he has no desires or where his desire is his self. The empirical mind is made of aggregation of such memories of various desires collect and capture from the past, shaping with permutation and combination the present situation to manipulate the future. Besides and beyond is such empirical mind there is a pure Mind, which is infinitly more powerful, deeper, tranquil, equanimous having spiritual dimension.
When philosopher Descartes made his
statement ‘I know, therefore, I am' he was undoubtedly responding from a state of mind of aggregate empirical experiences. When Socrates responded saying that 'I know that I know not', he was responding from his conscious awareness of his spiritual mind even as Buddha was responding from the spiritual mind without any sensation, the original foundational mind, the state of Blissful Mind. Upanishad defines such mind with negative identification naoit, naoit – not this, not this, not any thing like what is seen in the world.
Therefore, Maitri Up. (VI.34) says that mind
is said to be of two forms, pure and impure, impure
from the influence of desires and pure renouncing the desires. By freeing Mind form the sloth and distraction and making it tranquil one becomes delivered from the (empirical) mind. Bhagavad Gita suggest that when the Mind dwells on the objects of sense, attachment to them is produced; from that attachment springs desire. Therefore it should be restrained slowly even it becomes diverted.
Therefore, this injunction requires that one
should with determination renounce actions born of desire. Desires by themselves are neither good nor bad. Actions performed in response to Will of the Divine and not in satiation of senses do not culminate in suffering but in furtherance of the spiritual Perfection. Therefore, Shankara says in Vivekachudamani, ‘if one knows only the principles of the self through words, since their influences reaches so far as the speech goes, and does not terminate the world of perception, how can one experience deliverance?'
Mind is the receptacle of auspicious as well
as inauspicious thoughts, good and the bad, proper and the pleasant, noble and the ignoble, possessions and positions mingling as seeds in fruits. If one
wants to perceive the original Mind, which Brahman had provided as its instrument, then the cluttered Mind needs to be dispossessed and de-positioned of the thoughts which sensory influence has created therein, which conceal the Mind from being observed. In loosing the sensations of the senses on the empirical Mind lies the key to bliss and deliverance enabling communion with the supernal Mind.
Bhagavad Gita describes one who is in
Bliss, comparing it with one unto whom all desires enter even as the waters enter the ocean, loosing their individual identity and merging with the whole. ‘This is firm abidance in Brahman, being no more bewildered leads to Brahman, distinct from the body'. Krishna is strong votary of renunciation of desires from Mind, which is not same as abstention of action, because attributes (gauNa) and natural inclination (svaBaava) force him to perform actions ; therefore, only through non-attachment to the fruits of a0ction can one attain the supreme.
Uncompromising surrender of desires means
performing only such actions as are in conformity with the Divine Will, since desires which are not
against Dharma, become the conduit for fulfillment of the Divine Will. In Bhagavat Purana we find it mentioned, ‘With their Mind absorbed in Him (Krishna), imitating his various activities, nay, identified with Him and singing his various glories alone, the cowherd women did not recollect their own body, much less their homes . Sri Suka further said, This has been already explained to you how Shishupala attained communion through hating Krishna, what wonder then, that Gopis, who looked upon Him, as as their beloved should do so? Indeed they who constantly cherish desire, wrath, fear, affection, kinship or devotion towrd Sri Hari attain oneness with Him.' Narada says in Bhakti Sutras, fulfillment of the Divine Will is unconditional surrender of all actions and intense restlessness in not remembering, as in the case of Gopis of Vraja, in which state, forgetfulness of higher wisdom does not arise. In the absence, it would be like (infatuation) of a paramour.
Shankara says that rites and rituals are only
the means for temporal prosperity, at best leading to the world of luminous devas but communion with the Supreme Being, without attachment to the fruits
of action, leads to the purity of Mind. He
enumerates the steps for deliverance from
samsaara, the first step towards deliverance is
extreme detachment from transient things, then
comes restrain of internal and external organs,
turning away from sense objects, endurance of pain
and sorrow, giving up sense influenced actions.
Thereafter, comes being receptive to the wisdom of
a thinker, reflection and meditation continuously
and constantly on the Self. Only then will the seeker
attain the Blissful state
'AanaIdvaatM svaQayaa tdokM tsmaawanyanna pr: ikM canaasa tma
AasaIt tmasaa gaULhmaga o p kotM sailalaM sava-maa[dma ' (Rigveda.X.129).
‘tdova sa>: sah kma-NaOit ila=gaM manaao ya inaYa@tmasya p aPyaantM
kma-Nastsya yai%kMcaoh krao%yayama tsmaallaoka%punarO%yasmaO laaokaya kma-Nao [it nau
kamayamaana: Aqaakamayamaana: yaao kamaao inaSkama AaPtkama A%makamaao na tsya
p aNaa ]%k amaint ba *maOva sanba *maaPyaoit ' (Brihad Aranyaka
'manaao ih iWivaQaM p ao>M SauwmaSauwMmaova ca ASauwM kamasaMpka-t SauwM
kamaivavajatma ' (Maitri Up. (VI.34).
‘kama jaanaaima to maUlaM saMklpat %vaM ih jaayasao na %vaaM saMklpiyaYyaaima
tona %vaM na BaivaYyaisa ' (Mahabharata)
‘Qamaa-ivaruwao BaUtoYau kamaao isma BartYa-Ba' (Bhagavad
'eYaa ba a*maI isqait: paqa- naOnaaM p aPya ivamau(it
isqa%vaa syaamantkalao ip ba *mainava -NamaRcCait
‘na ih kiSca%xaNamaip jaatu itYz%yakma-kRt kaya-to (vaSa: kma-
sava: p kRitjaOgaNaO:' (Bhagavad Gita.III.5).
‘tsmaadsa>: sattM kayMa- kma-samaacar Asa>ao (carna kma-
prmaaPnaaoit puruYa: (Bhagavad Gita.III).
‘tdaip-taiKlaacaarta tiWsmaraNao prmavyakulatoit yaqaa
va jagaaoipkanaama t aip na maaha%mya&anaivasmaR%yapvaada: tiWhInaM jaaraNaaimava '
(Narada Bhakti Sutras).
‘AkR%vaa _Syaivalayama&%vaa t%vamaa%mana: baa(SabdO: kutao
maui>maa flaOnaRNaama ' (Shankara).
‘maaoxasya hotu: p qamaaoinagaVto vaOragyama%yantmaina%yavastuYau tt:
SamScaaip dmaisttIxaa nyaasa: p sa>aiKlkma-NaaM BaRSama tt: EaitstnmananaM
sat%vaQyaanaM icarM ina%yainarMtrM mauna: tta ivaklpM prmao%ya ivaWainahOMova inava -NasauKM
One should associate with noble men of Wisdom.
saiWd is the Wisdom (iva&ana) of the sat , the Prime
Existence, which as Krishna identifies in Bhagavad Gita (XV.17-18) the Un-manifest Eternal Being, which even after all creatures are destroyed, does not perish, therefore, called Imperishable, the supreme goal, supreme abode attaining which there is no return hither. ! is the Eternal Sound, the primary sound -)dya spndna, symbolizing the resonance of the heart beats of Sriman Narayana, while he rests in the oceans on the coils of Anant, the eternity and SaoYa, the remainder. the self-impulse -svaQayaa with which That One existence in the beginning. Maitri Up. says, ! is the sound and Brahman is the non-sound. ! is the Eternal Sound and Brahman is the non-sound
which comes to revealed as
manifestation on creation and concealed in the Eternal Sound on dissolution. Thus there are two forms of what is effulgent, Brahman the formed and the formless, the unreal and the real. By means of these all this (the creation) is woven as warp and woof. In the beginning this was un-uttered; that prime existence, Prajapati performing tapas manifested as the world (Bau:), space (Bauva:) and the heavens (sva:). Maitri Up. further says that Sun is the
immortal one, therefore, made ! as its abiding place. Therefore, it is said that one should meditate on That Sun (using the physical Sun in the sky as the symbol) and becomes united - t%saivatur varoNyaM Baga o- divasya QaImaih iQayaao na: p caaodyaat .
Seers who having ‘seen' and ‘heard' in
silence Brahman through their supra-sensory perception and revealed to them without effort or human agency, ‘puruYap ya%naivanaa p kiTtBaUt' as speech which was best EaoYzM and stainless Airp ma , share the experience of that !, the immutable -Axar - immutable and the indescribable, AvaNa-naIya experience giving names to their revelations – yat p Ort naamaQaoyaM dQaanaa:, only in silence with like minded noble souls.
In Katha Up. Nachiketa informs Yama that
by his own statement it is not easy to understand, therefore, he needs to be instructed by him since another teacher like him is easy to be found and no other boon could be comparable to this. Then Yama communicates to him the wisdom of the !, the immutable word which all vedic scriptures declare in hymns, which all austerities proclaim, desiring which people go through learning wisdom of Brahman. The mystery of this Wisdom, taught by an
inferior person, cannot be truly known, as He is thought in many ways. Unless taught by one who knows that Wisdom, as one would know oneself, there is no approach there, for it is inconceivable and subtler than subtle. Mundaka Up. recommends that having scrutinized the status attained by performance of actions, a man of Wisdom (Brahmana) should arrive at non-attachment. Even so would those who having ascertained the Wisdom of the supreme Vedic Wisdom, having purified their nature through renunciation, they dwell in the world of Brahman at the end of their life being one with the supreme goal and delivered.
In Vivekachudamani, Shankara says, that
having crossed over the great ocean of primordial world, living without any purpose and only for the sake of the good of the people, equanimous great persons function in life like the spring season. He suggests, therefore, that one should approach a Guru who is communicator, who is peaceful, sincere, without any desires, well qualified in Wisdom, dazzling like fire without fuel, compassionate without any expectations, friend of the noble ones and bowing down in respect, for
Wisdom of the wise.
Bhagavat Purana too says, ‘saints are
forbearing, compassionate, and composed. They are friendly to all and inimical to none. Following the injunctions of the scriptures their kind disposition serves as ornament to them . They are free from desire. Their company, therefore, should be sought for avoiding the pernicious effect of desire'.
'prIxya laaokankama-icatanbaa*maNaao inavao-dmaayaannaais%yakRt: kRtona
tiW&aanaaqMa- sa gaurumaovaaiBagacCo%saima%paiNa: Eaaoi yaM ba *mainaYzma tsmaO sa
ivaWanaupsannaaya samya@p Saantica<aaya Samaainvataya yaonaaxarM puruYaM vaod sa%yaM p aovaaca
taM t<vatao ba *maivaVama (Mundaka.Up.I.2.12-13).
vaodantiva&anasauinaiScataqa -: sannyaasayaaogaaVtya: Sauwsa%vaa: to
ba *malaaokoYau prantkalao pramaRta: pirmaucyaint savao-
'dovaOr aip ivaicaik%satM ikla %vaM ca maR%yaao yanna sau&oyamaa%qa
va>acaasya%vaadRganyaao na labyaao naanyao varstulya etsya @vaicat (Katha
'savao- vaoda ya%pdmaanaint tpa M isa savaa-iNa ca yaWdint yaidcCntao
ba *macayMa-carint t<ao pd M saMga hoNa ba vaImyaaoima%yaott (Katha Up.I.2.15).
‘na naroNaavaroNa p ao> eYa sauiva&oyaao bahuQaa ican%yamaana: Ananyap ao>o
gaitr naaist ANaIyaana (t@yamaNauup maaNaat (Katha Up.I.2.8).
'Wo vaava ba *maNaao $po maUta-ncaamaUta-na ca AqayaanmaUt-M td Asa%yaM
yadmaUt-M tt sa%yaM td ba *ma, tjjyaaoit: yajjyaaoit: sa Aaid%ya:, sa vaa eYa !
pitetd Aa%maaBavat .etoiBa: savMa- [dM AaotM p aotM caOvaasmaIit, evaM ih
AahOtad vaa Aaid%ya ! [it evaM Qyaayata Aa%,aamaaM yauMijatoit (Maitri
prststsmaa<au Baavaao nyaao vy>ao vya>a%sanaatna: ya: sa savao-Yau aUtoYau
naSuastuna ivanaSyato Avya>ao xar [%yau>staahu: prmaaM gaitma yaM p aPya na inavat-
nto twaa prmaM mama (Bhagavad Gita VIII. 20-21)
']<ama: piruYas%vanya: prmaa%mao%yauda)t: yaao laaok yamaaivaSya ibaBa%ya-
vyaya [-Svar: yasma%xarmatItao hmaxaradip caao<ama: Atao isma laaoko vaodo ca
p iqat: puruYaao<ama: (Bhagavad Gita XV.17-18).
'Saanta mahantao inavasaint santao vasantvallaaokihtM carnt: tINaa-:
svayaM BaImaBavaaNa-vaM janaanahotutanyaaip taryant: ' (Shankara).
p itidna t%paduko saovyataama
One should devotedly serve That One every day.
That One is the Prime Existence, which
being inarakar, human beings can see only through an Aakar -form. That One form. Bhagavad Gita (XII.5) points out the difficulty of the people who have set their thoughts on the unmanifest form to reach out
that form. The inconceivable That One, establishes within the gross form to enable to the human beings to reach out to them. Purusha of the size of a thumb resides in the body, like the flame without smoke, the lord of the past and future, same to day and the same tomorrow, says Kath Up. (II.1.12-13). One should, therefore, attune one's mind on the gross form of That One by visualizing the divine essence posited therein and dwelling, even as one enjoined to meditate on the name or form as Brahman knows that those things are different from Brahman. It is like meditating on the image of Vishnu, just like the image, the name and others are used merely being aid to meditate and not to mean that they are Brahman. So long as one does not know a wooden log as wooden log, he may commit mistake it to be a man. Thus meditation on the name and others as Brahman is not error if one meditates on the image in this manner.
Therefore p itidnaM tt paduko saovyatama means attuning
one's mind on That One, wholly, completely and in entirety without reservation continuously like flow of the oil being poured, being mentally receptive to the resonance of eternal Sound ! emanating from
That One. One comes to be in communion with That One, which state of being is called Bai>, which not being the process but the culmination of upasana, as Shankara explains. Then enlightenment dawns not as something gained or attained but as destruction of ignorance in mind conditioned by thoughts, concepts, beliefs and memories completely without reservation, in the spirit that everything here is entirely Thine, of the Prime Existence and nothing is Mine – [dM na mama. Krishna says in Bhagavad Gita (XIII.28) that one who experiences That One as dwelling as the imperishable essence within all the perishable forms truly experiences.
In life, persons perceive every event or
challenge, not with confidence but confused and confounded, wanting definite, unequivocal, and authoritative words of assurance without themselves having to think for a response. He needs a sure stick to lean on but Ramana Maharshi aptly points out that the stick is to be used even as one uses to shake the logs on the funeral pyre to make the flames ignite and once the purpose is fulfilled then the stick needs to be put aside. Arjuna represents the
confused soul, who with apparent confused speech asks for decisive solution by which he can attain the highest good. Therefore, most human beings need to be fed by the teacher in easy installments with only outward physical prostrations without having to surrender mentally and with all inclination -Baava.
Human beings need gods and gurus not as
stick but as a crutch to take up their task and give them solutions and remedies in capsules, which they can gulp without having to think or reflect. They misconstrue the word Eawa as having faith or belief in some one or the other. But Eawa is not having blind faith or belief in a God or a Guru, taking the gross form itself as divine. Eawa means draining one's mind of the conditioned thoughts, concepts, beliefs and memories so that it could be receptive without reservation not to the external gross form of the God or the Guru by physical protestation but to the essence within those, being aware that what initiates action is not the external gross form but the subtle essence abiding in them.
therefore, defines in
Vivekachudamani Eawa as being primarily on the same intellectual wave length (sa%yabauwyavaQaarNaM) as that
of the scriptures and Guru's statements. Even as when one worships the idol it is not the stone or the metal that is worshipped but the deposited therein, even as when one declares namasto, I adore That One - namasa to, it is not the stone or the metal that is worshipped but the divine essence therein, even so when one says that he has Eawa in scriptures or Guru it is being in communion with the internal essence of the scriptures and the teachings of Guru and not in their external form. Therefore, Eawa means being receptive and SarNaagait means surrender of one's Mind to the Divine Essence, wholly, completely and in entirety, as a grain of salt becomes dissolved in the vast ocean and in that process ceases to have individual and distinct identity.
Arjuna's mind burdened by his &ana,
gathered through his empirical
instrument of cognition failed him being receptive to the importance of the battle in the field of righteousness, Qama-xao o, being struck by sentimental pity and bewildered mind. Pity is not noble, compassion is. Pity is a weakness of the mind under sensory influences, which comes naturally and easily to human beings, their ego-sense becoming
stronger. Compassion is noble and therefore, desirable lest men would be harsh and cruel.
In that confused mood on one side he asks
for guidance and on the other lays down his arms, saying ‘I will not fight'. Krishna, seeing the folly and depression, admonishes him that he talks as one who is wise -‘ASaaocyaananvaSaaocas%vaM p &avaadaMSca BaaYasao '. After being communicated by Krishna both Knowledge (&ana) along with Wisdom (iva&ana) – ‘&anaM iva&anasaihtma ' and surrenedering the Mind conditioned by injunctions, restrictions, thoughts memories, views, beliefs and faiths, ‘sava-Qamaa-npir%yajya maamaokM SarNaM va ja'.
This is what is meant by the words ‘tt paduko
saovyatama ' complete submission of one's Mind, Speech and Actions, making them the instrument of Divine effulgence, becomes receptive and attentive. Ignorance is caused when an individual assumes to be the performer of actions. Awareness is when he becomes receptive and enlightened to the palpable presence of the Divine energy behind everything that his born sustained and destroyed. As Krishna says on Gita, one who is united with the divine and knows in principle would say ‘I do nothing at all' and thinking of That One, making That One, the
centre of consciousness, the abidance and the final goal, reaches the state from where there is not return, their taints being washed away. On this Path, no effort is ever lost nor any obstacles prevail, even little righteousness saves one from great danger.
Thus does one tt paduko saovyatama .
'AMgauYzmaa : puruYaao maQya Aa%maina itYzit .jyaaiotirvaaQaUmak: [-
Saanaao BaUtBavyasya sa evaaV sa ] Sva: ' Kath Up. (II.1.12-13).
'@laoSaao iQaktrstoYaamavya>asa>caaotsaama Avya>a ih gaitdu-:KM
'[it xao M tqaa &anaM &oyaM caao>M samaasat: mad Ba>: etiva&aya
‘vyaaimaEaoNaova va@yaona bauiwM maaohyasaIva mao tdokM vad inaiSca%ya yaona
Eaoyaao hmaaPnayaat ' (Bhagavad Gita.III.2).
QaUtklmaYaa: ' (Bhagavad Gita.XIII.19). –
‘kap-NyadaoYaaophtsvaBaava: pRcCaima %vaaM Qama-saMmaUZcaotsaa'
‘naohaiBak manaaSaao ist p %yavaayaao na ivaVto svalpmapyasya Qama-sya
ayato mahtao Bayaat ' (Bhagavad Gita.XIII.19).
'Baodona ih ba *maNaao naamaaidvastup itpn asya naamaadaO ivaQaIyato
ba *madRiYT:, p itmaaivava ivaYNaudRiYT: Aalambana%vaona ih naamaaidp itpi<a:
p itmaaidvadova, na tu naamaaVopva ba *maoit yaqaa sqaaNaavaina&a-to na sqaaNauirit, puruYa
evaayaimait p itpVto ivaprItma , na tu tqaa naamaadaO ba *madRiYTiva-prIta '
']pasanaM naama yaqaaSaas M ]pasyaaqa-sya ivaYayaIkrNaona saamaIPyamaupganya
tOlaQaaravat samaanap %yayap vaahoNa dIGa-kalaM yadasanama ' (Shankara).
'saa caaivaVa na Aa%mana: svaaBaaivakao Qama-: yasmaat
ivaVayaamau%kRYyamaaNaayaaM svayaM ApcaIyamaanaa satI kaYzaM gatayaaM ivaVaayaaM pirinaYzto
sava-%maBaavao sava -%manaa inavat-to ' (Shankara).
Saas sya gau$va@yasya sa%yabauwyavaQaarNama saa Eawa kiqata said Baya-
yaa vastuplabByato (Shankara).
ba *maOkaxarM Aqa-%yaama
The one immutable Brahman should be the sole
All this, verily, is Brahman, from which all
things emerge, are sustained and in to which they dissolve. Therefore, being tranquil one should meditate on it, says Chhandogya Up.(III.xiv.1). Yajnavalkya declares in Brihad Aranyak Up. (II.v.1)
that this shining, the immortal person who is in this earth in reference to one's self is this shining immortal person who is in the body is Self, the immortal, the Brahman, the all.
Brahman is the source of manifestation of
effulgence of the essence and the diverse forms. Animate manifestation do not discriminate but respond to their senses and intuition inanimate one does not respond in the absence of sensation, as we know it, though within them the essence exists, concealed within and changing the external form. The human being, among all the animate and inanimate manifestations, being endowed with sense of discrimination, enabling him to distinguish the internal essence from the external form, can aim to reach out to the goal. Therefore Shankara considers human life as important in spiritual evolution pointing out that rare is the human birth for creatures, rarer is the birth as a male, rarer still is attaining Brahminhood, still rare is being born a Brahmin and following knowledge of vedic scriptures, and rare, indeed, is being a man of Wisdom. Even thereafter, to have sense of discrimination for the self and non-self, awareness
of Brahman and deliverance is not possible to be attained even in crores of lives.
The methods, the means and the
instruments which one uses are as important for a man as the purpose, because even as Chhandogya Up. (III.xiv.1) points out a person consists of a purpose; as is his purpose in this world, so does he become after departure from here. Therefore, let him determine his purpose. Brihad Aranyaka Up. (IV.iv.6) points out that the object to which mind gets attached to, to that object the subtle self goes together with the deed. Even Bhagavad Gita (VIII.6) points out that whatever resolve he has at the time of departing from his body, such one be becomes his inclination. Therefore, Krishna further recommends the seeker to fix the mind on him, be attuned to him, adore him, revere him; thus having disciplined himself, with him as the goal to him alone the seeker shall come (IX.34) Shankara says as one firms up one resolve, accordingly is the fruit - ‘kR%vaanaurUpM flaM'. It is sense and nature of discrimination that distinguishes human being from other animate and inanimate life. Mundaka Up. (II.ii.3) enjoins that Brahman, the pure One, the luminous of the
illumined, which rests in the supreme golden sheath without stains, should be known become aware, taking Upanishads as the bow and placing arrows thereon sharpened by meditation and mind engaged in contemplation, the immutable Brahman as the target.
For Shankara, the uncompromising purpose
of Wisdom is being supremely established in awareness of the Self. A person who is luminous in receptivity and reflective and meditative in Mind finds fulfillment in his purpose laid out by him because the non-luminous person, being obscure his vision becomes one with unresolved purpose in life and suffers.
Therefore, Wisdom of Brahman should be
the prime purpose and enterprise of a person which
sense of discrimination between the eternal and the
transient - 'ina%yaaina%yaivavaok'.
‘yaScaayamasyaaM pRiqavyaaM tojaaomayaao maRtmaya: puruYa:, yaScaayamaQyaa%maM
SaarIrstojaaomayaao maRtmaya: puruYa:, Ayamaova sa yaao yamaa%maa, [dmamaRtma , [dM ba *ma, [dM
sava-ma ' (Brihad Aranyak Up.II.v.1).
‘sava-M KilvadM ba *ma tjjalaainait Saant ]paisat Aqa kalau
k tumaya: puruYaao yaqaak turisma Mllaaoko puruYaao Bavait tqaot: p o%ya Bavait sa k tuM kuvaI-
t ' (Chhandogya Up. III.xiv.1)
'Aqa Klau k tumaya: puruYaao yaqaak turisma Mllaaoko puryYaao Bavait yqapt:
p o%ya Bavait sa k tuM kuvaI-t ' (Chhandogya Up. III.xiv.1).
'QaanaugaR-hI%vaaOpinaYadM mahas M SarM (upa saainaiSatM sanQayaIt Aayamya
td Baavagatona acaotsaa lxyaM tdovaxarM saaomya ivaiw ' (Mundaka Up.
‘ihrNmayao pro kaoSao ivarjaM ba *ma inaSklama tcCuBa M jyaoitYa M
jyaaoitst Vda%maivadao ivadu: ' (Mundaka Up.II.ii.9).
'yaM yaM vaaip smarnBaavaM %yaja%yanto klaovarma tMtmaovaOit kaOntoya sada
td BaavaBaaivat: '(Bhagavad Gita VIII.6).
'dula-BaM narjanma du;a-Bamat: puMs%vaM ttao ivap ta, tsmaaWOidkQama-maaga-
prta ivaW<vamasmaa%prma Aa%maanaa%maivavaocanaM svaanauBavaao ba *maa%manaa saMisqait:,,
mai>naao- SatkaoiTjanmasau kRtO: puNyaOiba-naa laByato ' (Shankara
‘&anasya ih eYaa pra inaYza yada%maOk%vaiva&aanama
One should be receptive to the Supreme scriptural
statements with equanimity.
The Supreme scriptural statements are like
the saU s, the threads, brief statements like ‘AhM ba *maa isma', ‘tt t%vamaisa', ‘AyaM Aa%maa ba *ma', ‘p &anaM ba *ma', ‘sava-M KilvadM ba *ma', ‘saao hM' which indicate the Path to be traversed, or targets or the goals to be reached. One should be receptive to the supreme scriptural statements not because they have been spoken by persons whom traditionally people have accepted with awe and respect, but because they have expressed their perception arising out of their experience. In Katha Up. I.ii.15), Yama hints that the immutable symbol -Axar which Veda, the eternal Wisdom proclaims (savao- vaoda ya%pdM Aamanaint), which through austerities has come to be proclaimed in vedic scriptures (tpa M isa savaa-iNa ca yaWdint) for which the seekers live in that wisdom (yaidcCntao ba *macayMa- carint) would be revealed to Nachikata. The hymns in the scriptures remind us the enlightened conclusion -etd QyaovaaxarM ba *ma etd QyaovaaxarM prma which are to be individually to be experienced and confirmed by those who desire to reach Perfection -etd Qyaovaaxar &a%vaa yaao yaidcCint tsya tt .
Seers, saints and seekers have been
benefited by them having said that the objective
perceived by them in Veda, which is variously spread out in vedic hymns are to be followed by the seekers. Having been enlightened and satisfied with that knowledge, the seers, free of passion and tranquil in mind have seen the omnipotent self on all sides and with concentrated mind entered in to Self. The seers too who have ascertained the mystery of the hymns contained in upanishads, with pure mind and renunciation, ever dwelling in and being one with Brahman would at the end of their physical life be liberated, declares Mundaka Up. (I.ii.1 and III.ii.5-6).
What one needs is to be Eawavaana , totally
receptive with an unconditioned Mind without being dogmatic, self-opinionated, free from the influence of the Knowledge -information, thoughts, memories, teachings, beliefs, faiths ingrained historically in one's consciousness, making Mind restrain the modifications arising therein - ‘icat vaRi<a inaraoQa:' (Patanjala Yoga). Because only when the five (organs of senses) together with knowledge and mind cease (their activities) and the intelligence itself does not stir, only then there is to come about Supreme goal.
Then at that point of time, one becomes
undistracted, Mind becomes kuSaga - one-pointed like the blade of grass. As Krishna also assures in Bhagavad Gita, that only he who finds his happiness within, his joy within and likewise his illumination only within, such one having enjoined his being, becomes divine and attains bliss of Brahman,
detached from the body.
‘yada pHcaavaitYznto &anaaina manasaa sah bauiwSca na ivacaoYTit
tamaahu: prmaaM gaitma (Katha Up. II.iii.10).
'man oYau kmaa-iNa kvayaao yaanyapSyaMstaina otayaaM bahuQaa santtaina
tanyaacarqa inayatM sa%yakamaa eYa va: pnqaa: saukRtsya laaoko .saMp aPyaOnamaRYayaao
&anatRPta: kRta%manaao vaItragaa: p Saanta: to sava-gaM sava-t: p aPya QaIra yau>a%mana:
sava-maovaaivaSaint vaodantiva&anasauinaiScataqa -: saMnyaasayaaogaVtya: Sawsa%vaa: to
ba *malaaokoYau prantkalao pramaRta: pirmaucyaunt savao- ' (Mundaka
‘yaao nt:sauKao ntraramastqaantjyaao-itrova ya: sa yaaogaI ba *mainavaa-NaM
ba *maBaUtao iQagacCit '(Bhagavad Gita.V.24).
vaa@yaaqa-Sca ivacaaya-taM EauitiSar:pxa: samaaEaIyatama
dustka-%sauivarmyataM Eauitmatstkao nausaMQaIyatama
ba *maasmaIit ivaBaavyataM Ahrhga-va-: pir%yajyatama
doho AhMmaitrujJyataM bauQajanaO:vaad: pir%yajyatama 3
Meaning of the Supreme Statement should be
reflected upon. One should take shelter under
scriptural statements. One should remain aloof
from perverse arguments. One should be receptive
to scriptures, clarifications and debates. ‘I am
Brahman' – thus one thought should be fully
experienced. One should give up constant and
continuous ego-sense. One should discard the idea
that ‘I am the body'. Contentious arguments with
men of Wisdom should be avoided.
Meaning of the Supreme Statement should be
Brihad Aranyaak Up. (I.v.3) submits that of
the three instruments, Mind was the principal one, Vak and Praana following thereafter which Brahman provided for himself for his effulgence, the same are also intended for human beings on their Path to Perfection. It is the Mind that hears, desires, discriminates, doubts, becomes receptive and non-receptive, resolute and irresolute, defiled, intangible, feared – all these are but the Mind. Therefore, even when one touches the back, the Mind knows it. Vak is nothing but the vehicle through which one communicates what one has desired. Prana is the energy which gives effect to what the Mind had desired and what the Vak had communicated. Therefore it is said that one be receptive, reflective and meditative in mind before one expresses what one has been receptive, reflective and meditative, so that finally it may be put in action, through the power of the Prana.
Shankara clarifies Yajnavalkya's statement
:'Aa%maa vaa Aro d YTvya: Eaotvyaao mantavyaao inaidQyaaisatvyaao' saying that one must first be receptive of knowledge of the Self
from a qualified preceptor and from scriptures, then the knowledge should be reflected through reasoning and diligently mediated upon. Only when these three are enjoined only then would the Self truly realized and the unity with Brahman will be established, not by merely hearing about the Self.
The proposition which vedanta considers as
foundation are not to be only remembered, recollected and repeated mechanically but on them one should be receptive, reflective and meditative, since they represent what the seers had ‘seen' ‘heard' in their enlightened awareness, without any human effort. They are self–evident (svayaMsaaxa), self-established (svayaMisaw) and self-proved (svayaMp maiNat) revelations of the Divine Intent without human ingenuity. Therefore, when the gods of elements instead of representing the divine essence became themselves the anthropomorphic forms in the hands of brahmannical ritualists and popular religions, the sensitive intellectuals of Upanishads came in the forefront came out saying that the different gods are but the principal forms of the Supreme, immortal and bodiless Brahman. Verily, on these one meditates upon, worships and discards. With these,
one moves higher and higher in the worlds and when all this ceases to be, he attains unity with the Purusha, yes with the Purusha, brahmannical intellectuals providing their rational perceptions -Darshanas and great Acharyas offering their clarifications, explanations, none of them without claiming any originality but as communicators and transmitters of their perceptions of the ancient Wisdom.
The resolute seeker should, therefore,
proceed from the gross forms to the subtle essence. Shankara explains that the Universal Self and the Individual Self are essentially same, the appearance as distinct existence as two, being the result of ignorance in Mind. He cautions one not to be tranquilized by the rhythmic sound of the mantras, but reflect on them after understanding the meaning. Not recitation but disciplined awareness is what is needed to lead the Sadhaka to one to experience the resplendent Lord.
Awareness in not a state of becoming but of
being, needing Knowledge (&ana) as a guide, Wisdom (iva&ana) being the culmination. On realization, ignorance disappears as with dawn darkness
disappears, says Shankara. He also says that Wisdom is the eternal nature of the Self, it does need not external supports to be aware. Mundaka Up. says that when one becomes aware of the golden coloured creator Purusha, the source of Brahma, then he shaking off the good and the bad, free from stains attains similarity with the Supreme Being.
Ignorance under sensory influence makes
one a stranger to Wisdom of the supreme Self. Mind which is incapable of receiving the resonance of Eternal Sound is also incapable of receptivity, reflection and meditation, the fundamental steps on spiritual adventure. Ignorance is as un-natural to a human being as darkness is to the day; ignorance is absence of Wisdom as darkness is absence of light. Just as once the light dawns, the darkness ceases, even so the once Wisdom dawns ignorance ceases to be. Darkness is said to have complained to God that Light does not like its company Light replied to have countered that it does not what darkness is to like or not like his company, never having seen darkness any time. Even such is the case of Wisdom, having never been acquainted with
Krishna avers that there is nothing
comparable to Wisdom, which is nothing but enlightenment. Intellectual apprehension of the Supreme is merely the Knowledge about Brahman, it is not Wisdom which is Brahman. Therefore, Wisdom and not Knowledge, that delivers one from the shackles of samsaara. Communion with and not the path way to the Divine is Bai>, therefore, Shankara accepts only those passages of scripture as authoritative which generate absolute Wisdom and not relative Knowledge. Only Wisdom delivers, neither information nor Knowledge.
'i Nyaa%manao kurut [it manaao vaacaM p aNama .manasaa (ova pSyait, manasaa
EauNaaoit kama: saMklpao ivaicaik%saa Eawa Eawa QaRitrQaRit)I-QaI-BaI-ir%yaot%sava- mana
eva; tsmadip pRYzt ]pspRYTao manasaa ivajaanait ; ' (Brihad Aranyaka
‘Aa%maa vaa Aro d YTvya: Eaatvyaao mantvyaao insidQyaaisatvyaao maO oyaI
Aa%manaao vaa Aro dSa-naona EavaNaona m%yaa iva&ananaodM sava-M ividtma '.(Brihad
‘yada pSya: pSyato ru@mavaNMa- kta-rmaISaM puruYaM ba *mayaaonaIma tda
ivawanpuNyaopapo ivaQaUya inarMjana: prmaM saamyamaupOit 'Mundaka Up.
'ba *maNaao vaavaOta Agya astnava: prsyaamaRtsyaSarIrsya tsyaOva laaoko
p itmodit h yaao yasyaanaiSa>a [toyaM hI Aah Ba *maKilvadM yaa vaa sava-ma yaa
yasya Aag yaastvavasa ta AiBaQyaayaod Aca-yana ina:nauyaacca AtastaiBa: sahOvaao-pir
]pir laaokoYau carit Aqa kR%snaxaya ek%vaM eit puruYasya puruYasya ' (Maitri
'Eaaotvya: pUva-maacaaya-t Aagama tSca pScaanmantvyastk-t: ttao
inaidQyaaisatvyaao inaScayaona Qyaatvya: evaM (saaO dRYTao Bavait
EavaNamananainaodQyaasanasaaQanaOina-ivaittO: yadOk%vamaotanyaupgataina tda samyagdSa-naM
ba *maOk%vaivaYayaM p saIdit, naanyaqaa EavaNamaa oNa ' (Shankara).
'ivaVayaaM ih sa%yaaM ]idto saivatir Saava-rimava tma:
p NaaSamaupgacC%yaivaVa ' (Shankara).
'na(a%maa naama ksyaisvat Ap isaw: p aPyaao hoya ]pdoyaao vaa
One should take shelter under the scriptural
Wisdom, the supra-sensory
experiences, the seer being the one who ‘sees' or ‘hears' the resonance of !, the eternal sound in
extra-ordinary moments of enlightenment. Vedic hymns
represent the expressions of those
experiences without any human effort in
composition. Mundaka Up. refers the former as
para vidya -higher Wisdom and the later as apara-
vidya -inferior Knowledge. Maitri Up. considers the
former as ASabd - non-Sound which aids one to reach
the immutable !, which according to Katha Up.
(I.ii.15) is what Vedas declare, or represent and
which all austerities proclaim, desiring which
people live the live in Brahman. Krishna compares
Brahman to the eternal (ina%ya) immutable (Axar)
Wisdom (iva&ana), the Asvatttha tree having its root
above and branches below, leaves being the hymns,
which conceal the mysterious Wisdom. Therefore
the who is wise to that mystery is vaodivat -endowed
with Wisdom. Brihad Aranyaka Up. says that the
Apra ivaVa, the scriptures - Rigveda, Yajurveda,
Samaveda, and Atharvangirasa, history, puranas,
Upanishads, verses, aphorisms,
explanations and commentaries came to be breathed out from Wisdom, even as various clouds of smoke issue forth from a lighted fire laid with damp fuel. Mundaka Up. says that having established firmly in
Wisdom of Vedanta and renunciation, ascetics of purified nature, dwell in silence of the forests at the end of their lives in the supreme immortal world of Brahman.
Shankara clarifies that with Mind purified
by scriptures, enlightened teachers and restraint of the senses aid realization of the self. Scriptures remain neutral like sun light, but do not reveal truth. It is necessary that one should study vedic scriptures as the means for realization of Brahman, and not only reading them.
'sa yaqaadO QaagnaorByaaihta%pRqagQaUmaa ivainaScarint, evaM vaa Aro sya
mahtao BaUtsya ina:SvaaisatmaotVdRgvaodao yajauvao-d: saamavaodao qavaa-i=garsa [ithasa:
puraNaM ivaVa ]pinaYad: Slaaoka: saU aNyanauvyaa#yaanaaina ; AsyaOvaOtaina ina:Svaisataina
' (Brihad Aranyak Up.II.iv.10).
‘ip yaa bataro na: satI ip yaM BaaYasao eih Aassva vyaa#yaasyaaima to
vyaacaxaNasya tu mao inaidQyaasava' (Brihad Aranyak Up.II.iv.5).
vaodantiva&anasauinaiScataqa -: saMnyaasayaaogaVtya: Sauwsa%vaa: to
ba *malaaokoYau prantkalao pramaRta: pirmaucyaint savao-: ' (Mundaka
'}Qva-maUlamaQa:SaaKmaSva%qaM p ahurvyayama CndaMisa yasya pNaa-ina yastM
vaod vaodivat (Bhagavad Gita.XV.1),
'[dM tu &oyaM AtIindy‘a%vaona SabdOkp‘maaNagamyaM naanyaqaa,, AdRYT%vaat '
'EauitSca naao itind yaaqa-ivaYayao iva&anaao%p<aaO inaima<ama
'Saas acaayaao-pdoSaSamadmaaidsaMskRt mana: Aa%madSa-nao karNama
'puruYa: svayamaova yaqaaruica saaQanaaivaSaoYau p vat-nto Saas M tu
saivatRp kaaSavat ]dast (Shankara).
'na Sabdmaa M Aqa-svartaopM saMBavait Sabdaqa-ayaaoBao-dat
One should remain aloof from perverse arguments.
Seers of Vedas have seen and heard !, the
Eternal Sound in their supra-sensory sensitive minds. Intellectuals of the Upanishads have reflected and meditated on them; Achryas have commented and explained them variously in their commentaries. These expressions of the experiences of the vedic seers, reflections and meditations of the
intellectuals and explanations,
clarifications in the commentaries of the Acharyas should be studied in purity of heart and clarity of vision in the context in which they were spoken, dispassionately with complete detachment and comprehensive receptivity, not to find out which of them speaks the truth about the Prime Existence, but how they have expressed their own experiences of the Prime Existence in relation what they have gathered and enlightened by the experiences expressed in Eauits and smaRits, knowing well that the from in which their experiences have been expressed in, is one from where speech always returns without attaining the truth of the Prime Existence 'yatao vaacaao inavat-nto Ap aPya manasaa sah'.
If Shankara's views come out in his
statement in Brahmajnanavalimala that 'GaTkuD yaaidkM savMa- maRRi<akamaa maova ca tWd ba *ma jaga%sava-imaot vaodantiDMiDma: ba *ma sa%yaM jagaimaqyaa jaIvaao ba *maOva naapr: Anaona vaoVM sacCas imait vaodantiDMiDma: - that like the pots are all these things manifest similar to Brahman and that has been the declaration of Vedanta - Brahman alone is the Prime Existence, the world being seeming appearance. Jiva is, verily, Brahman and no one
else. Madhva's views come out in seeming diversity in the words provided by Vidhyabhushan Baladeva, a follower of Chaitanya – ‘EaImanmaQvamato hir: prtr: sa%yaM jaga<$vaao Baodao jaIvagaNa: hronaucara: naIcaaoccaBaava: gat: maui>naO-jasauKanauBaUitinama-la Bai>Scat t%saaQanama (xaaid yaM p maaNa maiKlaaamnaOkvaoVaohir: ' - In the opinion of Madhva, Hari is Supreme above all. In principle, the World is Real. There exists difference between souls. As followers of Hari they have inherent existence as superior and inferior. Deliverance is the ultimate experience of Bliss. Unalloyed devotion is the sole instrument. The three scriptures (Upanishads,
Bhagavad Gita) are the fundamental foundations, establishing that Hari alone is the sole promoter. No vedic seer could be seen even disputing the experience of other seer each complimenting the other explained in the famous statements -'[nd M ima M varuNaM AignaM Aahur Aqaao idvya: sa saupNaao- gau%maana ekM sad ivap a bahuQaa vadn% yaigna yamaM maatirSvaanama Aahu: ', 'ekM santM bahuQaa klpyaint' 'Aanaao Bad a: k tvaao yantu ivaSvat: ' and 'vaonasa tt pSyana inaihtM gauha sad ya ivaSvaM Bava%yaolnaIDma tismainnadM saM ca iva caOit savMa- sa aoot: p aotSca ivaBau: p jaasau '
Therefore, even as Shankara's explanation
of the upanshadic statement, 'AhM ba *maa isma' as confirmation of the non-dual identity of AhM, the
individual self with ba *mana , the universal Self and tt t%vamaisa as That ba *mana is, verily, your self needs fullest consideration, even as Madhva explanation needs full consideration and not necessarily be discounted when he explains that the words AhM, Aisma, and ba *mana describe the primary attributes of Sri Vishnu, the anthropomorphic form of Sriman Narayana as the all-pervador or his declaration that tt %vamaisa does not mean That, verily, you are but That, verily, you are not – Att %vamaisa. Even the expressions of other with qualifications need to be appreciated that one experience has been variously expressed by seers and sages, prophets and philosophers. In spite of such divergent perceptions, the spiritual enlightenment and religions have shown diversity of colours and sights, motivating and prompting people to investigate and experience their own distinct colours and sights in their individual spiritual progress. It is this that makes spiritual journey adventurous and Path of Perfection revealing on each steps new colours and sight.
Krishna speaks in Bhagavad Gita (II.43-44)
of the undiscerning ones whose nature is desire and intent on heaven, who rejoice in the letter of vedic
scriptures and proclaim various rites and rituals for enjoyment and power that end up only in rebirth as the fruit of actions result. Mundaka Up. (I.ii.7-10) declares rites and rituals as inferior forms of Karma. the deluded ones who delight in them as leading to heavens fall again and again in samsaara of old age and death. They are those who abide in the midst of ignorance, wise in their own esteem, think themselves to be learned. These deluded men who regard sacrifices and desire-bound actions as important, do not consider anything else as superior. Having enjoyed heavens by good deeds, they come back again to this or lower worlds. But those who practice austerity in the solitude forests, tranquil like mendicants and freed from demerits, depart enlightened, to dwell where the immortal and imperishable One lives. The fools who confront these and come under their influence go about like blind lead by one who himself is blind.
In Uttara Gita Krishna compares such one
to donkey bearing the weight of the sandal-wood, knowing its weight but not its fragrance, even so is the Knowledge of the Brahmins, inferior like that of an animal. Yoga Vashishtha also cautions that those
who are engrossed only on performance of duties enjoined by their class system, without knowing the supreme dharma are misguided souls who ruin themselves without any reason. Further he tells Rama, that deluded by sacrifice, austerity, charity, pilgrimage and worship of gods, men pass many years in sufferings. Garuda Purana considers all those who intent on the performances of these duties assigned to their varna and stage do not the supreme righteousness and ruin their life and says further that deluded by maayaa, the ignorant desire to see the lord concealed from sight adopting various vows like restraint on meals, fasting etc thereby weakening their body.
Shankara says that that Seers perceive even
those things which not within the range of normal perception. Therefore, person who have no receptivity and vision of the seers but only superficial knowledge of what the Acharyas have spoken and stratified thinking tends to be argumentative, without being aware of the mystical essence.
One who contributes only sound and not the
light should be shunned, as impediment on the Path
to Perfection. Because such one is fundamentalist without awareness of the fundamentals, accepting interpretations of Brahman than experiencing Brahman. For him loyalty to the Person is more important to the principles which the person represents. Those who are enamored by Knowledge loose sight of the Wisdom which is goal. Shankara, therefore, says that one who is intent on Wisdom of Brahman should not be confused or confounded by conditioned Knowledge of the conceited nor by the facile arguments of the perverted people. Arguments do not necessarily lead to enlightenment; they exhibit poverty of intelligence rather than promise of Wisdom. Arguments often lead one to assert and refuse to consider that every proposition could possible also have different perception. It is said that some are cleaver only at exposition while others have the ability to practice what they learn; the hand carries food to the mouth but it is only the tongue that tastes it.
Sadhaka's mind should be broad and vision
expansive, without the restraint of traditional dos and don'ts. His mind should be receptive since that is one of the important avenues for enlightenment,
says Shankara. When in doubt one should take refuge in scriptural statements -EauitiSaraopxa: samaaEaIyatama as source of Wisdom. Therefore,
communicaating Wisdom more secret than all secrets, Krishna leaves it to Arjuna to pursue the Path on his own. Even the fully manifested Divinity allows individual to choose the Path to be followed, not the orthodox and argumentative one
‘Plavaa (oto AdRZa ya&$pa AYTadSaao>mavarM yaoYau kma- etcC/oyaao
yao iBanandint maUZa jaramaR%yauM to punarovaaip yaint AivaVayaaM AMtro vat-maana: svayaM
QaIr: pMiDtM manyamaana: jaMGanyamaanaa: piryaint maUZa: AnQaona naIyamaanaa: yaqaaMQa:
. [YTapUt-M manyamaanaa vairYzM naanycCo/yaao vaodyanto p maUZa: naaksya pRYzo to
saukRto nauBaU%vamaaM hInatrM vaa ivaSaint tp: Eawo yaoih ]pvasaint ArNyao Sa nta
ivaWaMsaao BaOxaacaya-M carnt: saUya-WaroNa to ivarjaa: p yaaint ya amaRt: sa puruYaao ih
Avyayaa%maa (Mundaka Up.(I.ii-7-8, 10).
'yaaimamaaM puiYptaM vaacaM p vadn%yaivapiScat: vaodvaadrta: paqa-
naanyaadstIit vaaidna: kamaa%maana:svaga-pra janmaakma-flap dama
ik yaaivaSaoYaabahulaaM BaaogaOSvaya-gaitM p it (Bhagavad Gita.II.42-
svasvavaNaa-Eamaacaarinart: sava-maanavaa: na jaanaMit prM QamMa-vaRqaa naSyaint
daMiBaka: .ekBau>apvaasaaVOr inayamaO: kayaSaYaNaO: maUZa: praoxaM [cCint mama
maayaaivamaaoiht: (Garuda Purana)
‘kalaM ya&aM tpao dana tiqa- dovaaca-naaba *maO: icarM AiQa Sataopot:
xapyaint maRga [va (Yoga Vashishtha).
'Eawa ca ba *maiva&anao prmaM saaQanaM [%yaa#yaaiyakaqa-:
'AsmakM Ap %yaxamaip icarMtnaanaaM p %yaxama (Shankara).
Eauitmatstkao nausaMQaIyatama One should be receptive to the scriptures, clarifications and debates.
Vedic scripture constitutes the Knowledge
couched through temporal medium of communication of the supra-sensory Veda, Wisdom which is not restrictive but comprehensive. It is not necessary for one to go the east or west, south or the north in search of the Self, can neither be searched in any quarters nor in any directions. Only through restraint of senses that one should endeavour without using mind or organs of senses, devoting to one's own Self within, says Mahabharata. Vedic seer desires that thoughts all directions may seep in his mind (Rigveda.I.81.1).
Shankara says that scriptures furnish
Knowledge of the spheres which are beyond one's sensory perception, only directing attention and revealing which are the things desirable and which are not, thereby establishing a relationship between goals and means to attain them. They are informatory and not mandatory. Therefore, the test of authority or otherwise of a statement depends not on the facts or on the actions but to what extent they generate undisputable and fruitful Wisdom. If the passage has this attribute, then it is authoritative, if not, it is not.
Seer is the one who has experienced Wisdom
of supreme divinity without the assistance of the sensory organs, therefore, referred as k antdSaI-. Guru is one who having perfect receptivity, reflection and meditation is enlightened to the mystery concealed in the vedic hymns, teaches clarifying the doubts and removing their ignorance. Clarification of doubts, sharing the warmth and illumination of their Wisdom rather than assertion of their own perceptions, has been the sign of the upanishadic intellectuals or later day commentators. Krishna too advises Arjuna to seek through humility, inquiry and service the Wisdom of That One from the men
of Wisdom. Mundaka Up. recommends the aspirant to approach Guru in due form, with tranquil mind so that the Guru may instruct him the Wisdom of Brahman, by which one would be aware of the Immutable Purusha. Katha Up. cautions that Wisdom cannot be had from uninitiated ones, since it is not heard by many and even after hearing few understand it. Therefore, wondrous is the one who communicates it, skillful is the one who finds such a disciple and wondrous is the one who becomes enlightened when communicated. Taught by an inferior one, it cannot be truly understood, as it is explained in various ways. Unless instructed by one who knows That Wisdom there is no attainment, for it is inconceivable and subtler than subtle. According to Shankara, awareness of the divine alone is vidya, the actions of the performance of actions without such awareness being avidya.
Guru neither claims nor makes the disciple
enlightened but only places him on the Path to Perfection, assuring wisdom enshrined in vedic scriptures if the pointers are followed through penance and austerity. Guru is one who offers wisdom to every one who approached him and not
the one who gathers followers to accept his interpretation of the Wisdom, who, even while expressing his personal and individual perception, encourages others to have their own personal and individual experiences. He removes the impediments on their Path as a guide, as a sign post or stirs his indwelling energy becoming the stick which prods, stirs and stirs like a stick, used to kindle the fire. While the Path is pointed out, the Path has to be traversed by the sadhaka.
Hence, Eauitmattkao-AnausaMQaIyatama - one should be
receptive to the scriptures as well as to the clarifications and debates.
AaScayaao- va>a kuSalaao sya labQaa Scayaao- &ata kuSalaanauiSYz: '
tiWwI p iNapatona pirp Snaona saovayaa ]pdoxyaint to &aanaM
&ainanasta<vadiSa-na: (Bhagavag Gita.IV.34).
‘naasya pyao-YaNaM gacCot p acaInaM naaot dixaNama naavaa-caInaM kutistya-=
naaidSaM tu kqaHcana tsya pya-oYaNaM gacCot p %yaiqa-Yau kqaHcana AivaicanvaainnamaM
vaodo tp: pSyait t M p Bauma ' (Mahabharat).
EauitSca naao tIind yaaqa-ivaYayao iva&anaao%p<aaO inaima<ama
.Saas iddmaovaBavait [dM [YTsaaQanaM [dmainaYTsaaQaanaM [it
saaQyasaaQanasaMbanQaaivaSaoYaaiBavyai>: .&apkM ih Saas M na tu karkimait isqait:
. na vaa@yasya vaa s%vanvaa#yaanaM ik yaanvaa#yaanaM vaa p maaNyaap maaNyakrNaM ikM
tih- inaiScatflavaiW&anaao%padk%vama tV aist t%p maaNaM vaa@yaM ya naaist
tdp amaanama (Shankara).
'ivaVaM caaivaVaM ca dovata&anaM kma- caoit Aqa-: (Shankara).
ba *maasmaIit ivaBaavyatama ‘I am Brahman' – thus one should fully be inclined.
The ultimate goal of every fragment is to
merge with the complete, whole and entirety of Brahman from which it had become originally differentiated. Chhandogya Up. (VI,x.2) says that eastern rivers flow towards the sea on the eastern side, even as the western rivers flow towards the west, merging from the sea to the sea, not being aware in that state that 'I am this river' and 'I am the other', even so all the creatures have come from Being do not know that 'we have come forth from the Being', even as the fragment of manifestation
which has come forth the whole does not know it has come from the whole, the essence. Mundaka Up. (III.2.8) declares that even as the flowing rivers disappear in the ocean casting their shape, even so the man of Wisdom, freed from name and form attains the divine Purusha greater than the great.
Shankara clarifies the eternal cycle of
transformation saying even as the rivers after flowing in the ocean return back as the rivers in the form of rain drops, only to flow back to the oceans, even so the rivers being nothing else than the ocean even so the subtle essence which is this whole becoming the whole creation, the Prime Existence -tt sa%yama , which is the Self -sa Aa%ma , that is what Svetaketu is -tt %vamaisa. Even as in the ocean the separate rivers do not realize that they are different from one another, even so when they becomes again the distinct rivers they do not realize that they have come to be from the one ocean. This inalienable relationship between the fragment and the whole should be clearly understood.
Since human life is consequent to Divine
Intent, creation having become the manifest reflection of the primary essence, the manifest
fragments should endeavour to participate in that Divine Intent performing actions as the instrument of divine Intent and Purpose. Endeavour should be to experience the Prime Existence here in this life itself, even as realizing through self-contemplation that Prime Existence difficult to be perceived, being deeply concealed, set n the heart dwelling deep, the men of Wisdom leave their body with its joy and sorrow, as said in Katha Up. (I.ii.12). Even so Chhandogya Up. (VIII.ii.12) says that though body is mortal and held by death, it is also the support of the deathless, bodiless self. Verily the embodied self is held by pleasures and pains and there is no freedom for one who is the embodied self. But they do not touch the one who is bodiless.
According to Brihad Aranyaka Up. (III.iv.1)
when Ushata Chakrayana asked Yajnavalkya to explain to him Brahman, the self in all things perceived directly - all things, 'ya%saaxaadpraoxaad ba *ma ya Aa%maa savaa-ntr:' he was told that it was the same Self which is within all beings - 'eYa sa Aa%maa sava -ntr:', who breathes in when one breathes in, which breathes out when one breathes out, which breathes about when one breathes about, which breathes up when one
breathes up. That self which is within each one is, verily the Brahman. When Ushata Chakrayana remarked that Self has been explained by him as one might say, ‘this is a cow', ‘this is a horse'. To which Yajnavalkya remarks that self cannot be explained further because one cannot see the Seer of seeing, cannot hear the Hearer of hearing, cannot think the Thinker of thinking, cannot understand the Understander of understanding he asks him to the Self which is imperishable when n all things, all else is perishable. Thus, the self within all beings is that which Brahman is.
Krishna too said in Bhagavad Gita, (X.8,
VII.25 and XI.32) that abiding within every thing that is created, Brahman energises, illumines and makes every creation to perform as ordained. In doing so he conceals his presence through the power of Maya, confusing the human mind. As Brahman, he is the effulgent manifestation and as Kaala, the inexplicable destroyer of things created. Bursting forth as luminous light, he terminates his existence too in a cloud of obscurity. In the intervening period, he is the Self indwelling in all creation.
Rationalizing further, it is stated, there was
nothing whatsoever in the beginning, therefore, there arose in the beginning the consciousness, I and Existence. That One knew, ‘I, indeed, am this creation, for I produced all this'. That One created Mind, thinking let me have a self. It provided for itself, Mind, Speech and Praana. Thus, That One became all this creation. In Bhagavad Gita (XV.7), Krishna clarifies Arjuna that a fraction of his own Self, having become eternal living soul in the world of life, draws to itself the (five) senses of which the mind is the sixth that exist in nature. Therefore, Shankara says that one should endeavour to experience one's identity as ‘I am Brahman'. Therefore knowing that all this is Purusha himself, performance of actions, austerity and Brahman beyond death, and being aware that the One which is set in the secret place of the heat, he cuts asunder the knots of ignorance here in this very life (Mundaka Up.II.ii.8).
This Knowledge by itself does not lead one
to immortality, but Wisdom through awareness of the essential nature of the self with the immortal Self leading one to realize its identity with itself.
Such awareness is not the result of any external supports, because if it is the product of Knowledge, then it will be non-eternal just like the fruits of rites and rituals or an action. Wisdom alone removes the impediments which identify self within the body and with such identification the duality ceases and the original nature of the self as Brahman becomes evident Awareness of the Self alone leads to deliverance. Wisdom that there is only one Self, is itself the culmination of all Knowledge.
Therefore, Shankara concludes that the
scriptural statements - ‘AhM ba *maa isma', ‘AyaM Aa%maa ba *ma' and ‘saao hM' etc. only certify the identity as well as the unity of the Individual self with the Supreme Self. A&ana is non- awareness of such identity, &ana is the Knowledge gathered from scriptures and iva&ana, Wisdom is of the identity of the individual self with Supreme Self, Brahman. In primordial world, saMsaar, it is Maya, the formatting power, which is ignorance identifies the body with the self, as in the case of rope to be the serpent.
says that Knowledge and
performance actions are necessary so long as one is
not aware of the identity of the self with Brahman. This is possible only when one is austere, detached from the fruits of sensory influences. Only when the cause of the obstacles to one's up righteousness is properly realized, only then it becomes possible to undertake efforts for its removal, not otherwise. Krishna tells Arjuna that the one who abandons all desires and acts free from longing, without senses of egoism, he attains to peace. Such one being free and peaceful in mind becomes closer the Prime Existence.
This is divine state.
' ya: p aNaona p aiNait sa A%maa savaa-ntr:, yaao panaonaapanaIit .yaao
vyaanaona vyaanaIit.ya: ]danaonaaodainait.sa t A%maa sava-ntr:, eYa t A%maa savaa-
ntr: .na dRYTod -YTarM pSyao:, na Eauto: EaaotarM EaRNauyaat , na matoma-ntarM manvaIqaa:,
na iva&atoiva-&atarM ivajaanaIyaa: eYa t A%maa savaantr: Atao nyadat-ma '
(Brihad Aranyaka Up.(III.iv.1-2).
‘naOvaoh ikMcanaaga AsaIt ' -‘saao hmasmaI%yaga o vyaahrt ' – ‘saao vaot
AhM vaava saRiYTrisma, AhM hIdM sava-masaRxaIit, -tt: saRiYTrBavat ' - ‘tnmanaao
kurut, Aa%manvaI syaamaIit' - ‘ IiNa A%manao kurut [it manaao vaacaM p aNama ' –
(Brihad Aranyaka Up.I.iv.).
svaonaOva ina%yaa%masvaBaavaona AmaRt%vaM ivandto na AalambanapUva-kma yaid
ih, ivaVao%paVM AmaRt%vaM syaat Aina%yaM Bavaot kma-kaya-vat ivaVa Ana%ma&anaM
inavat-yait ' (Brihad Aranyaka Up.).
'tM dudSMa- gaUZmanaup ivaYTM gauhauhtM ga*varoYzM puraNama
AQyaa%mayaaogaiQagamaona dovaM ma%vaa QaIrao hYa-SaaokaO jahait ' (Katha Up.
'[maa saaomya naV: pursta%p accya: syadnto pScaa%p tIcyasta:
samaud a%samaud maovaaipyaint sa samaud eva Bavait ta tqaa t na ivaduiryamahmasmaIyamahmasmaIit evamaova Klau saaomyamaa: savaa: p jaa: sat Aaagamya na
ivadu: sat AagacCamah [it . sa ya eYaao iNamaOtda%myaimad M savMa-t%sa%ya M sa
Aa%amaa t%vamaisa Svaotkotao [it. ' (Chhandogya Up. (VI,x.1-
tdsyaamaRtsyaaSarIrsyaa%manaao i!Yzanamaa<aao vaO SarIr: ip yaaip yaaByaaM na vaO saSarIrsya
sat: ip yaaip yayaaorphirs%yaSarIrM vaava santM na ipyaaipyao spRSat: '
'puruYa evaodM ivaSvaM kma- tpao ba *ma pramaRtma etVaoo vaod inaihtM
gauhayaaM saao ivaVaga nqaIM ivaikrtIh saaomya , iBaVto )dyaga inqaiSCVnto sava-saMSayaa
: xaIyanto caasya kmaa-iNa tismana dRYTo pravaro ' (Mundaka
'yada naV: syandmaanaa: samaud ostM gacCint naama$po ivahaya tqaa
ivaWannaama$paiWmau>: pra%prM puruYamaupOit idvyama ' (Mundaka
'AhM sava-sya p Bavaao ma<a: savMa- p vat-to [it ma%vaa Bajanto maaM bauQaa
Baavasamainvata: ', 'naahM p kaSa: sava-sya yaaogamaayaasamavaRt: maUZao yaM naaiBajaanaait
laaokao maamajavyayama ', 'kalaao isma laaokxayakR%p vaRwa laaokansmaaihhtu-imah p vaR<a:
' (Bhagavag Gita.X.8,VII.25,XI.32).
‘mamaOvaaMSaao jaIvalaaoko jaIvaBaUt: sanatana man YaYzanaIind yaaiNa
p kRitsqaaina kYa-it ' (Bhagavad Gita.XV.7)
'ivahaya kamaana ya: savaa-npumaaMScarit ina:spRh: inama-maao inarMkar: sa
SaaintmaiQagacCait eYaa ba a*maI istqaI: paqa- naOnaaM p aPya ivamau(it isqa%vaa syaamantkalao ip ba *mainava -NamaRcCait
One should give up constant and continuous ego-
Ego-sense is conceited conviction in one's
own appearance, attitude, analysis and intelligence. Strange as it may appear, ego is the product of one's inferiority complex, considering sub-consciously others more attractive that one's own appearance, learning, attitude, analysis and intelligence. Ego creates jealousy towards other. Pride is the product of one's confidence in oneself, one's appearance, attitude, analysis and intelligence. It is not the result of jealousy of the appearance, attitude, analysis and intelligence of others. Pride is productive if used
properly while ego-sense is always corrosive and destructive.
Pride is assurance born of conscious
awareness of one's own capacity and capability to lead one's life based on one's attributes (gauNa) and inclination (svaBaava) born of p kRit. Such one resorts to detachment after examining the worlds acquired through performance of actions with full realization that there is nothing in the worlds that is not the result of the performance of actions, then why should one perform actions which does not reward one the wisdom of Brahman. Knowing the truth, such one then goes with due respect to a qualified Teacher well versed in Wisdom and becomes absorbed in Brahman, declares Mundaka Up. (I.ii.12).
Ego-sense leads one to assume that every
thing that happens in his life is the result of his own actions, neither accepting the influence of attributes
(gauNa) and inclination (svaBaava) born of p kRit nor of the Divine Spark dwelling within. Krishna refers to such ones as un-illumined persons, neither aware of performance of actions (p vaRi<a) nor of abstention (inavaRi<a) of actions, there being neither purity of conduct nor
clarity in one's resolve. Given to insatiable desire, full of self-esteem, arrogance and excessive pride, being under the power of Maya is given to improper performance of their actions in the world. Indulging in fulfillment of desires, and entangled in the web of avarice, they sink to the foulest of hells.
Krishna describes such ones as ostentious,
arrogant, excessive pride, anger, harshness and ignorance, born of such unenlightened nature. Obsessed with numerous cares and bound by desires, given to lust and anger they amass wealth through improper means for gratification of desires, they end up being bewildered by thoughts, entangled in delusion, addicted to desires falling into foul hell.
Therefore, one should relinquish egoism and
also not associate with egoistic persons. Making scriptures their guide they should do what needs to be done and avoid those which should not be done. This is the proper Path to be traversed.
'p kRto: ik yaamaaNaaina gauNaO: kma -iNa sava-Sa: AhMkarivamaUZa%maa kata-
himait manyato t%vaiva<au mahabaahao gauNa kma-ivaBaagayaao: gauNaa gauNaoYauvat-nt [it
ma%vaa na sajjato ' (Bhagavad Gita. III.27-28).
p vaRi<aM ca inavaRi<aM ca janaa na ivadurasaura na SaaOcaM naaip caacaarao na
sa%yaM toYau ivaVto (Bhagavad Gita.XVI.7).
'kamamaaiEatM duYpUrM dmBamaanamadainvata
gaRih%vaa sad ga‘hanp‘vat-nto Sauicava‘ta: ' (Bhagavad Gita.
'Anaokica<aivaBa‘anta maaohjaalasamaavaRta: p‘sa>a: kamaBaaogaoYau ptint
narko SaucaI 'Bhagavad Gita.XV.16).
dMmBaao dpao- iBamaanaSca k aoQaao paruYyamaova ca A&anaM caaibajaatsya paqa-
sampdmaasaurIma icantamapirmaoyaaM ca p layaantamaupaiEata: kamaaopBaaogaprmaa
etavaaidit inaiScata: AaSaapaSaSatOba-wa: kamak aoQaprayaNaa: [-hnto
kamaBaaogaaqa-manyaayaonaaqa-saHcayaana Anaokica<aivaBa anta maaohjaalasamaavaRta:
p sa>a: kamaBaaogaoYau ptint narko SaucaaO tsmaacCas M p maaNaM to kayaa-kaya-
vyavaisqataO &a%vaa Saas ivaQaanaao>M kma- ktu-imahah-isa (Bhagavad
Gita.XVI.4, 11-12, 16,24).
'prIxya laaokana kmapicatana ba a*maNaao inavao-dmaayaannas%yakRt: kRtona
riW&anaaqMa-sa gaurumaovaaiBagacCot saima%paiNa: Eaoi yaM ba *mainaYzma ' (Mundaka
One should discard the idea that ‘I am the body'.
When Maitri Up. declares that ica<amaova saMsarma , it
is to suggest that for people in the primordial world, the world is what is fashioned by mind influenced by organs of senses, not for those ones who are consciously aware that there is another mind which is subtle and proactive on its own which sees the primordial world as nothing but a world of appearances. It is common experience that though unconsciously a person superficially identifies the body with his self, with sub-conscious awareness he also refers the body as ‘my body' and never ‘I am the body', with an instinctive distinction between the body and his self. He associates death to the body and accepts immortality to himself. Body is the gross sheath which covers the I, the subtle self within. The destruction of the body is not the destruction of the Self within. The comprehension of the Self is possible through upanishadic studies. The ignorance which human beings are in dealing with themselves superficially is due to the influence of the senses on the Mind, the self remaining independent of such influence. Shankara calls this seeing as AQyaasa – illusion, erroneous identification of the Self with the non-self and the non-self with the
It has been Shankara' central thesis that
neither is the primordial world nor the manifestation of creatures neither the senses nor the breaths nor even the body, neither the mind, intellect is the creator but Brahman alone is the Prime Existence, the form of the supreme Self. Thereafter, he says in Brahmanucintanam that 'I myself am the supreme Brahman and never separate or distinct from him, thus being inclined I remain established in Brahman'.
Therefore Brahman is not one to searched
and gained or attained from outside but to be searched, revealed and realized from within. Kath Up. (II.i.1) confirms that the Self is not be searched through senses, because through them only the outer things are seen, not the things which are within. Only some men of wisdom seeking life eternal, turn their visions inward and see the Self.
Therefore, he says further that the existence
of the self, which is similar to the Prime Existence, is the only object for enlightenment, being devoid of any attributes, still it is necessary to speak about it with qualification, since people of dull intellect
seek an entity for realizing Brahman. The Upanishad therefore narrates a legend where both gods and the demons were eager to know their Self from Prajapati who speaks to them of the self which is free from evil, free from old age, free from death, free from grief, free from hunger and thirst, whose and whose thought is the Prime Existence. He who has found and who understands that self, he obtains all the worlds and all desires (Chhandogya Upanishad (VIII.vii.1). They were instructed to observe their individual reflection in the water. Virochana, king of the demons, seeing his well-adorned body in the water accepts his body as his Self .
Indra, the presiding deity over Mind, even
though he sees his well adorned body in the waters, reflects and finds no satisfaction, ‘naahM A BaaogyaM pSyaaima ' because if the body is adorned and dressed, then the Self would be deemed to be similarly adorned and dressed; if the body is tidy, so would the Self be deemed to be similarly tidy; if the body is blind, so would the Self be deemed to be similarly blind; if the body is lame, so would the Self be deemed to be similarly lame and when the body perishes, so
would the Self be deemed to be similarly perish (Chhandogya Upanishad (VIII.x.2.). When Indra expresses his dis-satisfaction to Prajapati, he is explained that mortal is the body, controlled by death. But the same body supports the deathless, bodiless Self. If the self is constrained by pleasure and pain, then there would no freedom from pleasure and pain. Pleasure and pain do not touch the Self, which rising from the body reaches as supreme light in its original form, without remembering its association with the body - (Chhandogya Upanishad.VIII.xii.1,3).
Krishna too says, the self takes neither de-
merits nor the merits which the body is heir to. It is only when Mind is enveloped by ignorance, that creatures become bewildered. Shankara says in Vivekachudamani that just as the cluster of clouds created by the heat of the Sun hides the Sun itself, similarly the ego-sense which originated from the Self covers the very self. But when the eye, nose, speech, ear is directed towards space, it is the Self who sees, smells, speaks, hears, the bodily organs only perform the act of seeing, smelling etc. Hence in the world of Brahman, when the bodily organs
cease to be, it is the Self alone that exists. Therefore, one should understand that Self is not the gross body but some thing far different, far subtle and far superior. One who is enlightened in this manner is not bound by the body. Shankara says that Self is not a thing to be possessed or to be dispossessed to be attained or to be renounced but to be experienced and realized.
'praiHca Kaina vyatRNat svayamBaUstsmaa%pr pSyait naantra%mana
kiScawIr: p %yagaa%maanamaOxadavaRtxaurmaRt%vaimacCna (Katha Up. II.i.1).
'ya Aa%maaphtpaPmaa ivajarao ivamaR%yauiva-SaaokaoivaijaGa%saao ippasa
sa%yakama: sa%yasa=klp: saao nvaoYTvya: sa ivaija&isatvya: sa sava - M Sca
laaokanap aoit savaa- M Sca kamaanyastmaa%maanamanuivaB ivajaanaatIit .
(Chhandogya Upanishad. VIII.vii.1)
tdsyaamaRtsyaaSarIrsyaa%manaao iQYzanamaa<aao vaO
saSarIr: ip yaaip yaaByaaM na vaO saSarIrsya sat:
ip yaaip yayaaorphitrsyaSarIrM vaava santM na ip yaaip yao spRSat: .evamaovaOYa samp saadao smaacCrIra%samai%aaya prM jyaaoit$psampV svaona $poNaaiBainaYpVto sa ]<ama: puruYa: sa. '
'naad<ao ksyaica%papM na caOva saukRtM ivaBau: A&anaonaavaRtM &anaM tona
mau(int jantva: (Bhagavad Gita.V.15).
'Ahmaova prM ba *ma na caahM ba *maNa: pRqak [%yaovaM samaupasaIt ba a*maNa o
ba *maiNa isqat: ' (Brahmanucintanam.3).
'yaVip sa%samya@p %yayaOkivaYayaM inagau-NaM caa%mat%vaM tqaaip mandbauiwna M
gauNava<vasyaoYT%vaat sa%yakamaaidgauNava%vaM ca va>vyama ' (Shankara).
'AivaVa#yaM Aa%maanaa%manaao: itraoraQyaasaM pUrskR%ya sava-o p maaNa p maoya
vyavahara laaOikka: p vaR<aa: sava -iNa ca Saa aiNa ivaiQap iQaYaoV maaoxapraiNa
'Asya Anaqa- hotao p haNaya A%yaOk%va ivaVp itp<aqao savao- vaodanta:
AarmBantao ' (Shankara).
'Baanaup BaasaaMjainataBa map= i>Baa-nauM itraoQaaya ivajaRmBato tqaa
Aa%maaoidtah= kRitra%mat<vaM tqa itroaoQaaya ivajamBato svayama
'na)a%maanaama ksyaicat Ap isaw: p aPyaao hoya ]padoyaao vaa '
Contentious arguments with intellectuals should be
Human mind is generally fascinated by
flowery words, therefore, many intellectuals considering themselves knowledgeable and wise in
their own esteem, couch their speech in dialectical concepts and intricate philosophies making communication more imaginative than intelligent. They propound philosophies which they understand little and which put hardly in practice. As Buddha graphically described they pass on what they have heard and acquired as Knowledge and not Wisdom directly perceived and experienced, to the subsequent generations as one would pass a basket from one hand to the other. Such communication while may assist as a signs on the road map they rarely contribute to enlightenment. Therefore, they should be shunned and such communicators should not to be encouraged.
Gurus are those who having experienced
Wisdom like a amalaka fruit in one's own hand - 'krtlaamalakvst saaxad ApraxaIkR%ya' transcending words of the scriptures considering them mere weariness of speech - 'naanauQyaayaad bahUHCbdaana vaacaao ivaglaapnaM ih tt ' and not repeat as Knowledge learnt or sourced from vedic and upanishadic scriptures, well-rehearsed and repeated as a parrot would do without understanding essence of the words.
There is vast difference between being
knowledgeable of the words and being wise of the Wisdom
of the Self -'man ivadovaaisma naa%maivat ', as
Sanatkumara tells Narada. Shankara clarifies 'naama vaa ?gvaodao yajauvaoda [%yaaid naamavaOt' - merely names, therefore he should reflect and meditate on the naama, thinking it as Brahman as one reflects and meditates of the statue of Vishnu -'naamaaopassava ba *maoit ba *mabauwyaa yaqaa p itmaaM ivaYNaubauw yaaopasato tWt '. The Knowledge from scriptures or teachers is understanding the words through their associationof with customery usage. Wisdom of Brahman is enlighenement through experience, which cannot be sourced through intellectual arguments and debates. Wisdom of the Prime Existence which is is the highest state od communion -yoga, can be sourced, says Katha Up. (II.iii.11) only when the five sense organs of Knowledge together with mind cease their operation and even the intellect does not stir. Therefore, while scriptures and teachers are essential for knowing about truth, and arguments may assist in approaching the Truth, the Truth has to be experienced exterminating the web of words and intellectual confrontations. It is observed that with efflux of Time, resonance of scriptures lose their
resonance and vibrancy, needing palpable presence of the Divine presence to declare afresh and rejuvenate the ancient Wisdom. Yoga Sutras, therefore, advise one to remain aloof from divergent thoughts because they distract being in union with Brahman -‘ivatk-vaadanao p itpxaBaavanaama '.
Guru is one who removes the moss gathered
on Mind and to release the stream from becoming stale. They do not communicate anything new or give any thing which was not there or already possessed ; they only speak that which they had and which was forgotten and now recollected. Shankara says enlightenment does not create the Supreme Reality nor does it alter it - 'na parmaaiqa-kM vastu ktu-M inavat-iyatuM vaa Ah-it ba *maivaVa '. Immortality is not Knowledge of the Self, Wisdom being its essential attribute and nature. If it is produced by Knowledge, it will be mortal like any other result of performance of action. Wisdom removes the ignorance which makes one identify the self with non-self. Wisdom is not an attribute of only men. Janashruti's grandson found the man of Wisdom - Raikva under a cart and not necessarily in a great assembly. Satyakama Jabala found them in others than men – the bull, the fire,
the swan and the diver-bird. To Upkosala the fires became the Guru. Shankara says that they are to be found ‘ekantorNyao nadIpuilanaadaO ivaiva>o doSao ' – in solitary places, in forests or on the banks of rivers.
A sincere seeker, therefore, should guard
himself from falling in the trap of contentious
arguments and futile controversies and rely on his
own enlightenment. The wise one should be non-
attached, as recommended by Mundaka Up.
scrutinize the worlds won by performance of
actions. Because the worlds not created are not won
by performing actions. Wisdom is illumination not
information to be had only from a competent
teacher responsive to the eternal sound and well
established in Brahman.
prIxya laaokana kma-icatana ba‘a*maNaao inavao-dM Aayaannaaist AkRt:
kRtona yd iva&aananaqa-Msa gau$MevaaiBagacCaot saimpaaiNa: Eaaoi yaM ba‘*mainaYzma
'Aa%ma&anaona ikM AamaRt%vaM ]%paVto ? na ikM tih-? svaonaOva
ina%yaa%masvaBaavaona AmaRt%vaM syaat Aina%yaM Bavaot kma-kaya-vat ivaVa Anaa%maiva&anaM
inavat-iyait ' (Shankara).
xauW yaaiQaSca icaik%syataM p itidnaM iBaxaaOYaQaM Baujyatama
svaaWn a na tu yaacyataM ivaiQavaSaa%p aPtona saMtuYyatama
SaItaoYNaaid ivaYa(taM na tu vaRqaa vaa@yaM samauccaya-tama
AaOdasaInyamaiBaPsyataM janakRpanaOYzuya-mau%saRjyatama 4
Thirst, disease and the rest should be attended. One
should partake whatever one gets each day as food
as if it is medicine. Delicious food should not be
sought for. One should be satisfied with whatever is
ordained. One should endure the duality of heat and
the cold. One should not engage in unproductive
discussion. Impassioned dis-interest towards
samsara should be cultivated. Unnecessary
sympathy of people should be avoided.
xauW yaaiQaSca icaik%syatama
Thirst, disease and the rest should be attended.
Many seekers often are made to believe, on
the basis of mis-interpretation of the scriptures that there is separate and distinct identity of the physical form the spiritual essence, there being no need to attending to one's physical form in the evolution of the spiritual essence. The general impression is that the ego or the 'I' is transient and not the essence or the self within ; therefore, it is not necessary or much less essential part to preserve the form for the essence. Intense austerity and perfection in penance with complete disregard to the physical body or its proper maintenance is often commended, assuming that noble thoughts can never arise in a gross body.
This is not proper because no noble thought
could ever arise in a diseased body and a sick mind. Healthy mind is possible only in a healthy body. Therefore, seers recommend Yoga saadhana for perfection of the instrument for having a perfect body and mind. Katha Up.(I.ii.24) declares that one who is not aloof from evil ways, who is not tranquil, has neither concentrated nor a composed mind, can ever hope to experience the Supreme Essence.
Mundaka Up.(III.ii.4) points out that Self can be attained not through weakness of the body, not through heedlessness, nor though austerity without a purpose. Bhagavad Gita (VI.16) declares that yoga is not for one who eats too much or abstains too much from eating; neither for one who sleeps too much nor for one who keeps himself awake. It is for one whose is heart is pure and mind receptive, with his self well-equipped with Knowledge and Wisdom, master of his senses, clod, stone and gold being equal in perception, who is equal to friends and foes, saints and sinners, serene and fearless, consciously aware and firm in commitment to the Supreme Essence.
Kena Up. recommends a prayer at the outset
to the gods presiding over the different senses to make them perfect, auspicious and receptive - the limbs, speech, breath, hearing and also strength of the senses. so that the mystery of Brahman contained in secret teachings of the Upanishads being prayed, wisdom of the Upanishads shall not desert or abandon him, wisdom of self not to desert him or be breached ever reposing his self in Upanishads so that Dharma would be his
auspicious guide. Yoga Sutra recommends eight-fold path for perfection of the body and the mind – yama (abstinence from evil), inayama (performance of noble deeds) Aasana (posture) p aNaayama (restraint on breathing), p %yaahar (withdrawal of mind from the influence of senses) QaarNaa (concentration on the objective, Qyaana (meditation) and samaaQaI (equanimity of mind). Perfection of the instruments of perception is not for its own purpose but for facilitating apprehension of the Divine Essence. In Yoga Vashishtha, Rama is told that deluded by external forms of sacrifices, austerities, alms giving, pilgrimages and worship of gods men pass many years in misery like beasts. Therefore, disciplined approach to life is recommended regulating thirst, disease and the rest for the body.
'naaivartao duScairtannaaSaantao naasamaaiht: naaSaantaomaanasaao vaa ip
p &anaonaOnamaaPnauyat ' (Kath Up. I.ii.24). 2.
'naayamaa%maa balahInaona laByaao na ca p maada<apsaao vaa Pyaila=gat
etOrupayaOya-ttto yastu ivaWaMstsyaOYa Aa%maa ivaSato ba *maQaama ' (Mundaka Up.III.ii.4).
'! AaPyaayaantu mamaa=gaaina vaak p aNaScaxau: Eaaotmaqaao balaimaind yaaiNa
ca sava -iNa savMa- ba *maaopinaYadM maa hM ba *ma inarakuyaMa- maa maa ba *ma inarakraod
inarakrNamas%vainarakrNaM mao stu tda%maina inarto ya ]pinaYa%sau Qamaa-sto mayaI santu
' (Kena Up.).
'naa%yaSyanastu yaaogaao ist na caOkantmanaSnat: na caaitsvaPnaSaIlasya
jaaga tao naOva caajau-na ' (Bhagavad Gita VI.16 ).
'kalaM ya*tpaodanatIqa-dovaacarNaba‘*maO: icarM AiQa Sataopot: xapyaint
maRgaeva ' (Yoga Vashishta).
p itidnaM iBaxaaOYaQaM Baujyatama
One should partake whatever food one gets each
day as if it is medicine.
Food plays an important role in creative
activity of Brahman. Taittiriya Up, (III.vii.1) enjoins that one should not speak ill of food. For life is verily food, body is the eater of the food. In breath is the body established and in body is the breath established and so is food established in food. He who knows thus becomes well-established, becoming the eater of food, possessor of food,
becoming great in offspring and cattle and splendour of sacred Wisdom and fame. Chhandogya Up. (VI.v.4) says that mind is verily shaped by food. It says further that he who meditates on food as Brahman, he attains worlds of food and waters. As far as food reaches, so far does he who meditates on food as Brahman reaches freely (VII.ix.2).
Maitri Up. (VI.9) declares eating food as
performance of a sacrifice, offered by self to the self, after rinsing one's mouth in the beginning and at the end of the meals. Food is a form of the self, because if one does not eat, then one becomes incapable of thinking, listening, touching, seeing, speaking, and smelling, tasting and even giving up one's breath. All creation seek food, Sun seeks through his rays, and fire seeks in the blaze. The world was assuredly fashioned by Brahma to seek food. Vishnu is Annama , Breath being primarily the essence of food, mind of life, Wisdom of mind, Bliss of Wisdom. He who is aware of this becomes possessed of food, breath, mind, wisdom and bliss. Whichever creature here eats food, he abides in them (food, breath, mind, wisdom and bliss). Food, indeed, prevents decay, (therefore) food is
worshipped, food is the primal breath of the animals, food is born mature, food is the physician, it is so declared.
Brihad Aranayak Up.(I.v.1-2) suggests that
Prajapati created by knowledge and austerity seven kinds of food. One is common to all, the food which is suitable for consumption. Two he assigned to the gods namely ya&, performance of sacrifice by creatures and Aahuit the oblations offered therein. Therefore it is ordained that sacrifices should not be performed for material gains but as and by way performance of actions as ordained by Prajapati, fostering gods and gods in turn fostering their objectives of the creatures and all others being bondage in this world. The three, mind, speech and primal breath he made for himself. One which he gave to the animals and to the babes was milk.
He who consumes food, without
discrimination, is not freed from evil even as he who does not help others in this world nor turns the wheel thus set in motion is evil in nature, sensual in his delight and lives in vain, eating the food prepared by them alone eating verily their own de-merits. Food and rest should be taken of such
quality and in such quantity as would promote healthy body and wholesome mind and rejects those which makes one dull and Food when eaten is transformed three-fold, the coarsest portion becomes the fasces, the intermediate one becomes the flesh and the subtle becomes the mind. Thus my dear, food becomes transformed as mind.
Enlarging the meaning and scope of food,
Gita says the food that brightens life, vitality, strength, health, joy and cheerfulness, succulent, soft, sustaining is agreeable to the luminous ones. Bitter, sour, salty, too hot and too pungent, rough and burning food producing pain, hurt and disorder are preferred by the energetic. Food that is spoilt, tasteless, putrid, stale, left half-eaten by others and impure is relished by the obscure ones. A human being should be wise in vision and austere in approach, accepting food as the need of the body and not for satisfaction of the senses. Then food consumed being useful as medicine and not an object of desire.
' ya%saPtannaaina maoQayaa tpsaajanai%pta . ekmasya saaQaarNama , Wo
dovanaBaaajayat INyaa%manao kurut, pSauBya ekM p ayacCt tismansavMa- p itiYztM
yacca p aiNait yacca na (Brihad Aranayak Up.(I.v.1).
'sa yaao n aM ba *ma%yaupasato n avatao vaO sa laaokanpanavatao iBaisaQyait
yaavadn asya gatM t asya yaqaa kamacaarao Bavait .savaa-iNa h vaa [maaina'
(Chhandogya Up. (VII.ix.2).
'p aNaM vaa etda%amanaaao $pM yadn aM, An amaayaao ih AyaM p aNaa qa na
yaid ASnaait Amanta Eaaota spSa - d STa va>a Ga atadrisyataBavait,
p aNaa%saRjatIit .sava -iNa h vaa [maaina BaUtaaina Ahr Ah: p ptint AnnaM
AiBaijaGa xamaanaaina, saUyaao- riSmaiBar Aaddait An aM tonaasaaO tpit An aonaaiBaiSa>:
pcantImao p aNaa: .An akamaonaodM p kilptMba *maNaa, Atao n aM Aa%maoitpasaI$yaovaM
ih Aah An ad BaUtaina jaayanto jaataainaAn aona vaQa-nto AVto it ca BaUtaina
tsmaad AnnaM td ]cyato .ivaSvaBaRd vaO naamaOYaa tnauBa-gavatao ivaYNaaor yaiddM An ama
p aNaao vaa An asya rsaao mana:, p aNasya iva&anaM manasaa, AanandM iva&anasyaoit,
Annava na p aNavaana mansvaana iva&anavaana Aanandva na ca Bavait yaao hOvaM vaod,
yaavantIh vaO BautainaAn aM Adint tava%svanaMsqaao n aM Ai<a yaao haOvaM vaod, An aM eva
ivajarn aM An aM saMvaananaM smaRtma , An aM pSaUnaaM p aNaao n aM jyaoYzM, An aM iBaYak smaRtma
'An amaSaIta%maa oQaa ivaQaIyato tsya ya: svaivaYzao Qaatu: tt puirYaaM
Bavait yaao maQyama: tnmaasaM yaao inaYza: tnmana: An amayaM ih saaOmya mana:
'sahya&a: p jaa: saRYT vaa puraovaaca p jaapit: Anaona p saivaYyaQvamaoYa
vaao is%vaYTkamakRw evaM p vait-tM cak M naanauvat-yatIh ya: AGaayauirind yaarama o
maaoGMa paqasa jaIvait .ya&aqaa-%kma-Naao nya laaokao yaM kama-banQana: '
'ya&iSaYTaiSana: santao maucyanto sava-ikilbaYaO: mauHcanto to %vaGaM papa
yao pcan%yaa%makarNama 'Bhagavad Gita.III.13).
'Aahars%vaip sava-sya i ivaQaao Baavait ip ya: ya&stpsaqaa danaM toYa M
BaodimadM EauNau Aayau:sa%vabalaaraogyasauKp‘IitivavaQa-naa: rsyaa: isnaGda: isqara
)Va Aahara: sai%vaiki p yaa: kT vamlalavaNaa%yauYNatIxNarUxaivadaifna: Aahara
rajasaSyaoYTa dau:KSaaokamayap da: yaatyaamaM gatrsaM pUit pyau-iYatM ca yat
]icCaYTmaip caamaoQyaM BaaojanaM tamasaIip yama ' (Bhagavad
svaaWn a na tu yaacyatamaa
Delicious food should not be sought for.
Injunction is not to deny food but to deny
yearning or craving for food. When one desires for food, or when one continuously thinks of food or forcibly restrains one's mind from desiring food, then the desire becomes transformed as craving for food. Even when one is not hungry or even when the food is not nutritious for physical health or for spiritual development, if one craves to possess, desiring to appropriate for oneself as one's and one's
alone. Brihad Aranyaka Up. (IV.iv.6 and IV.iii.21) says that the object to which the mind is attached, the subtle self goes together with the deed, being attached to that desire. But the one who does not desire, one who is without desire, one who is freed from desire, one whose desire is satisfied, whose desire is the self itself, his breaths do not leave him. Being Brahman he departs to Brahman. In such an event, the motivation leading to desire makes one satisfy one's ego and not one's need or hunger. Desiree may be propitious but craving is certainly not, says Bhagavad Gita.
Chhandogya Up (VIII.i.1) responds without
slightest hesitation that the only thong that should be sought is the self within the heart, for that assuredly is what one should understand. The mind which is overwhelmed by desire for food and things palatable to senses, rejects or suppresses all other thoughts. If instead one desires the self then that would stimulate the mind to desire and that which is spiritual. Only when one reaches the Bliss of Brahman, where ones desires no desires na kMcana kamaM kamayato, being the true purpose and goal top be sought. Craving diverts mind from the principal objective
for which food is eaten of the food which is to nourish the body and invigorate the energies to fruitful enterprise. Otherwise the purpose having been fashioned wrongly the objective fails to its goal.
In Mahabharata we find it mentioned that
Desires have unending course, desire feeding on desires, more you enjoy the more one seek to enjoy. Even as pouring ghee on fire does not extinguish it but increases its intensity more you desire stronger your desire becomes.
'tdova sa@t: sah kma-NaOit ila=gaM manao ya inaYa>masya
.Aqakamayamaana:, yaao kamaao inaYkama AaPtkama Aa%makamaao na tsya p aNa:
]%k amaint, ba *maOva sanba *maaPyaoit '.Brihad Aranyaka Up.
'Aqa yaiddmaismanb a*mapuro dhrM puNDrIkM vaoSma
dhrao smannantrakaSastismanyadntstdnvaoYTvyaM tWava ivaija&aisatvyaimait '
'tWa AsyaOtditcCnda AphtpaPmaaBayaM $pma tVqaa ip yayaa is yaa
saMpirYva@tao na baa(M ikMcabna vaod naantrma , evamaoyvaayaM puruYa: p a&ona %manaa
saMpirYva@taao na baa(M ikMcana vaod naanantrma ; tWa
AsyaOtdaPtkamamaa%makamamakamaM $pM Saaokantrma (Chhandogya
'na jaatu: kama: kamanaaM ]pBaaogaona Samyait hivaYaa kRYNavat-maova
BaUyaevaaiBavaQato ' (Mahabharata)
ivaiQavaSaa%p aPtona saMtuYyatama
One should be satisfied with whatever is ordained.
This is in continuation to the previous
injunction not to desire things but accept whatever is ordained. Isha Up. commends acceptance of every thing in world with a sense of detachment and renunciation, without coveting what is ordained for others. Acceptance of whatever is ordained is not acceptance of Fate as an unthinking mechanical agency. It is conscious acceptance that whatever exists is the Prime Existence- sa%ya pervading the manifestation as ?t, the Cosmic Law and Qama- the righteousness for performance. Therefore, one should accept whatever is ordained in the spirit of renunciation, it being mentioned further in Brihad
Aranyaka Up, that Prajapati provided food for
creatures which is common to all -‘ekmasya saaQaarNaM'. He
who eats the common food would not freed from
evil, because whatever one eats to that extent he
deprives some other having that food, what he eats
being desired by other as well - ‘sa ya etdupasato na sa paPmana o
vyaavat-to , imaEaM (ott '. Therefore, he should eat with
circumspect, sufficient to nourish him without
hankering for or being greed.
Rigveda (I.187 and X.117) glorifies that
food bears great strength within, by whose vigorous vitality Indra did split Vritra limb by limb. If one with food in his store does not share with one who has not needing food to eat, such one finds none to comfort him. Bounteous does one become if he gives to beggars who come to him weak and wanting food to eat. The scripture suggests one to be therefore, charitable. Let the rich seek to satisfy the poor, who implores for food and bend his sight on the Path that stretches long. Riches come now to one and now to another. Like wheels of the chariot they spin on and on. Foolish one earns food from fruitless labour; that food, I speak truth, shall be his ruin. He feeds no trusted friend; none could a friend of such one. All guilt shall be his who shares his
food with no one else.
Normally persons are attracted to the
Pleasant (p oya) being swayed by the senses rather to what is Proper (Eaoya) by the sense of discrimination. Therefore Shankara brings to the attention of the seekers the scriptural injunctions among other things like 'Ap dayaOByaao yaao BauM>ostona eva sa:' as in Bhagavad Gita (III.12). Mind if it is strong then he would not succumb to these attractions, which subvert the innate intelligence and the sense of discrimination. One who is not comprehensively satisfied saMtuYT with what is ordained for him and, therefore, what he has, accepting what ivavaok - his sense of decimation guides him but prefers, chooses and selects what his senses prompt him to perform fall prey to intransigence. Therefore, what one selects for oneself should not be at the cost of another. One should select and should eat with circumspection.
Isha Up. declares that one should enjoy only
that which is ordained by Gods and not covet what
is ordained for others. Rigveda (X.127.1,6) says that
even to the well-fed man, Death comes in diverse
ways. The riches of the charitable are never wasted,
but he who is not charitable finds none to comfort
him. Foolish person earns food from fruitless
labour, which brings them no pleasures but ruin. Because he feeds none all de-merits are his not having shared food with none.
'na vaa ] dovaa: xauQaimawdM ddu$taiSatmaup gacCaint maR%yava: ]tao
riya: pRNatao naaop dsya%yautapRNana maid-tarM na ivandto 1 .maaoGamannaM ivandto
Ap‘caota: sa%yaM ba‘vaIima vaQa [t sa tsya naaya-maNaM puYyit naao saKayaM kovalaaQaao
Bavait kovalaaid ' (Rigveda.X.127.1,6).
iptuM nau staoYaM mahao Qama -NaM tivaYaIma yasya i tao vyaaojasaa vaR M ivapva-
mad-yat ' (Rigveda. I.187.1).
'ya AaQa aya cakmaanaaya ip%vaao n avan%sana riftayaaopjagmaYao isqarM
mana: kRNauto saovato puraotao icat sa maid-tarM na ivandto sa [Bdaojaao yaao gaRhvao
dda%yannakamaaya carto kRSaaya ArsmaOBavait yaamahUta ]tapirYau kRNauto saKayama
.'pRNaIyaaidn aaQamaanaaya tvyaana d aGaIyaaMsamanau pSyaot pnqaama Aaoih vat-nto rqyaova
cak a nyamanyamaup itYznt raya: maaoGaman aM ivandto Ap caota: sa%yaM ba vaIima vaQa [t
sa tsya naaya-maNaM puYyait naao saKayaM kovalaaGaao Bavait kovalaadI
'! [-SaavaasyaimadM yat ikMca jaga%yaama jagat, tona %ya>ona BauMijata:,
maa gaRQa: ksyaisvad Qanama kuva-n aovaoh kma -iNa ijaijaivaSaot SatM samaa: evaM %vayaI
naanyaqaotao ist na kama-ilaPyato naro ' (Isha Up.).
One should endure the duality of heat and the cold.
The Prime Existence is a unique and unitary
principle which existed even before existence or non-existence could be conceptualized. When the undifferentiated
Prime Existence became
differentiated in essence and forms, the essence entering the forms to the tip of the nails, as it were. Therefore, even as the Prime Existence exists with any duality, even so in creation there is duality of the essence though forms appear to b diverse, there being nothing as good and bad, pleasant and painful, righteous and unrighteous, beautiful and ugly in every manifest creation the divine essence existing.
In Hindu philosophy there is no place for
existence of Satan as a parallel centre of power, distinct of Brahman. Darkness and obscurity have no independent relevance except that exists as absence of Light and clarity. Upanishads consider
both devas and asuras as the progeny of Prajapati, devas being the enlightened ones influenced by positive forces of Wisdom, while asuras are those who are not influenced by the positive forces of Wisdom being under the negative influence of senses. Wisdom dawns the moment the ignorance is terminated, just as moment Sun dawns the darkness of the earlier night drift away.
All that appears in creation as conflicting,
contrary and contradictory is nothing but maayaa the power of illusion, which formats things to appear as something other than what it really is in essence. Indra the presiding deity over mind is said to be creating manifold forms through maayaa, his formative power with ten organs of senses are enjoined, nay even hundreds of them - (Rigveda.X.xviii). The duality is the product of mind influenced by senses, which makes one prefer good, pleasant, righteous, and beautiful in every manifest creation and reject everything that appears as bad, painful, unrighteous and ugly to the organs of senses. Krishna also speaks of his maayaa, his formative power because of which he is not revealed to all, enveloped in his yaaogamaayaa - the enjoined formative power; the
bewildered world does not know him as the unborn and imperishable. These deluded minds, therefore, despise him lodged in the human body not being aware of his supreme nature of being the lord of all the Existence - (Bhagavad Gita.VII.25 and IX.11).
When Krishna displayed his divine
Resplendence – prmaM rUpM eoSvaya-ma to Arjuna, he speaks of himself as the creator, the preserver, the gods and seers, the illumination, strength, fame, prosperity, intelligence, receptivity, firmness, determination, the imperishable Time, all the positive forces in manifestation, he also made it clear that he also is the rod that chastises, Vasuki among serpents, Ananta among the nagas, Prahlada among the daityas, deceit in gambling, the terminator and destroyer, the rod that chastises, the all-devouring death and the World destroying Time, with terrible form touching sky, blazing with colours, with eyes glowing bight, with mouth wide open, terrible with tusks, where hosts of warriors seem to enter, some even caught between the teeth, the three worlds tremble, lack of receptivity, the illusion that conceals, bewilders, deceives, as gambling. There is nothing in creation which does not have stamp of
his authority and control. He verily is the imperishable by which space is woven like warp and woof - 'etismannau Klvaxaro gaagyaa-kaSa AaotSca p aotScaoit ' - (Brihd Arnyaka Up.III.viii.11).
Therefore, for one who is aware of the
universal and all-pervading nature of the Divinity there is nothing that needs to be rejected and everything to be understood in the right perspective. He accepts things without preferring or denying, without liking or disliking without choosing and selecting as the sign of detachment from duality in samsaara. In awareness, there is neither good nor bad, neuther noble nor ignoble. Brihad Aranyka Up. calls the luminous (devas) and the non-luminous (asuras) are the offspring of Prajaapati. Only when one is immune to pleasures and pains, heat and cold the person is said to be equanimous. Then abandoning all desires and acting free from longing without any ego-sense, he attains peace.
Therefore Krishna tells that the one who is
equal to friends and foes, to honour and dishonour, to cold and the heat, who free from attachment is same in pleasure and pains, silent in speech content with every thing, having no fixed attachment to any
abiding place, firm in mind, that man being devoted is dear to Him.
'$pM $pM p it$pao baBaUva tdsya $pM p itcaxaNaaya [nd ao maayaaiBa:
puru$p [-yato yau>a(sya hrya: Sata dSa '
Wyaa h p ajap%yaa: dovaasauraSca (Brihad Aranyaka
' naahM p kaSa: sava-sya yaaogamaayaasama vaRt: maUZao yaM naaiBajaanaait
laaokao maamavyajama Avajaanaint' maaM maUZa maanauYaIM tnaumaaiEatma prM Baavamajaanantao
mamaBaUtmahoSvarma (Bhagavad Gita.VII.25 and IX.11).
'ivahaya kamaanya: sava -npumaaMScarint inaspRh: inama-maao inarhMkar: sa
SaintmaiQagacCait '. (Bhagavad Gita.II.71) .
'na p )Yyaoi%p ya p aPya naaoiWjao%p aPya caaip yama isqarbauiwsa-m aUZao
ba *maivad ba *maiNa istqa: (Bhagavad Gita.V.20) .
'sama: Sa aO ca ima o ca tqaa maanaapmaanaayaao: SaItaoYNasauKdu:KoYau sama:
saMgaivavaija-t: tulyainandastuitmaaO-naI santuYTao yaona konaicat Ainakot:
isqarmaitBa-i>maanmao ip yaao nar: (Bhagavad Gita.XII.18-19).
na tu vaRqaa vaa@yaM samauccaya-tama
One should not give voice to unproductive speech.
Human being unlike other animate creatures
in creation is a talking animal, though other species too have their own language of communication. but unlike human beings whose imaginative mind plays a greater role in communication with one another, others in animate creation, it is generally seen that they communicate with others more in response to their emotions than with their mind. However, human mind being nothing else than thoughts projected by the influences of senses, human beings tend to respond on dual basis, s like and dislikes, preferences and rejections.
The greatest tragedy of human being is to
associate the 'I' within his body with the go formatted by the sense influenced by thoughts rather than the self within which is free of the sense influence. Therefore, in general usage the word 'OI' is associated with the body of the organs of senses and five of perception, the empirical mind, intelligence given to respond based on the empirical experiences which together give the ego-sense or the 'I' senses to dominate his personality
Krishna points out in Bhagavad Gita (III.27)
that human being, influenced by their ego-sense or the 'I-sense' tend to think that they themselves are the doers and not the attributes and inclination with which they are born in Nature. Further (in XIV.5) he says that Luminous. Energetic and Obscure attributes born of Nature bind him down the imperishable essence, the self within, to the gross body without. (II.62-63). It is only when the seer perceives that the attributes are the real doers and no one else, becoming aware of That which is beyond these attributes becomes delivered (XIV.19). In Bahgavad Gita (III.37-39)he further mentions that it is the craving and the consequential anger born of passion to be the root cause, covering all this as fire is covered by smoke, as mirror by dust, as embryo by the womb. Enveloped by these insatiable craving, the wisdom of the wise is constantly endangered. Mind, intellect and the senses are the foundation of the desire, veiling which it deludes the self within.
Shankara also informs that it is common
experience of all people that they are ignorant of
nature of the self and prompted by craving and attachment, undertake activities with great enthusiasm. In the final analysis there are only two kinds of people – un-enlightened and the enlightened ones. The unenlightened ones, feeble in understanding or in knowing the way of action or of renunciation, having neither purity of mind or clarity of vision, neither good conduct or ethical behaviour, declare the world to be unreal, without any supreme controller, being impelled only by desire, know not the proper Path to be traversed. Giving themselves to insatiable desire, hypocrisy, pride, arrogance, holding wrong views under delusion, they have impure resolve. Looking to gratification of senses, bounded by desires, lust and anger, they engage in amassing wealth through unjust means, they boast ‘This has been attained by me; this desire I will fulfill, this is mine, this wealth shall also be mine, this foe has been slain and also will others be slain. I am the master, I am the enjoyer, I am the successful, mighty, and happy. I am the rich and the well-born, Who is there like me? I sacrifice, I give, I rejoice'. Bewildered by such thoughts, enmeshed in delusion, addicted to
gratification of senses, they fail eventually. These self-conceited souls, obstinate, proud and arrogant of their possessions, perform sacrifices with ostentation and not according to rules (Bhagavad Gita.XVI.13-15)'.
Yaska says that if a blind one dashes against
the pillar, the fault does not lie in the pillar but in the person. Even so the sufferings of these unenlightened ones are entirely due to their own actions and not due to the dispensation of divinities. Such ones continue carry Knowledge as one would carry a load, without being aware of what he is carrying may lead to experience the fragrance of the Divine. Krishna says to Arjuna in Uttara Gita, that just as an ass carrying the weight of the sandalwood knows not its fragrance, even so a priest who knows only the scriptures but not the essence, is like an animal. Unenlightened can be orators, cleaver in exposition while others in practicing what has been learnt. It is the hand that carries food to the mouth but it is the tongue that tastes. Therefore, fruitless talk without substantial basis is only a display of unenlightened mind, not the Wisdom of the enlightened mind.
The enlightened ones are restrained in
thoughts and speech, accepting that even though speech is silver, silence for them is undoubtedly golden. Their communication is pregnant in Wisdom and their thoughts, speech and actions, born of reflection and meditation, are effective as of those who are born with authority to speak. Not every one who speaks of God but one who does work ordained by Him that is noble, says Jesus Christ. Teachers, therefore, caution disciples not to be lead by Teachers as if buffalo is led by strings, but inquire being receptive, reflective and meditative not dissipating energies in unproductive activities. Because Wisdom is not imparted nor is it to be imported to one who is not receptive, who is not an initiate and therefore qualified to receive. Krishna's final advice to Arjuna was never to speak of these teachings to one who is not austere in life, who has no devotion and who is not receptive to me or speaks ill.
But words of wisdom by themselves do not
lead one to enlightenment; they serve only as lamp posts on the Path to Deliverance. The aspirant has to be guided by the light given by the lamp posts,
without having to cling to them. Even a great sage like Narada, well versed in all scriptures, experienced being only knower of the words and not knower of Self – ‘maM ivad evaaisma na Aa%maivat ', till Sanatkumar clarified that what he knows is only the naama - ‘yaWO ikMcaOtdQyagaIYza naamaOvaOtt ', an idea, a symbol and not the thing which it stands for. Therefore, he was advised to go beyond Knowledge of the scriptures and the like to know what the names, ideas, symbols of the Self stand for ‘naamaOvaOtn aamaapassvaoit' - to meditate on the naama. Shankara advises that one should meditate on naama as Brahman, as one would meditate on the image of Vishnu.
Brihad Aranyaka Up. (I.v.3.) declares that
Brahman made Mind, Speech and Praana – primal Breath as his instrument of effulgence, therefore, it is said this is what is known, what is to be known and what is unknown. Whatever is known speech becomes its form, for Speech is the knower and through Speech alone it (Knowledge) is protected. Similarly with Mind and Praana. Yajnavalkya says the indemonstrable and constant Being, can be realized as One only. The Self is taintless, beyond space, unborn, supreme and constant. Knowing Him
alone, let a seeker of Wisdom concentrate on Wisdom, Brahman and not depend on mere words, because that would be merely weariness of speech.
Arguments for the sake of argument neither
convinces the wise nor the discerning ones, only fooling the undeserving and the unqualified. It is like concentrating on the leaves rather on the wood. Therefore such speech is said to be bluff and bluster, mere weariness of speech. A Saadhaka should concentrate more on silent reflection and meditation rather than expressing opinions howsoever they may be or appear to be illuminating.
'ekQaOvaanaud YTvyamaotdp mayaM QaRvama ivarja: pr AakaSaadja Aa%ma
mahanQaRva: tamaova QaIrao iva&aya p &aM kuiva-t ba a*maNa: naanauQyaayaad bahUMCbdaana
vaacaao ivaglaapnaM ih tt ' (Brihad Aranyaka Up.IV.iv.20-
'Qyaayatao ivaYayaanpuMsa: sa=gastoYaUpjaayato sa=gaa%saMjaayato kama:
kamaa%k aoQaao iBajaayato k aoQaad Bavait saMmaaoh: saMmaaoha%smaRitivaBa ma: smaRitBa MSaad
bauiwnaaSaao bauiwnaaSaa%p NaSyait '(Bhagavad Gita.II.62-63).
'kama eYa k aoQa eYa rjaaogauNasamaud Bava: mahaSanaao mahapaPma
ivaw yaonaimah vaOirNama QaUmaonaaiva yato vai*naya-qaadSaao- malaona ca yaqaaolbaaonaavaRtao gaBa-
stqaa tonaOdmaavaRtama AavaRtM &namaotona &ainanaao ina%yavaOirNaa kam$poNa kaOntoya
duYpUroNaanalaona ca [ind yaaiNa manaao bauiwrsyaaiQaYzanamaucyato eyOivamaaohya%yaoYa
&anamaavaR%yadoihnama ' (Bhagavad Gita.II.37-40).
'p vaRi<aM ca inavaRi<aM ca janaa na ivadurasaura: na SaaOcaM naaip caacaarao na
sa%yaM toYau ivaVto Asa%yamap itYzM to jagadahurnaISvarma AprsprsamBaUtM
ikmanya%kamahOtukama etaM dRiYTmavaYTBya naYTa%manaao lpbauwya: p Bavan%yauga kma -
Na: xayaayajagatao ihta: kaamamaiEa%ya duYpUrM dmBamaanamadainvataa: maaohad
gaRhI%vaa sad ga ahanp vat-nto Sauicava ta: icantamapirmaoyaaM ca p layaantamaupaiEataa:
kamaaopBaaogaprmaa etavaidit inaiScata: AaSaapaSaSatOba-wa: kamak‘aoqaprayaNaa:
[-hnto kamaBaaogaaqa-manyayaonaaqa-saMcayaat [dmaV mayaa labQaimamaM p aPyasao manaaorqama
[dmaist [dmastIdmaip mao BaivaYyait punaQa-nama AsaaO mayaa ht: Sa uh-
inaYyao caapranaip [-Svarao hmahM BaaogaI isawao hM balavaansauKI
AaZ yaao iBajanavaanaisma kao nyaao ista sadRSaao mayaa yaxyao dasyaaima maaoidYya
[%ya&anaivamaaoiht: (Bhagavad Gita.XVI.7-15).
‘[dM to naatpskaya kdacana na caaSauEauYavao vaacyaM na ca maaM
yaa ByasaUyait (Bhagavad Gita.XVIII.67).
'ya: h Krsa caMdnaBaarvaahI Baarsya vao<aa, na tu saaOrBasya tqaa hI
ivap‘: EauitSaas puraNa:, &aanaona hIna: pSauiBa: samaana: (Uttara Gita).
'vyaa#yaanaaM eva koicat kuSala: Saas M p ao>uM AlaM Anyao
]panaamayaint kraonnaM rsaM tu ijavha jaanait 7.
'naamaaopassaca ba *maoit ba *mabauw yaa yaqaa p itmaaM ivaYNaubauwyaaopasto
tWt ' (Shankara).
Aa%maivaSaoYaanaiBa&: kma-flasaMjaattRYNa: Ea_Qaanatyaa ca p vat-to [it
savao-YaaM na: p %yaxama (Shankara).
Impassioned dis-interest in samsara should be cultivated.
Dis-interest in things temporal is not
disregard of the temporal life. As Shankara says prior to realization of the identity of the self with Brahman, the world of senses and other things have their existential validity. As he dramatically puts it, scriptures cannot be authority against facts that can be observed. Even if hundred vedic texts declare that fire is cold and devoid of light that cannot be authority of the fact of life. Scriptures are merely informative; they do not alter the nature of things perceived but only supply information of the things not perceived. Therefore, Shankara says p aga%ma&anaat p vaR<%yaupp<ao' ie prior to enlightenment of the self, performance of actions is normal and proper.
But the regrettable part, however, is that
persons without comprehensive perception and sense of discrimination tends to believe that their empirical life is the real life and there is nothing
besides and beyond the empirical perception. Isha Up. (9) draws particular attention to the tendency where a person prides in his ignorance and takes delight only in his empirical knowledge. Mundaka Up. (I.ii.9) refers these persons as immature one living in variously in ignorance, who think that they know their objective and have accomplished their goal, performing actions with attachment to the objective, but without understanding the goal, the essence behind the rites and rituals. Such one's are bound to fail when the beneficial result of their actions are exhausted, sinking in the worlds of obscurity. Because as said in Isha Up. (13-14) distinct is what results from the manifest (the empirical responses), being the aggregation of thoughts arising of sensory influences, identifying body with the self, leading one to ignorance – ‘dohaidsaMGaato Aa%maaiBamaanaao AivaVa%mak:' and distinct is what results from the unmanifest (spiritual responses), it being suggested that only he who understands together the empirical and spiritual responses, crosses death and degradation and attains the life eternal.
vaOragya is dispassion or dis-interest in things
temporal, therefore, one should show the same indifference to things temporal, which one shows to all the thoughts from the world of Brahma to the world of the mortals, treating them all as the excreta of crow. Mundaka Up (III.i.3) says that when one sees the creator of the golden hue , the Lord, the Purusha, the source of Prajapati Brahma, then becoming a man of Wisdom, shaking all the concepts of good and evil and freed from all stains, attains the supreme similarity or absolute similarity (saamya) or non-duality. This is not same as similarity observed within the range of duality of perception but as Shankara explains, it is the supreme equipoise which is identical and non-dual with the Prime Existence.
Vairagya is not only disinterest in
performance of actions with attachment to fruits thereof but also performance and non-performance of actions with the idea that he is the performer or non-performer of those actions. It is also desiring to possess or to renounce. When one becomes aware that samasara is made of such thoughts, then his attention would not be to perform actions, even rites and rituals, worship, sacrifice, oblations in fire and
charity with any desire in mind.
To the question, why such activities are
encouraged by scriptures, Shankara clarifies that scriptures reveal only the means to attain the various goals by man, enjoining meditation on the naama, essence as Brahman, knowing well that the things, rites and rituals are different from Brahman, all being similar to meditation on the image of Vishnu, which is used merely as aids to mediation and not the image is Brahman. So long as one does not recognize the stump of wood, as the stump of wood, and takes the stump to be a man, mediation is helpful necessity. Therefore, Shankara says that the injunctions about rites and rituals are operative only as long one is not disciplined for enlightenment -yaavada%ma&ana ivaraoQaiBaamau#yaM tavadova kma-ivaYaya: .
Krishna has simple rule. Since one cannot
remain even for a moment without performing actions because actions are due to the inherent power of nature – ‘na ih kiSca%xaNamaip jaatu itYz%yakma-kRt kaya-to (vaSa: kma- sava-: p kRitjaOg-auNaO: ' it is only ignorant person who thinks he is performer of actions. Therefore, he should perform his actions without any expectation of the fruits of actions, performing them as and by
way of sacrifice for the luminous being, accepting fully well that all actions save those for and as sacrifice are bondage-‘ya&aqa-kma-Naao nya kama- banQana: tdqa-M kma- kaOntoya mau>saMga: samaacar ', or alternatively offering the fruits of action to the divine essence with consciousness fixed in the Self, being free from desires and egoism. yauQyasya doe not mean fighting a war with external enemies, but with the six-fold enemies within oneself, like ostentation, arrogance, egoism, anger, harshness and ignorance. It is easier to express hate and root out external enemies but difficult to destroy the internal ones. It is human nature to justify one's internal faults and deficiencies than to fight and root them out completely.
The work which is prescribed without
attachment is the work to be done with impassioned disinterest. Even Krishna performs actions, even though he has nothing to be gained by performance of actions or by abstaining from such performance. He performs actions though without being attached to the fruits, because if he does not, then people will follow his example and cease to perform their own actions. Because whatever the great men do, that is
done by others. Whatever standard he sets before them, which the world follows – ‘yaVacarit EaoYzst<adovaotrao jana: sa ya%p maaNaM kuruto laaokstdnauvat-to '. It was with such temperament that great persons like Janaka and other performed actions for the welfare of the worlds.
Impassioned dis-interest is not being
irreverent to the things in life but being detached from them. It is a leap from the particular to the universal, being aware of the infinite beyond the restrictive finite life. It is transcendence from sense influenced intellect to the infinite possibilities of Mind. Impassioned person is a stithaprajnya, stable in consciousness who is attuned to samaadhi – equanimous intellect. Exclusion of desire from mind brings about inner state of freedom, the delight of the self attuned to the Self within. It is not external renunciation of gross objects but internal acceptance of the Will of the Supreme Self. Impassioned disinterestedness is being in the state of Brahman ba *maI isqait which leads one to the state of Bliss which - ‘SaaintmagacCint', without being attached to the body. According to Gita, Nirvana is Bliss of Beatitude, the positive state of experience and not
the negative state of existence. Nirvana is being without the influence or withdrawal of ‘. the senses from the objects of senses, like the tortoise drawing its limbs within itself, his awareness is well-established . .'.
Performance of Action becomes important
when it is subservient to spiritual life. It is not neglect of the gross body and restraint from being influenced by the senses. Thus he attains Nirvana, detachment from constraints of the body. Ignorance that body is the Self being removed, not with dissolution of the body but by awareness of super-consciousness without denying the gross body. Therefore, one who does not rejoice on obtaining the pleasures or sorrows when unpleasant things come to him, he is firmly established in Brahman without any bewilderment. Krishna desires that humans should rise over the infirmities which the senses and attachment to life around has brought on him and like be a witness to the events taking place around him with troubled by the nature of dualities, untouched by the pleasures and pains, the self-righteous-ness and sins, indifferent to success and failures.
'na ih kiSca%xaNamaip jaatu itYz%uakama-kRt ' (Bhagavad
'ya&aqa-kma-Naao nya kama- banQana: tdqa-M kma- kaOntoya mau>saMga:
samaacar ' (Bhagavad Gita.III.9).
'na mao paqaa-ist kt-vyaM i Yau laaokoYau ikMcana naanavaaPtmavaaPtvyaM vat-
eva ca kmaiNa (Bhagavad Gita.III.22).
'yaVacarit EaoYzst<adovaotrao jana: sa ya%p maaNaM kuruto laaokstdnauvat-
to (Bhagavad Gita.III.5).
' ivahaya kamaanya: savaa-npumaaMScarit inaspRh: inama-maao inarMkar: sa
SaaintmagacCint ' (Bhagavad Gita.II.71).
'na p )Yyaoip ya p aPya naaoiWjao%p aPya caaip yama isqarbauiwrsam aUZao
ba *maivad ba *maiNa isqat: (Bhagavad Gita.V.20).
'naih p %yaxaivaraoQao Eauto: p amaaNyama na ih EauitSatmaip SaItaoigna:
Ap kaSa:[it ba uvat p amaaNyaM ]p)it .Eauto: &aapk%vaat, na Saas Mpdaqa -na
Anyaqaaktu-M p vaR<aM ikM tihM yaqaaBaUtaanaaM &apnao (Shankara).
'yaavada%ma&ana ivaraoQaiBaamau#yaM tavadova kma-ivaYaya:
'p aga%ma&anaat p vaR<%yaupp<ao' (Shankara).
'p ak ba *ma%ma%vadSa-naat ivaYayaidp pMcaao vyavaisqatrUpao Bavait
dohaidsaMGaato Aa%maaiBamaanaao AivaVa%mak: (Shankara).
'ikmaqa-M thI- Ba>O: pujaaidlaxaNaM yaagadanahaomaaidM saukRtM p‘yaujyato
[%yaah A&anaonaavaRtM ivavaok&anaM tona mau(it kraoima [%yaoh maohM gacCint
'prma p kRYTM inaritSayaM saamyaM samataWayalaxaNaM WOtivaYayaaiNa
saamyaanyatao vaa-Hcyaova Atao WyalaxaNamaot%prmaM saamyamaupOit p itpVto '
Unnecessary attention of people should be avoided.
Upanishads say that when one is required to
remain in meditative mood, one is required to remain quiet and silent, free from any influences, physical as well as mental, desires destroyed and being non-attached to possessions. It is only when one remains alone like yogis and not lonely like forlorn and long lost to one's self. An ordinary mind is busy mind assailed from all sides by thoughts creeping and assaulting peace of the mind. When in a forest one can continue to be assailed by thoughts and memories crowding his mind even when he is not confronted by other people, a yogi can continue to be peaceful and free from being assailed by thoughts and memories even in crowd.
Human being is enamoured so much with
the known thoughts and that he is sure that he can shape his destiny, calculation and planning being based on one has seen and thought. Consequently he does not think and consider the possibility of some invisible and not-known entity or energy penetrating our mind and deciding our destiny. The invisible not-known entity or energy, the sages say, is the Prime Existence, which enters every form as essence to the tip of the nails, as it were. The invisible not-known entity or energy can enter mind and take possession only when the empirical known thoughts cease to take hold of the mind and instead vacate it.
The mind of a human being can not grasp
not-known entity or energy unless the mind itself becomes the not-known entity or energy, even as drop of rain dies not the know the depth of the ocean unless it first merges in the ocean. Only when the known thoughts cease to take hold of the mind and allow the mind to be devoid of them that not-known entity or energy makes its presence felt. As long as the known thoughts exist the presence of the not-known entity or energy will not be experienced.
Shankara when he commends that unnecessary attention of people should be avoided, he recommends that they should leave themselves in the hand of the not-known entity or energy and surrendering to that energy. That means that they should not waste time in unnecessary and unwholesome talk of the people who are not aware of the not-known entity or energy .
What transpired between Krishna and
Arjuna was not ordinary extended conversation between two people in samsara
communication by the divine to the human in a fraction of moment, yadotd ivaVutao vyaVautda3 [tIna as Kena Up puts it. Neither Krishna nor Arjuna did utter a word on the battle field, the silent dialogue which perhaps Vyasa alone heard it in solitude, with his senses and mind restrained and even the intellect standing still. It was Vyasa's grace which enabled Sanjaya to narrate it to Dhritarashtra saying this is the dialogue that took place between them. There was no crowd assembled when Sanjaya spoke to Dhritarashtra,
unnecessary attention and
unwholesome talk of the people having been avoided.
Knowledge can only be communicated, one
may be enlightened to Wisdom; but spiritual awareness of the not-known entity or energy and the Bliss of Beatitude can only be experienced as some thing as Kath Up. (II.9-12), which is not within the range of vision, no one ever having seen it, by heart, by thought and by mind alone apprehended, perhaps not even by those except when they declared 'It is'. Krishna, therefore, says that only by thinking of That, directing one's entire attention to That, making That as the objective, making That as the Way, one reaches the goal from which no one returns, all his imperfections being cleansed.
Spiritual attainment does not call for mass
approbation because it is individual celebration. The mind of the masses is proverbially fickle. Enlightenment is possible when one departs alone to a secluded place, away from the social intercourse, self-certified of enlightenment in the solitude of silence and not open to market place for public confirmation. In fact, unnecessary interference by strangers endangers the Path to Perfection. Therefore, one should shun company of those unresponsive to your objective, remaining
aloof from them, shutting out all external distractions, fixing one's sight concentrated on one's intent and purpose. Not only in initial stages but even later after experiencing and being aware of it, the energizing flame should be kept luminous nurturing it from the vicious winds of the temporal undesirable company of the masses.
Assistance not needed should neither be
desired nor be encouraged. Virtue is not to be sourced externally but recollected internally. Success and failures are to be seen as passing phases, ever seeing and being conscious only of the palpable presence of the eternal, immutable and unflinching of the not-known entity or energy, Prime Existence behind every change and modification. Silence is a state of mind and not of the physical posture. Mind can be silent even in a crowded place and unsettled in a sylvan forest far away from the maddening crowd. The peace of the self is established and enlightenment dawns when as said in Katha Up. all mental activities together with Mind cease their activities, and the intellect itself does not stir, that, they says, is the supreme goal. The Wisdom declared by Death having been
imbibed by through Yoga, Nachiketa attained Brahman and became freed from passion and death. And so would any other one, who has Wisdom of the self.
yada pHcaavaitYznto &anaaina manasaa sah baiwSca na ivacaoYTit taM
Aahu: prmaaM gait: (Kath Up.II.iii.10).
'maR%yaup ao>aM naicakotao qa labQvaa ivaVmataM yaaogaivaQaIM ca kR%snama
ba *map aPtao ivarjaao BaUiWmaR%yaurnyaaPyaovaM yaao ivadQyaa%maova ' (Kath
'yao ih saMspSa-jaa Baaogaa du:Kyaaonaya: eva to AaVantvant: kaOntoya na
toYau rmato buaQa: ' (Bhagavad Gita.
kayaona manasaa bauw yaakovalaOirind yaOrip yaaoigana: kma- kuva-int sa= gaM
%ya@%vaa%maSauwyao (Bhagavad Gita.V.11).
&anainaQaU-tklmaYaa (Bhagavad Gita.V.17).
ekanto sauKmaasyataM prtro caot: samaaQaIyatama
pUNaa-%amaa saumaxaIyataM jagaiddM td BaisatmaM dRSyatama
p a@kma- p ivalaPyataM icait balaannaaPyau<arO: SlaIYyatama
p arbQaM i%vah BaujyataM Aqa prba *maa%manaa sqaIyatama 5
One should cherish satisfaction in solitude. One should seek fulfillment in transcendental state of Mind. One should perceive the entirety of the subtle Self. This world is to be perceived as His reflection. Consolidated effect of the earlier Actions should be terminated. With intelligent resolve, one should free oneself from the effect of subsequent actions. The consequence of earlier actions should be terminated conclusively. In this manner one should establish one's self in Supreme Brahman. ekanto sauKmaasyatama
One should cherish satisfaction in solitude.
Solitude is the state of mind, being alone not
even thoughts rising and disturbing mind, sva-sqa with one's self apart from the company of others. It does not mean being lonely apart from the company of others. There is much difference between being Alone and being Lonely. One who is Alone with his self never suffers loneliness. One who is lonely apart from the company of others does not know what it is to be Alone, being receptive, reflective and meditative, conscious on one's identity with one's self, concerned with one's self alone to the exclusion of all else which is not self. It is only in absolute silence and absolute loneliness that one experiences the Prime Existence.
sa%ya - the Prime Existence, therefore, is the
not an object to be inquired through intellectual quest. It is a perennial existence having no such thing as beginning, if there is anything like Beginning, and no end, if there is anything like end. Experience of sa%ya - the Prime Existence is like the love between husband and wife, which happens when duality between them ceases as when they are in embrace - ‘yaVqaa ip yayaa is yaa saMpirYva>ao na baa(M ikMcana vaod naantrma , evamaova puruYa: p a&onaa%manaa saMirYva>ao na baa(M ikMcana vaodnaantrma '
(Brihad Atranyak Up.IV.iii.21). It is existential to be experienced, here and now, not later going anywhere else from here. When one experiences, there are no words to embellish, words come later when it has to be communicated to others. Therefore it is said that words return along with mind having failed to attain it – ‘yatao vaacaao inavat-nto Ap aPya manasaa sah '.
sa%ya - the Prime Existence exists as the First
Principle in every thing that is manifest. One has to be receptive and responsive in silence to the eternal Sound ! that reverberates being alone, with equanimity of mind, without being conscious of even one's own self. If the seeker seek the Prime Existence in words, marks and symbols then he would not know about the Prime Existence without slightest awareness of the essence of the Prime Existence. The words will be dead as dodo, if the words, marks and symbols do not have the Prime Existence throbbing within. It is the mind which expresses the experiences, it is the mind which gives the Second Principle. In a manner of speaking it is the mind which sees what Isha Up. (6-7) says that one who sees all beings in one's own self and
his own self in all beings, he does not feel revulsion by such view. Further to one whom all beings have becomes one with his own self, then what delusion could there be for such one ? If one accepts the premise that That One has become all, then we can miss seeing god, for he is in everything that we all around us. Every one knows God but being too familiar with him every one seeks him some where else than in his close vicinity.
Only when who is receptive and responsive
to the eternal Sound ! remaining alone being silent and quiet, without being conscious of even one's own self then the doors open and you experience, become aware. Then one will see receptive and responsive to the eternal Sound Aum, not as some thing expressed by the seers in words but as experienced by the seer.
Only one who is not thus aware, for such
one is the duality and dichotomy of the expressed words, seeing all other beings seeing them as distinct and separate from his self. Brihad Aranyaka Up. (II.iv.14) records Yajnavalkya having said that where there is duality, there one smells another, sees another, hears another, there he speaks to
another, thinks of another, understand another. The he likes and dislikes, prefers and rejects, as good and bad, beautiful and ugly, propitious and evil. But where, verily, everything has become the self, then what can one smell, see, hear, speak and understand. By what one should one know by which all this is known? By what should one knower the Knower ?
As further in the same upanishad (III.iv.1-2)
has been recorded Yajnavalkya tells Ushasta Chakrayana that he breathes in, breathes out, breathes about and breathes up is his own self which is in all things, but he cannot see the seer of things, hear the hearer if the hearing, cannot think of the thinker,
understands. Everything else being mortal.
The sage who sees, hears, thinks and
understands in this manner, though alone never experiences lonliness since he revels in the solitude of his self as being in everything, even when he is in the sylvan forests as he is in the midst of boisterous and rowdy crowd. Whereas one who is not aware, not being conscious that the self within and the self in others is identical, suffers loneliness let alone in
silence of the forests but also in the midst of his relatives and associates. The fault lies not in the external enviornment but absence of internal harmony, which allows one to perceive and be consciously of the self concealed within his form. Only one who is consciously aware of the comprehensive all-pervasive nature of the Supreme Self, reaches out to others. Then he could remain Alone in solitude in the presence or absence of crowd, experiencing an expansion of his self to reach out to the all comprehensive Self.
Bhagavad Gita (XIII.9-12) states one who is
alone responds in humility, integrity, non-violence, patience, unrighteousness, service to the teacher, purity of mind and body, steadfastness and self-control, indifference to the objects of senses, self-effacement and perception of the evils of birth and death, old age and disease and pain, non-attachment, equal to the desirable and the undesirable, unswerving commitment and discipline to the Supreme Self, remaining Alone in solitude away from the crowd, abidance and insight in the wisdom of the self as the marks and signs of the man who revels in his Aloneness.
'yastu sava -iNa BaUtaina Aa%manaOvaanaupSyait sava-BaUtoYau caa%maanaM ttao na
ivajaugauPsato . ' or 'yaismansavaa-iN BaUtaina Aa%maOvaaBaud ivajaanat: t kao maaoh:
k: Saaok: ek%vamanaupSyait (Isha Up).
'ya Wotimava Baavait tidtr [trM ijaGa it, tidtr [trM pSyait,
tidtr [trM EauNaaoit, tidtr [trmaiBavadit, tidtr [trM manauto, tidtr [trM
ivajaainait ; ya vaa Asya sava-maa%maOvaaBaU<a%kona kM ijaGa ot , t%kona kM pSyaot ,
t%kona kM EauNauyaat , t%kona kiBavadot , t%kona kM manvaIt, t%kona kM ivajaanaIyat
? yaonaodM savMa- ivajaanaait tM kona ivajaanIyaat ? iva&atarmaro kona ivajaanaIyaaidit '
(Brihad Aranyaka Up.II.iv.14).
'ya: p aNaona p aiNait sa t A%maa sava -ntr:, yaao pananaapainait . yaao
vyaanaona vyaainait . ]danaonaaodainait sa t A%maa sava -ntr:, eYa t A%ma sava -
ntr: ' (Brihad Aranyaka Up.III.iv.1-2)
'Amaaina%vamadimBa%vamaihMsaa xaaintraja-vama Aacaayaa-opasanaM SaaOcaM sqaOya-
[ind yaaqao-Yau vaOragyamanah= kar eva ca
janmamaR%yaujaravyaaiQadu:KdaoYaanaudSa-nama Asai>rnaiBaYva= ga: pu dargaRhaidYau
ina%yaM ca samaica<a%vaimaYTainaYTaoppi<aYau maiya caananyayaaogaona Bai>rvyaiBacaairNaI
ivaiva>doSasaoiva%vamaritja-nasaMsaid AQyaa%ma&anaina%ya%vaM t<va&anaaqa-dSa-nama
etj&anaimait p ao>ma&anaM yadatao nyaqaa '(Bhagavad Gita XIII.)
prtro caot: samaaQaIyatama
One should seek fulfillment in transcendental state
Primordial world is a transient in form being
the product of the influence of senses on mind whereas the spiritual world which is eternal in essence. Brihad Aranyal Up. (I.v.1) mentions that Prajapati produced through his intelligence (maoQayaa) and austerity (tpsaa), seven kinds of food (as instruments of energy), one common for all beings, two for the gods, one for the animals and the three which he provided for himself (I.v.3) were the Mind, Speech and Primal Breath. Earlier, these instruments were at their best, stainless revealing the Divine Intent and Purpose in creation. It is through Mind which was pure and stainless that seers sourced Wisdom – vaod, through their supra-sensory perception, which through Speech they revealed, sifting it as one would sift flour with the sieve - ‘sa>uimava itt]naa punantaoya QaIra manasaa vaacaM Ak t' and as a loving wife finely robed, would reveal her noble form to her husband – ‘]ta tsmaO tnvaM ivavasa o jaayaova p%ya ]SatI sauvaasaa:'. But though the seers were equal in seeing and hearing, they were not so equal in quickness of receptivity or of expression – ‘AxaNvant: kNa-vant: saKayaao
manaojavaOYmaa baBauvau: ', therefore, when they passed that Wisdom to human beings, Mind cam back having failed to attain That.
metaphorically how when Udgitha, the first and foremost syllable, supreme in form and exceptional in essence was recited by dovaas the enlightened forces uttering !, the instruments of communication, they were afflicted by Asauras making Breath both sweet and foul, the Sight both true and false, the Speech both pleasant and unpleasant, the Listening both proper and improper, the Mind both auspicious and inauspicious, till Primal Breath destroyed Asauras just as a ball of earth hitting against a solid rock. Therefore, it is said by one meditates with Primal Breath one discerns neither sweat-smelling nor foul-smelling i.e. to say the dualities in empirical life - ‘?%vaa ivad QvaMsauya-qaaSmaanama JNamaR%vaaivQvaMsaot'. By meditating with Primal Breath, whatever one eats and whatever one drinks, he nourishes other vital energies with that. Therefore, only when one uses the Primal Breath for reflection and meditation, the evil does not dare to afflict. Therefore, meditating with Primal Breath, restraining the five organs of
senses together with mind, and making even the intellect not stir, one is said to be in highest state of Yoga. Then whatever one eats and whatever one drinks, he nourishes them well.
Therefore, while maanasa, Mind is nothing but
pure and auspicious, the icat , empirical mind is nothing but aggregation of thoughts influenced by senses - ‘ica<aM eva ih saMsaarma ' (Maitri Up). If thoughts make the empirical mind, then absence of thoughts would make the spiritual Mind. One suffers because what one thinks as the real is vitiated by the influence of senses, as mentioned by Shankara's classic analogy of the serpent and the rope to explain the unreal from the real. The empirical Mind being the unreal Mind, the mind without thoughts, or the mind in which thoughts do not rise, or even if thoughts arise in Mind, (since it is natural for the senses to cause thoughts to rise in Mind), and the thoughts are allowed to drift by, like clouds in the clear sky, without creating any impressions on Mind, then such mind would be a transcendental Mind, the original Mind, the Divine instrument which Brahman had provided for himself while initiating his creative activity. What Krishna does is
to persuade Arjuna to rise to his spiritual Mind, which Brahman has provided for himself as first of the Divine instrument, because one who does not attune himself to the Divine Instrument, then he would continue to be influenced by his empirical mind, being attached to the fruits of performance.
Such transcendental state of mind is to be
experienced and retained. Shankara suggests that the transcendental mind is the true state of one's self, incapable of being indicated by words devoid of the duality of qualities and attributes, being beyond the reach of senses, incapable of being grasped by (empirical) mind similar to the supreme Brahman. It has neither any marks nor any description. It is the state where one has Wisdom, the state of Bliss, being content and satisfied without knowing what it that makes one content and satisfied. Such supreme state is not a destination to be reached but a state of being to be in. When mind in bliss, the witness is the self, therefore, one should assiduously seek to be in such mind, free of ideation and from self-love. That alone being the deliverance. Then he becomes a silent mediator and transcending both meditative and non-meditative states, becomes the knower of Brahman.
‘ INyaa%manao kurut [it manaao vaacaM p aNama , tanyaa%manao kurut
(Brihad Aranyaka Up.I.5.3)
manmanaa Bava mad Ba>ao maVajaI maaM namaskuru maamaovaOYyaisa ya@%vaOvamaa%maanaM
ma%prayaNa: (Bhagavad Gita IX.34)
‘sava-kma -iNa manasaa sannyasyaasto sauKM vaSaI navaWaro puro dohI naOva kuva-
n a karyana (Bhagavad Gita V.13)
‘%ya@%vaa kama-flaasaMgaM ina%yatRPtao inaraEaya: kma-NyaiBap vaR,<aao ip naOva
ikMica%karaoit sa: (Bhagavad Gita IV.20).
One should perceive the entirety of the subtle Self.
When one observes the process of thinking
it will be seen that the organs of sense influence mind creating thoughts in parts and fragments, the aggregation becoming what is known as the empirical mind. Maitri Up. declares that the primordial world – saMsaar is nothing but the empirical mind or aggregation of thoughts. Therefore, before any one could perceive the entirety of the subtle
Self, which would be represented by the spiritual mind, one must understand the empirical mind.
One would realize that thinking begins with
one thought, leading to other associate or related thoughts arising therein weaving their own chain of thoughts, turning mind to scraps and fragments of unruly, disordered and undisciplined aggregation of thoughts. Therefore, thinking is never lateral and continuous but always unruly, disordered and undisciplined. Therefore one cannot but begin one's search for the subtle Self on the basis of such unruly, disordered and undisciplined empirical mind.
Though the empirical mind is a conditioned
mind, restraining and restricting one to think independently unconnected with the aggregation of thoughts and since one is not exposed to any thing but the empirical mind the steps that lead to investigate and think of the subtle Self cannot be but gradual, stage by stage though awareness of the same empirical, conditioned mind, restraining and restricting further thoughts. The awareness of the spiritual mind comes out sudden and instantaneous, like the flash of lightening or winking of the eye as said in Kena Up.
Since the spiritual mind represent the subtle
Self, the aggregation of thoughts which go to make the empirical mind should must be dismantled stopping the thoughts arising in mind, which begins with the stopping the first arising in mind, before it becomes associated and related with other earlier thoughts in mind, leading the empirical mind weaving its own chain of thoughts, turning mind to a web of others scraps and fragments of unruly, disordered and undisciplined thoughts.
Spiritual awareness is never partial, it is all
at once in comprehensive dimension or nothing at all. Upanishads declare that when It shines every thing else shines in its illumination. light. The Self is the supreme goal, the supreme treasure, the supreme world, the supreme Bliss, on the particles of this Bliss, other creatures live. It is designated as subsistence existence of all existences. Breath, verily, is the prime subsistence and therein, that is the Existence of That. This verily is that great Being, infinite, limitless as the aggregate mass of Wisdom. When all desires that dwell in the heart are cast away, then does the mortal becomes immortal, then he attains Brahman here itself (in this life). Thus do the Upanishds speak variously.
Shankara's insistence that one should
perceive the entirety of the subtle Self is a
suggestion to be cultivated here and now and not
later. Hindu philosophy, though conceives a series
of births and deaths, yet encourages traversing the
path though ‘sharp as the edge of a razor and hard
to cross and difficult to tread is the Path, one is
encouraged to take the first step, even though in the
words of Krishna the mind ( and the resolve) is
covered as fire is covered by smoke as mirror by
dust and an embryo by the womb, one should
venture abandoning all desires born of will, without
exception, restraining from all sides the mind from
all senses, let him gain little by little tranquility
through restraint and steadiness, fixing mind on the
self within, and not thinking on anything else. On
this path no effort is ever lost, no obstacles prevail.
Even a little righteousness will save one from great
fear. Therefore, one should engage oneself in this
endeavour without hesitation.
‘eYaasya prmaa gait:, eYaasya prmaa saMpt , eYaao sya prmaao laaok:,
eYaao sya prma Aanand:; etsyaOvaanandsyaanyaaina BaUtaina maa amaupjaIvaint '
(Brihad Aranyaka Up.IV.3.32)
Aqa naamaQaoyaM sa%yasya sa%yaM [it p aNaavaO sa%yaM toYaaM eYa sa%yama
(Brihad Aranyaka Up.II.3.6)
‘yada savao- p maucyanto kamaa yao sya )id iEata: Aqa ma%yaao- maRtao
Bava%ya ba *ma samaSnaut [it (Brihad Aranyaka Up.IV.4.17)
‘yad etd ivaVutao vyaaVutda [tIna nyamaIimaYada (Kena
‘tmaova BaantM AnauBaait sava-ma tsya Baasaa sava-imadM ivaBaait
‘QaUmaonaaiva yato vainhya-qaadaSaao- malaona ca yaqaaolbaonaavaRtao gaBa-stqaa
tonaodmaavaRtma (Bhagavad Gita III.38)
‘QaUmaonaaiva yato vainhya-qaadaSaao- malaona ca yaqaaolbaonaavaRtao gaBa-stqaa
tonaodmaavaRtma (Bhagavad Gita III.38)
‘QaUmaonaaiva yato vainhya-qaadaSaao- malaona ca yaqaaolbaonaavaRtao gaBa-stqaa
tonaodmaavaRtma (Bhagavad Gita III.38)
‘saMklpp BaavaankamaaMs%ya@%vaa sava-anaSaoYat: manasaOvaoind yaga amaM ivainayamya
samantt: SanaO SanaOruprmaod bauwyaa QaRitgaRhItyaa Aa%masaMsqaM mana: kR%vaa na
ikMicadip icantyaot (Bhagavad Gita. VI.24-25)
jagaiddM td BaisatmaM dRSyatama
This world is to be perceived as His reflection.
Brahman is the infinite Cause of all the
finite manifestation. Having evolved from the root baR, Bramhan is That One which became effulgent, or bursts forth in abundance. All That which was un-manifest in the beginning became manifest with name and form. Abiding within every thing that is created, He energizes, illumines and makes them perform their actions. He entered in them as the razor in a razor-case or as the fire in the source of fire. (In all cases) none perceive Him, for in them he manifests not in entirety. He transformed himself in accordance with each form, which are meant for making him known – ‘$pM $pM p it$pao baBaUva tdsya $pM p itcaxaNaaya ' declares Rigveda. According to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad, in the beginning the Self, verily, was all this, as one human form - ‘puruYaivaQa:'. The Cause becoming the Consequence. Seeing none other, he acknowledged himself at the very outset as the ‘Ahma ' - I, ‘Aisma' - Existence and as the ‘ba *ma' – Effulgence; ‘AhM vaava saRiYTrisma, AhM hIdM sava-masaExaIit; tt: saRiYTrBavat ' – I am all this creation, for I have created all this. Therefore, all this came to be created. It is ekM sat the Prime Existence of the vedic scriptures,
But such representations did not clash with
the ultimate reality of an Entity, which was beyond
human grasp as Yajnavalkya said, ‘That the knowers of Brahman call it the imperishable, neither gross nor fine, neither short nor long, neither glowing red nor adhesive like water, neither shadow nor darkness, neither air nor space, unattached, without taste, smell, eyes, ears, voice, mind, radiance, breath, mouth and without measure, having no within and no without. It eats nothing and no one eats it'. Of That One, it is said, neti neti, it is nothing like any other things seen here.
Brahman, the Prime Existence is the
formless and the eternal and all that is perceived alone is not all that represents as the Prime Existence, unperceived also being the Prime Existence. Sun does not cease to exist because a blind person does not perceive. The Prime Existence is an eternal reality, all; manifestation being a temporary phenomenon. Manifestation is not a compulsion for the Prime Existence but merely effervescence in point of Time. Even when manifestation ceases to be, the Prime Existence continues to be, even as after the dew drop vanishes in the bowels of the ocean. It will still remain to exist as the ocean. On being thus manifest, there is no diminution in the un-manifest the Prime Existence, designated as Purusha, in whom every
thing had dwelling- ‘! pUNa-mad: pUNa-imadM pUNaa-t pUNa-maudcyato pUNa-sya pUNa-amaadaya pUNa-maovaavaiSaYyato - Therefore, That is Complete, This is Complete. From the Complete is evolved the Complete. Having evolved Complete from the Complete, the Complete yet remains Complete descending as sa%ya, ?t, and Qama- as the primary forms of divine resplendence.
Such representation does not clash with the
Ultimate Reality of an Entity, which was beyond human grasp as Yajnavalkya said, ‘That the knowers of Brahman call it the imperishable, neither gross nor fine, neither short nor long, neither glowing red nor adhesive like water, neither shadow nor darkness, neither air nor space, unattached, without taste, smell, eyes, ears, voice, mind, radiance, breath, mouth and without measure, having no within and no without. It eats nothing and no one eats it'. Of That One, it is said, neti neti, it is nothing like any other things seen here.
Chakrayana that Brahman is within as his self, who breathes in with your breathing in, who breathes out with your breathing out, who breathes about with your breathing out, who breathes up with your breathing up, it was not understood him saying the explanation was as one might say, ‘this is a cow',
‘this is a horse'. Yajnavalkya clarified, ‘You cannot see the seer of seeing, hear the hearer of hearing, think the thinker of thinking, understand the understander of understanding They who know the breath of the Primal Breath, the eye of the Eye, the ear of the Ear, the mind of the Mind, only they have realized the ancient primordial Brahman'. Therefore, Kena Up. points out: That which is not expressed through speech, That which is not thought by the mind but that by which the mind thinks; That is Brahman, not what the people here adore. Brahman is all the things that exist, the Existence in entirety.
Whem Brahman manifests it becomes
formated in many forms which bewilder a seeker. In Maitri Up. we find such one asked his Teacher that some worship Agni, Vayu, Aditya, Kala, Prana, Anna, Brahma, Rudra, Vishnu and some even others. Therefore which aming these is best for him. The Teacher replies, ‘Verily, these are all its chief forms which one meditates upon, worships and puts aside. With these one moves higher and higher in the Worlds. And when all things perish, he attains oneness with the Purusha, yes with Purusha'. When Aruni instructed Svetaketu about the Self, as the essence of all the worlds, the Prime Existence he
gave the example of the bees which make honey by
collecting the essence for different trees and
reducing them in one essence, without knowing
that ‘I am of this tree, I am the essence of that tree'
and exulting – ‘I have known the Supreme Purusha
resplendent and refulgent like the Sun beyond
darkness; by knowing Him alone does one
transcend Death, there is no other path to traverse'.
‘vaodahM etM puruYaM mahantM Aaid%yavaNa-M tmasa: prstat tamaova
ivaid%yaait maR%yauM etao naanya: pnqaa: ivaVto Ayanaaya (Yajurveda.
‘Aa%maOvaodmaga AasaI%puruYaivaQa: saao nauvaIxya naanyada%manaao pSyat
saao hmasmaI%yaga o vyaahrt . AhM vaava saRUiYTrisma, AhM hIdM sava-masaRxaIit . '
(Brihad Aranyaka Up. I.4.1,5)
‘twodM t(-vyaakRtmaasaIt , tn aamarUpaByaamaova vyaaik yat, . sa eYa [h
p ivaYT Aa naKaga oBya: yaqaa xaur: xarQaanao vaiht: syaat . AkR%snaao if sa:
p aNannaova p aNaao naama Bavait, vadna vaak , pSyaMScaxau:, SaRNvana Eaao ma , manvaanaao
mana:, tanyasyaOtaina kma-naamaanyaova ' ( Brihad Aranyaka Up.
‘na dRYTod -YTarM pSya:,o na Eauto: EaaotarM EauNauyaat , na matoma-ntarM
manvaIqaa:, na iva&atoiva-&atarM ivajanaIyaa: (Brihad Aranyaka
‘yat vaacaanaByauidtM yaona vaagaByauVto . yanmanasaa na manauto yaonaahur
manaao matma . yaccaxauYaa na pSyit yaona caxau MiYa pSyait . yacC/aotoNa na EauNaaoit
yaona Eaao imadM Eautma . yat p aNaona na p aiNait yaona p aNa: p NaIyato . tdova
Ba *ma %vaM ivaiw naodM yaidd maupasato (Kena Up.I.5-9.)
p a@kma- p ivalaPyatama
Consolidated effect of the earlier Actions should be
Karma is one of the fundamental realities
which a human being cannot dispense with. Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad is firm on the principle of cause and consequences saying that as one acts, as one behaves, so does he become. The doer of good becomes good, the doer of evil becomes evil; this is an eternal law. One becomes virtuous by virtuous actions, bad by bad actions. Others say that Karma is the consequences of desires. As is his desire, so is his will; as is his will, so is the deed he does, whatever deed he does that becomes his consequence.
Arthabhaga that when the speech of the dead person
enters fire, breath enters air, eyes into Sun, mind in moon, hearing in quarters self in space, etc then what remains of the person, it is the aggregate Karma that is carried forward. Verily one becomes good by good actions, bad by bad actions.
Shankara says, since mind is the primary
instrument of the subtle body, the quality of the mind is the quality of the subtle body. Therefore, when all the desires that dwell in the heart are cast away, then does the mortal become immortal and he attains Brahman here (in this life itself). One need not wait for the time when the body falls – ‘na Sairr ptao<arkalaM' it comes about the moment ignorance is eliminated – ‘AivaVa inavaRi<a:'.
Krishna, therefore, recommends the
performance of actions without desire and giving up the fruits of actions so that he may remain free from the good or bad consequences of the actions. Since only a human being blessed with sense of discrimination is capable of taking such decision, it is only for him is the deliverance. He is the wise one who realizes Brahman having fulfilled all his desires and his self becoming his desire. Isha Upanishad declares ever performing actions, which are in conformity to the Divine Will, one should seek to live for hundred years.
Maitri Upanishad says that since it is the
Mind which absorbs the effects of the performance
of previous actions giving an appearance to the
mental responses, the mind which should be
investigated. By freeing Mind from sloth and
distraction and making is well-established he
becomes liberated from Mind. That is the supreme
‘yaqaakarI yaqaacaarI tqaa Bavait – saaQaaukarI saQauBa-vait, papkarI
papao Bavait ; puNya: puNyaona kma-Naa Bavait pap: papona Aqaao Klvaahu:; kamamaya
evaayaM pu$Ya [it, sa yaqaakamao Bavait t%k yiBa-vait, ya%k tuba-vait tt kma- kuruto,
yat kma- kuruto tdiBasaMpVto (Brihad Aranyaka Up.IV.4.5)
‘layaivaxaoprihtM mana: kR%vaa sauinaYcalama yadayaait AmanaIBaavaM tda
tt prmaM pdma (Maitri Up.VI.34)
‘mana: p Qaana%vaat ilaMgasya manaao ilaMgaM [it ]cyato' (Shankara).
icait balaannaaPyau<arO: SlaIYyatama
With intelligent resolve, one should free oneself
from the effect of consequential actions.
The ultimate objective of life is
enlightenment of the Prime Existence and deliverance from the obscurity of mind which create sufferings in samsara. But deliverance does not mean leaving the present life and becoming something what one is not but Being that thing which the obscurity of mind by cacophony of the empirical primordial world, the saMsaar.
When Maitri Upanishad says ‘ica<aM eva ih saMsaarma '
the suggestion is to liberate oneself from the shackles of aggregate thoughts in Mind, which go to make
saMsaar. saMsaar means comprehensive or
quintessence of the impressions on mind saM + saar. Mind, verily, is the cause of bondage and liberation for human beings; bondage is association with senses and liberation, absence of such association. Since samsaara is consequence of the thoughts in mind, deliverance from samsaara would mean not only avoiding the thoughts from rising in mind but also avoiding the things, circumstances, situations, places which go to influence creating the thought waves in Mind. Yoga is restraint of mind – ‘ica<avaRi<a inaraoQa:'. Vashishtha endorses that intellect is the cause of all things. When it is active then is the world,
when it ceases the world too ceases. Therefore, the world should be considered with diligence. Therefore, it is through serenity of the intellect alone does the effect of all good or bad actions come to be terminated - ‘ica<asya hI p saadona hint kma- SauBaaSauBama '. The mind in the final analysis the cause of samsaara as well the instrument for dissolution of samsaara.
When one uses intellect to reflect on the
matter of creations of thoughts in Mind, it will be seen that even as earlier thoughts condition the latter thoughts, the later thoughts influence the influence the earlier thoughts, twisting and formatting the mind to a new mind. One cannot open one's Mind to spiritual inputs without the inputs being presented in marks, symbols and words and experiences to which the Mind is familiar and receptive. Completely an unconditioned Mind is difficult for common masses, therefore, one should consider taking a leap to the spiritual from the temporal foundations. Therefore, Uddalaka Aruni prevails upon his son Shvetakeu, ‘Eawsva saaOmya' – be receptive, well-disposed one to the temporal as well as the spiritual ones. Eawa is being receptive to the temporal and spiritual, not merely having faith, belief, confidence or conviction in a religion or an
institution. saaomya is one who is sensitively receptive, like Nachiketa who when he approached Yama was commended by him - ‘ivaVaBaIiPsanaM naicakotsamaM manyao, na %vaa kamaabahvaaolaaolaupnt: ' – as one eager for Wisdom, since many inducwements did not distract his mind. Therefore, ‘%vadRna naao BaUyaana naicakot: p YTa ' – let there many questors like him.
It is only a receptive one that can
intelligently resolve to free him from the effect of subsequent actions, knowing the nature of the performance of his earlier actions, the result which such performances had on his mind and also the result which the performance of action in future would have on one's mind and the samsaara.
The state of awareness comes when one
realizes that a human Mind is an instrument for
fulfilling the Divine Intent, and therefore one is
obliged to keep it pure and auspicious by
performing only such actions as are in accordance
with that Divine Intent. As said in Isha Up. having
performed his duties in this manner, he strives to
live for hundred years, says Isha Upanishad.
‘kuva-n aovaooh kmaa-iNa ijaijaivaSaot SatM samaa: evaM %vayaI naanyatoiqa ist
na kma- ilaPyato naro '. (Isha Up.2).
‘mana eva manuaYyaanaaM karNaM banQamaoxayaao: banQasya ivaYayasaMgaM maaoxaao inaiva-
YayaM smaRtma (Maitri Up.VI.34).
‘ica<aM karNaM Aqaa-naaM tismana sait jagat yaM tismanxaINao jagat
xaINaM tt icakI%saIyataM p ya%na: ' (Yoga Vashishtha).
p arbQaM i%vah Baujyatama
The consequence of earlier actions should be
Cause-effect is an in-alienable and un-
avoidable Cosmic Law - ?t. ‘p arbQa' is the result of the aggregation of all previous actions. Krishna says that the all-pervading Self does not take on the sins or the merits of any creature. It is only for the one born to terminate the effect of the actions performed in earlier life, and no amount of divine intervention would put end to them. Bhagavat Purana points out the inevitability of the cycle when it says, ‘sauKsyaaMtrM du:KM du:KsyaaMtrM sauKma cak vat pirvat-to sauKdu:Ko inarOtrma '. Therefore, the sages seek to find the reasons which
cause turns in to effect and ways how to disengage and neutralize the cause from being transformed as effect.
Continuity of primordial life become
palpable when one observes the aggregate karmas,
the saMicat kma- being transferred as a baggage from one
life to the other, with body deteriorating, decaying
and dieing and a new the body taking over the same
as p arbQa kma-. Deliverance comes not only when
entirety of the saMicat kma- ceases to be transferred but
also when new kma- cease to bear fruit. It is like
burning the seeds to prevent further fruits coming
forth. Krishna points out that performance of
actions is natural for every creature and no one can
remain even for a moment with performing action.
Therefore one who has retrained the tendency of
senses turning cause transformed as effects, only his
intelligence is considered firmly established. Only
he who has abandoned all desires and lives and acts
free from craving, without any sense of I and mine,
attains peace within, becoming released from the
constraints of the body to reach Brahman.
1. ‘na ih kiSca%xaNaamaip jaatu itYZ%yakma-kRt kaya-to (vaSa: kma-: sava-
: p kRitjaOgau-NaaO: .ya&aqaa-%kma-Naao nya laaokao yaM kma-banQana: tdqMa- kma-
kaOntoya mau>sa=aga: samaacar . p kRto ik yamaaNaaina gauNaO: kma -iNa sava-Sa:
Ah=karivamaUZa%maa kta-himait manyato t<vaiva<au mahabaaahao gauNakma-ivaBaagayaao:
gauNaa gauNaoYau vat-nt [it ma%vaa na sajjato . maiya savaa-iNa kmaa-iNa
sanyasyaaQyaa%macaotsaa inaraSaIina-ma-maao Ba%vaa yauQyasva ivagatjvar: '
(Bhagavad Gita .III).
Aqa prba *maa%manaa sqaIyatama
In this manner, therefore, one should establish
one's self in Supreme Brahman.
The vedic scriptures, Upanishads and all the
spiritual documents have one thing in common, that is the goal which the fragment has for the whole, and the rivers have for the oceans. Chhandogya Up specifically enjoins that ‘here in the city of Brahman, there exists an abode, like a small lotus flower, within it is a small place. What is within that should be sought, for that assuredly is what one should desire to understand'. That is what one should be propitiate.
In Brihad Aranyaka Up. (II.iv.11-12)
Yajnavalkya clarifies that as the ocean is the one goal of all waters, as skin is of all kinds of touch, as nostril is of smells, as tongue is of all tastes, as eye is of all forms, as ear is of all sounds, as mind is of all resolutions, as heart is of all forms of knowledge, as hands are of all actions, as organ of generation is of all joys, as excretory organ is of all evacuations, as feet is of all movements, as speech is of all Wisdom …so verily is this great being, infinite, limitless, as aggregate of Wisdom, Arising there from they disappear there into. When one thus goes forward, there is no more to be known.
And finally when all the aggregate karmas
cease, the self loses its individual identity in the vast and ever encompassing Brahman even as a lump of salt loses its individuality when it sinks in the vast ocean. When such event occurs then like the juices which are reduced to honey do not know the tree from which they were sourced, the self ceases to know the form which it had before it became one with supreme, luminous, the immortal Brahman, designated as sa%ya - the Prime Existence.
In adoring !, seer Vishvamitra clarifies that
one should adore not the physical Sun in the sky but That supreme Savitru - tt saivatR varoNyaM, who is in BaU: -
world of the mortals, in Bauva: - the space and in sva: - high heavens, which alone is, as declared in Kath Up. the tt to pdma - that abiding place which vedic scriptures declare, the austerities proclaim, desiring which the seekers of Brahman endeavour.
The same Upanishad further says let the
wise Brahmin after knowing Him practice wisdom and not waste time in reflecting on many words, for that is, verily, weariness of speech. Mundaka Upanishad delving on the subject says that seers having realized the enlightened wisdom, being content, established in Self, freed from attachment and composed in mind, realize the all-pervasive One in all directions, and merge into that all.
When Maitreyi expresses her confusion at
the explanation given by Yajnavalkya, she is told that enough of any further teaching, for there is no confusion in his communication and that it is sufficient for the time being. The Path to Perfection is difficult to be traversed and therefore should be walked step by step. Climbing step by step, stage by stage on reaches the prmaM pd, therefore is The Reclining Ladder. One cannot be in hurry on this journey. In that process, as one climbs each step, pdaina and each stage Qaamaaina towards the final abiding
place, prma pd, his vision becomes broader and deeper
as the forces of nature assume the role of gods with
illumined wisdom and energetic powers to guide
and inspire seekers on their Path to Perfection.
‘hir: ! Aqa yad [dM Aismanba *mapuro dhrM puNDirkM vaoSma
dharao smaina AotirxaakaSa: tismana yad Ant: td AnvaoYTvyaM td vaa va
ivaija&aistvyama (Chhandogya Up VIII.i.1)
‘sa ayaqaa savaa-saamapaM samaud ekayanama …evaM vaa Ar [dM
mahd BautmanantmaparM iva&anaGana eva etoByaao BaUtoBya: samau%qaaya tanyaovaanau
ivanaSyait na p o%ya saM&astI%yaro ba vaImaIit haovaaca ayaa&val@ya: ' (Brihad
Aranyaka Up. (II.iv.11-12)
Thus end the communications from Sri
Shankaracharya to those aspiring the wisdom of the wise.
Available Online through www.ijpbs.com (or) www.ijpbsonline.com IJPBS Volume 3 Issue 4 OCT-DEC 2013 255-264 Research Article Pharmaceutical Sciences METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DICYCLOMINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC POTASSIUM IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS
Optical Materials 14 (2000) 101±107 Optical properties of lissamine functionalized Nd3 complexes in polymer waveguides and solution L.H. Sloo a,*, A. Polman a, S.I. Klink b, G.A. Hebbink b, L. Grave b, F.C.J.M. van Veggel b, D.N. Reinhoudt b, J.W. Hofstraat c a FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, The Netherlands b Supramolecular Chemistry and Technology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands