Guidelines for the
of Blood and
Issued by the National Blood Users Group
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components Members of the National Blood Users Group
Positive patient identification
Day patients/Out patients Patients unable to identify themselves The request for blood
Inadequately/incorrectly labelled samples Emergency requests Major emergency plan Telephone requests Patients with special requirements Issuing of blood
Storage of blood components
Collection of blood or components from the hospital transfusion laboratory
Inspection of unit prior to administration Administration of blood components
Optimal timing of transfusion Blood administration sets/equipment
Administration sets Handling and disposal of blood packs Unconscious patients Acute transfusion reactions Management and reporting of adverse events/errors Near miss incidents Documentation and traceability
Traceability of blood components Developments in information technology Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components The Transfusion Committee
Education and training programme
The National Haemovigilance Office
Appendix 1 Blood Transfusion Information for Patients Appendix 2 Post Transfusion Information leaflet for Day Patients Appendix 3 Management of an Acute Transfusion Reaction Appendix 4 Complications of Transfusion* Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL BLOOD USERS GROUP
Chairman: Professor John Bonnar, Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Trinity College, Dublin.
Dr Paul Browne, Consultant Haematologist, St. James's Hospital, Dublin 8.
Dr Mary Cahill, Consultant Haematologist, Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Limerick.
Dr William Casey, Consultant Anaesthetist, Our Lady's Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, Dublin 12.
Ms Mary Edger, Haemovigilance Nursing Officer, Mater Misercordiae Hospital, Dublin 7.
Dr Freda Gorman, Consultant Neonatologist, National Maternity Hospital, Holles Street and Our Lady's Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, Dublin 12.
Ms Deirdre Gough, Transfusion Surveillance Sister, St. James's Hospital, Dublin 8.
Mr Paul Keartland, Chief Perfusionist, Mater Misercordiae Hospital, Dublin 7.
Dr Barry Lyons, Consultant Anaesthetist, Mater Misercordiae Hospital, Dublin 7 and Cappagh Orthopaedic Hospital, Dr Maire McCarroll, Consultant Anaesthetist, Mater Misercordiae Hospital, Dublin 7 and Cappagh Orthopaedic Hospital, Ms Eilis McGovern, Consultant Cardiothoracic Surgeon, St. James's Hospital, Dublin 8.
Dr Corina McMahon, Consultant Haematologist, Temple Street Children's Hospital, Dublin 1.
Dr William Murphy, National Medical Director, Irish Blood Transfusion Service, James's St., Dublin 8.
Dr Margaret Murray, Consultant Haematologist, University College Hospital, Galway.
Mr Paul O'Brien, Chief Medical Scientist, St. Vincent's Hospital, Elm Park, Dublin 4.
Dr Brian O'Callaghan, Consultant Physician, Letterkenny General Hospital, Co. Donegal.
Mr Kevin O'Malley, Consultant Surgeon, General and Vascular, Mater Misercordiae Hospital, Dublin 7.
Dr Joan O'Riordan, Consultant Haematologist, Irish Blood Transfusion Service, James's St, Dublin 8 and St. James's Hospital, Dublin 8.
Ms Hazel Reid, Senior Medical Scientist, Tralee General Hospital, Co. Kerry.
Dr Owen Smith, Consultant Haematologist, St. James's Hospital, Dublin 8 and Our Lady's Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, Dublin 12.
Dr Barry White, Director, National Centre for Hereditary Coagulation Disorders (NCHCD), Dublin 8.
Dr Emer Lawlor, Director of National Haemovigilance Office, Irish Blood Transfusion Service, Dublin 8.
Ms Phil Keane-Egan, Transfusion Surveillance Officer, National Haemovigilance Office.
Ms Derval Lundy, Transfusion Surveillance Officer - Near Miss Project, National Haemovigilance Office.
Ms Siobhan O'Connor, Transfusion Surveillance Officer, National Haemovigilance Office.
Ms. Cathy Scuffil, Administrator, National Haemovigilance Office.
The National Blood Users Group acknowledges the efforts of Angie Corr and Maria Flanagan in preparing this Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Creutzfeldt Jakob disease Central venous pressure Direct Coomb's test Disseminated intravascular coagulation Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C virus Human immunodeficiency virus Human platelet antigen Human T-cell lymphotropic virus Irish Blood Transfusion Service Jugular venous pressure Liver function test Left ventricular failure National Blood Users Group National Centre for Hereditary Coagulation Disorders National Haemovigilance Office Post transfusion purpura Solvent detergent plasma Standard Operating Procedures Transfusion associated circulatory overload Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease Transfusion related acute lung injury Transfusion surveillance officer variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components Important steps in the administration of blood components start with the correct identification of the patient and crossmatch sample and end with the collection and infusion of the right blood to the right patient at the right time. Each step is important and must be subject to written procedures and quality management. Processes must be in place to ensure that all steps are adhered to and any divergence from standard procedure is corrected. All staff must be trained and be familiar with procedures which should be regularly updated. Any breakdown in procedures should be investigated and corrected even if the recipient of the transfusion is unharmed.1 Blood Transfusion can be fatal if incorrectly administered
Errors occur most frequently in:
Sampling/labelling of the pre-transfusion specimen.
Removal of blood from the blood fridge before transfusion.
Checking the identification of both the patient and the blood component at the bedside.
Written policies/protocols must exist
Staff training to implement these policies is critical
Each institution should have or participate in a local transfusion committee
National Blood Users Group
January 2004

Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components The administration of blood and blood components involves more than 70 steps and each of these may be subject to Standard protocols for the administration of blood are essential to minimise the potential for error. These protocols should be in place in each institution and should conform to standard practice as outlined in these guidelines.
A quality management system should exist in each institution.3 This should include an active transfusion committee, a process to correct protocols and practice when deficiencies are identified, participation in local and regional audit and in the national haemovigilance programme.
The recommendations that follow deal with specific areas and should be adapted to the local institution. Guidelines cannot cover every situation, however they may reduce the wide variation in transfusion practice.3 Specific advice can be obtained from consultant haematologists, transfusion surveillance officers (TSO), transfusion scientists, the National Haemovigilance Office (NHO) or from the Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS).
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components Except in emergencies, the risks, benefits and alternatives to blood transfusion should be discussed with the patient and documented in their medical records. The provision of a blood transfusion information leaflet for patients is recommended4 and an example of one such leaflet currently in use in Ireland is provided in Appendix 1.
The patient's hospital medical records should contain the indication for the blood transfusion and the number of units required.5 All blood and blood components for transfusion should be prescribed by a medical practitioner, preferably on a unit by unit basis.6 Specialist advice may be needed on the need for cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegative or gamma irradiated components. Individuals responsible for the prescription and request of blood components must be familiar with the special needs of their patients. These special requirements should form part of the prescription and should be flagged on the clinical and laboratory records.7-14 Any medication to be given in conjunction with the transfusion must be prescribed on the drug chart. No other infusions, solutions or drugs should be added to any blood component as they may result in haemolysis or clotting.15 POSITIVE PATIENT IDENTIFICATION
Hospital policy should address the training of staff in the identification of the patient. This procedure should include asking the patient to state his/her full name and date of birth e.g. patient should be asked "what is your name" not "are you Mr/Mrs Murphy?" The information given by the patient must be identical to that on the patient's identity band (ID band).16 ID bands should preferably be printed: hand-written bands can be difficult to read, contain varying information and may be subject to overwriting. In the event of removal of ID bands e.g. to access the radial artery, it is the responsibility of the person who removes the ID band to ensure it is reapplied.4 A standard procedure should exist for positively identifying the patient and any blood or blood components being transfused during transfer between clinical A secure patient identification procedure should be in place in all hospitals and the ID band should be worn at all times. All patients should be allocated a unique identification number on admission to hospital, which should remain unchanged for the duration of hospitalisation and should be used in subsequent hospital admissions.15 This ID band should record the patient's full name, date of birth and a unique identification number.
Day patients/Out patients
Patient ID bands should be positioned before the pre-transfusion sampling procedure and worn until the transfusion is completed. Where the pre-transfusion sample is taken and the patient is readmitted at a later date for transfusion, policies should be in place for reapplying the original, or a new ID band, before the transfusion is Patients unable to identify themselves
This includes patients who are undergoing general anaesthesia, unconscious or confused patients, young children or patients whose first language is not English. To ensure continuing accurate positive identification, we recommend that these patients should have two ID bands applied e.g. wrist and ankle bands.
Hospital policy should address the training needs of staff who undertake pre-transfusion sampling and provide detailed instructions on venepuncture and on the identification of patient and sample.5 Correct blood sampling techniques are Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components vital to avoid haemodiluted samples being processed which may lead to incorrect clinical management/inappropriate transfusion.12-14 The pre-transfusion blood sample must be taken by trained individuals e.g. phlebotomists, nurses or doctors. Instruction on pre-transfusion sampling should form part of induction programmes. A record of this instruction should be maintained. Personnel responsible for taking samples for blood grouping and cross-matching must strictly follow hospital procedures at all times to avoid errors in patient sampling and patient identification. The person taking the sample must sign the sample tube confirming the patient's identity.17 THE REQUEST FOR BLOOD
Each request for blood must be documented on a laboratory request form and submitted to the laboratory with the blood sample for compatibility testing. The hospital transfusion laboratory should have a policy for documenting telephone requests. The identity of the person making the request and the person receiving it should both be recorded. The following information should be provided: patient's surname, first name, unique identification number, date of birth, location, the number and type of blood components required (including any special requirements), the reason for the request and the time and date the blood components are required.4 The request form
The request form must contain the following minimum information:15 Surname and first name.
Unique identification number.
Date of birth.
The request form should also contain: Blood component required.
Number of units required.
Date, time and the location where required.
Indications for request.
Patient diagnosis.
Any special requirements e.g. CMV seronegative, gamma irradiated.
Previous transfusions, obstetric history, red cell antibodies or any adverse reactions.
Name and signature of requesting person.
For the unconscious / unidentified patient, the minimum information necessary on the request form is a unique identification number and gender of the patient.
The sample tube
The sample tube must contain the following minimum information: Surname and first name.
Unique identification number.
Date of birth.
Signature of person drawing the sample (the signature is required to confirm that they have verified the Date and time sample was drawn.
Sample tubes should be hand-written and labelled immediately after sampling at the patient's side. Electronically generated bar-coded labels are being developed and are under evaluation. For the present, until the automated systems are available, identification procedures must be strictly adhered to at the bedside to reduce sample errors. The use of
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components addressograph labels or the pre-labelling of blood sample tubes is specifically prohibited.5
Hospital policy addressing inadequately/incorrectly labelled samples, should be agreed by both the Hospital Transfusion Committee and the Risk Management Department. Hospital transfusion laboratory staff are acting correctly in
refusing to accept a request for compatibility testing when either the request form or the sample is
Each institution must have a fast tracking procedure for dealing with emergency requests. This should be in keeping with protocols for dealing with massive haemorrhage and with the hospital's major emergency plan:- See "A Guideline for the Use of Blood and Blood Components in the Management of Massive Haemorrhage".18 Wherever possible the senior doctor managing the clinical situation should state the degree of urgency of the transfusion requirement so that the laboratory can decide what blood should be selected. When several patients require transfusion, one person on the Accident and Emergency team should be delegated to communicate with the hospital transfusion laboratory. This avoids confusion with duplicate orders and incorrect information.
Major emergency plan
Hospitals should have a major emergency plan in place to cover major accidents/incidents, which should include Telephone requests should be documented by the laboratory and in the patient's medical records by the requesting doctor.16 The following minimum information must be given and confirmed: Hospital/accident and emergency number/trauma number.
Number/volume and type of component.
Reason for request.
Date and time required.13 Each hospital transfusion laboratory should follow standard operating procedures (SOPs). All laboratories crossmatching blood should participate in external quality control. The hospital transfusion laboratory should verify the patient's ABO and Rhesus D (Rh D) group against previous records for the patient; any discrepancies should be resolved before blood components are issued.4 Where there is an urgent requirement for transfusion, group O Rh D negative blood should be issued until the discrepancy is resolved. Hospital transfusion laboratory practices should comply with the guidelines for blood bank computing.19 Patients with special requirements
The transfusion laboratory should have a record of patients' special requirements eg CMV seronegative or gamma irradiation, and these components should be selected. Patients with significant red cell antibodies should be issued with antigen negative blood. Consideration should be given to issuing antibody cards to all patients with clinically significant red cell antibodies.10 When the care of patients with haematological or other disorders requiring transfusion support is shared, there is a risk that not all pertinent transfusion history will be available to both sites. In the absence of networked Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components pathology information systems, it is essential that local procedures are devised for adequate communication between laboratories as well as clinical teams.10 ISSUING OF BLOOD
Computer generated self-adhesive compatibility labels are recommended. Efforts to standardise these labels nationally should continue for consistency between hospitals and to minimise checking errors. The hospital transfusion laboratory should also provide a blood compatibility report form with the blood component issued.
The compatibility label on each unit should show:15 Surname and first name of patient.
Date of birth.
Unique identification number.
ABO group and Rh D group of the patient.
ABO group and Rh D group of the unit.
Donation number.
Expiry date of unit.
Time when blood is required.
Location of patient.
The compatibility report form should contain the following information: Surname and first name of the patient.
Date of birth.
Unique identification number.
ABO group and Rh D group of the patient.
ABO group and Rh D group of the unit.
Donation number.
Expiry date of unit.
If not recorded elsewhere, eg prescription sheet, space for signature of persons checking and administering Time when blood is required.
Location of patient.
The ABO group, Rh D group and unit number must be identical on the Irish Blood Transfusion Service Label, Hospital Compatibility Report Form and the Compatibility Label on the blood pack. Occasionally the ABO group and Rh D group issued for a patient may be of a different group15, usually due to a shortage of a particular group. In these circumstances, the hospital transfusion laboratory should inform the patient's doctor and include the information on the compatibility report form.
Red blood cells and whole blood should only be stored in a designated controlled blood refrigerator.15
Plasma is stored frozen and thawed in the laboratory immediately before use.
Platelets are stored at room temperature on a controlled agitator to avoid clumping, and should never be
stored in a refrigerator.
The time of removal of all components from the controlled storage should be logged – ideally electronically, or failing that, manually.
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components Once a unit of blood has been removed from controlled storage the transfusion should be commenced immediately on delivery to the clinical area. If the transfusion cannot be initiated promptly, the blood should be returned to the hospital transfusion laboratory for storage, unless the transfusion to the intended recipient can be completed within 4 hours. Blood should be returned to the hospital transfusion laboratory for documented disposal if out of controlled storage for more than 30 minutes.16 The transfusion of plasma and platelets should be commenced as soon as possible following issue from the laboratory and must not be stored outside the laboratory.
The use of validated blood transport containers is recommended.
Written requests for the release and collection of blood components are recommended and should contain the patient's full name, date of birth, unique identification number and location of patient. If a telephone request is given to a porter or other member of staff to collect blood, the person must be given the above patient identification details so that he/she can write them down and bring them to the storage area when removing the blood component.4 The removal of a blood component from storage must be recorded manually or electronically. This area is identified as a critical area for human Hospital policy should dictate who is trained and certified to collect the blood component.4 The person requesting the collection of the blood component must ensure the patient has a patent intravenous cannula before the blood component is removed from storage.
Hospital blood administration policy should include detailed instruction on the procedure for pre-transfusion identification of both the intended recipient and the blood component to be transfused. This procedure must be performed by two persons and both must sign the prescription sheet or the compatibility report form.4 Persons authorised to perform pre- transfusion identification include: a registered nurse, doctor or perfusionist. Before starting the transfusion, the following checks are essential at the patient's bedside or wherever the patient is to be transfused (See Table 1). The checks
should never be performed remote from the patient or at the nurse's station or in a side room.
Bedside Checklist 4,15
Are the patient identification details identical on:
the patient's identity band? the compatibility label on the blood component pack? the compatibility report form sent with the blood component from the hospital transfusion laboratory? the patient's medical record? the prescription chart? Do these details match who the patient says he/she is?
Patients who can communicate must be asked to state their surname, first name and date of birth.
Are the ABO and Rh D group and donation number all identical on:
the IBTS label on the blood component pack? the compatibility label on the blood component pack? the compatibility report form sent with the blood component from the hospital transfusion laboratory? Do the details of the pack, compatibility form and prescription form, match any special
requirements for special types of blood components e.g. CMV seronegative, gamma-irradiated etc?
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components If there are any discrepancies, the unit must not be transfused. The hospital transfusion laboratory should be informed immediately. Generally it will be necessary to return the unit and compatibility form to the laboratory.
Inspection of unit prior to administration
Check that the pack is in date and shows no sign of leakage, unusual colour or haemolysis.
Check that the platelet packs do not show clumping or appear unusually cloudy, as this may be a sign of If a defect is suspected, contact the hospital transfusion laboratory for advice.
If in doubt, do not transfuse.15 ADMINISTRATION OF BLOOD COMPONENTS
Optimal timing of transfusion
Elective transfusions and transfusion for transfusion-dependent anaemia should normally be carried out during the day.
In the non-haemorrhaging patient, rates depend on the clinical context, age and cardiac status. Except in the massive transfusion setting, transfusion rates for blood should not exceed 2-4 mls/kg/hr.20 From starting the infusion (puncturing the blood pack with the infusion set) to completion, infusion of the pack should take a maximum of 4 hours.
Each unit of solvent detergent (SD) plasma should be transfused to the uncompromised adult over 30-60 minutes. Patients should be examined clinically for evidence of volume overload.12-13 A single adult dose of apheresis platelets contains an average of 230-300mls and pooled platelets contain an average of 320-340mls. Each dose of platelets should be transfused over a period of 30-60 minutes.
Cannula size depends on vein size and rate of infusion required.16 For whole blood, red cells, platelets, plasma and cryoprecipitate, an infusion set containing an integral filter (170-200 microns)17 must be used. This is a standard clot screen filter. Bedside white cell filters are no longer required as all blood components are now leucodepleted pre-storage by the IBTS.
Blood administration sets should normally be changed after a maximum of 6 hours.17 In the massive transfusion setting the blood administration set may be changed at the discretion of the nurse or doctor administering the blood i.e. if they become blocked or have been used to transfuse multiple units.
For efficient use, blood administration sets should be primed with the blood component, fully wetting the filter.16 Multiple blood components administered sequentially through the same set should be ABO compatible. After a red cell component or plasma transfusion, a new blood administration set should be used to transfuse platelets. Blood component administration sets should not be used for subsequent infusions post transfusion as the intravenous fluid may be incompatible with blood in the line.21 Transfusion can take place through one lumen of a multi-lumen central catheter while the other lumen or lumina are in use.22 No other infusion solutions or drugs should be added to any blood component as they may result in haemolysis or clotting.15 Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components 12.2 Blood warmers
Routine warming of blood is not indicated. Patients who will benefit from warmed blood include adults and children receiving massive transfusion,18 infants requiring exchange transfusion and patients with clinically significant high-titre cold agglutinins active in vitro at 37°C.15 Blood warmers must be subject to regular servicing and used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Red blood cells and plasma exposed to temperatures over 40°C may cause severe transfusion reactions.
Blood components must NOT be warmed by improvisations such as putting the pack into hot water, in a microwave, or on a radiator, as uncontrolled heating can damage the contents of the pack.15 Handling and disposal of blood packs
Hospital policy should cover the use of gloves, trays, bags, accidental spills/damage and disposal. Unless the patient has an acute transfusion reaction, used blood packs should be disposed of after the transfusion in an appropriate designated container i.e. a rigid spill proof bin with yellow lid. If more than 100mls remains in the pack, disposal should be in a spill proof container in accordance with local hospital policy.
Severe reactions are most likely to occur within the first 15 minutes/50mls of each unit and patients should be closely observed during this period.16,21,23 Temperature, pulse, respirations and blood pressure should be measured and recorded before the transfusion commences and when the transfusion of each unit is completed. Temperature and pulse should be measured 15 minutes after the start of each individual unit.21 Additional observations are discretionary and the patient should be monitored as his/her condition warrants, or if there are signs of a transfusion reaction. The patient who is elderly, or who has compromised cardio-respiratory function requires additional monitoring. Patients with chronic anaemia are usually normovolaemic or hypervolaemic and may have signs of cardiac failure before any fluid is infused. If such a patient must be transfused, each unit should be given slowly with a diuretic (e.g. frusemide 20mg) and the patient closely observed. Restricting transfusion to one unit of red blood cells in each 12 hour period should reduce the risk of left ventricular failure (LVF).15 These patients require continuous observation and monitoring. A transfusion reaction should be considered in the event of any deterioration in the patient's condition during or immediately following a transfusion.15 Day patients discharged from hospital following a blood transfusion should be issued with an information card indicating the symptoms and signs of transfusion reactions and given advice on when to contact the hospital (See Appendix 2).
Patients should be observed closely during the initial 15 mins/50mls of a transfusion.16,21,23 Any symptoms, which may indicate a transfusion reaction including distress, pain at or near the transfusion site, loin pain, backache, fever, or dyspnoea, must be investigated as they could indicate a serious reaction. The transfusion must be stopped and the cause of the symptoms investigated immediately. Serious or life-threatening acute reactions are very rare. However, new Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components symptoms or signs that arise during a transfusion must be taken seriously, as they may be the first warning of a serious reaction.15 It is important to realise that signs and symptoms are not necessarily specific to a given type of
reaction (See Appendix 3). The commonest problem associated with transfusion is a rise in temperature. This can
be a result of the transfusion itself or the underlying illness and can occur at any time during the transfusion. Each patient should be assessed individually, but in general a temperature rise of 1.5°C above normal should result in the cessation of the transfusion and investigation of a possible transfusion reaction. In the case of simple, urticarial-type reactions with no other symptoms or signs, the patient can be given antihistamines and the transfusion may be continued at a slower rate. (See Appendix 3).
Acute transfusion reactions
Acute transfusion reactions can be associated with significant morbidity and rarely with mortality (See Appendix 4).
Prompt recognition and management is essential. All suspected transfusion reactions should be reported immediately to the hospital transfusion laboratory. Immediate reporting is particularly important if an incorrect unit of blood has been transfused in case blood packs have been transposed and another patient is put at risk.15 Protocols should be in place to detect, investigate, and where possible prevent adverse reactions.16 Adverse reactions should be reported to the hospital transfusion laboratory and TSO.
Management and reporting of adverse events/errors
Failure to adhere to policies and procedures should be dealt with by the local TSO in association with the local Hospital Transfusion Committee. Serious adverse events/errors should be reported to the NHO. Article 15 of the Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003, which will come into effect in 2005, requires mandatory reporting of ‘serious adverse events (accidents and errors) relating to the collection, testing, processing, storage and distribution of blood and blood components which may have an influence on their quality and safety, as well as any serious adverse reactions observed during or after transfusion which may be attributed to the quality and the safety of blood and blood components'.24 Near miss incidents
Near miss incidents are defined as "Any error, which if undetected, could result in the determination of a wrong blood group, or issue, collection, or administration of an incorrect, inappropriate or unsuitable component but which was recognised before the transfusion took place."11 Near miss incidents should be reported to the local TSO. Hospitals should have a system of recording, evaluating and learning from near miss events as these are more frequent than real errors, but often have the same root causes.7-11 Local audit and education should be used to close the loop on near miss incidents to prevent recurrence.
A medical practitioner must record the prescription of blood and blood components. Each hospital must have a system in place to ensure full traceability through maintaining patient and laboratory transfusion records. These records must be stored safely and be available for future look-back and audit exercises. Procedures and policies for each part of the record keeping system must be established and documented. Records may be held in a manual, computerised, or microfilm format or a combination thereof. Records must be protected from inadvertent or unauthorised destruction or modification. Procedures for tracing of blood components in any future look-back should be included in hospital transfusion laboratory SOPs.16 Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components Traceability of blood components
The Council of Europe defines traceability as "the ability to identify the actual recipients, of every component released and, conversely, the ability to identify all blood donors involved in the transfusion of a given patient. Retrospective analysis has shown that traceability is not achieved by the simple knowledge of the patient to whom the blood component was initially distributed. Active return of information from the clinical area to the blood transfusion service after the transfusion act is necessary to provide complete and reliable information about the fate of a given blood component. Traceability documents may include information on the existence of immediate adverse reaction".17 Article 14 of the EC Blood Directive 2002/98/EC mandates full traceability of all blood components.24 Data needed for full traceability in accordance with this article must be retained for at least 30 years.24 Donation numbers for blood and blood components (whole blood, red cells, platelets, cryoprecipitate and cryo-poor plasma) and batch numbers for pooled blood products (Octaplas and Uniplas, clotting factor concentrates, albumin, anti- D, intravenous immunoglobulin), must be specifically recorded on the transfusion record sheet and filed in the patients medical record and in the hospital transfusion laboratory or pharmacy. Recording practices such as the use of peelable labels containing batch numbers are encouraged to reduce the possibility of transcription error. Standardisation of documentation throughout the country is recommended, as is the maximum use of computerised and electronic data.
Computer systems should be used in the transfusion process as they reduce the risk of transfusion error and facilitate full traceability and audit. These systems are used in hospital transfusion laboratories, but as sampling and administration have been identified as problem areas in the transfusion chain, extension of the use of such systems to the clinical area to ensure correct patient identification at sampling and administration is recommended.7-11 Use of computerised request forms should be adopted. There is evidence that stimulating awareness of, and compliance with, best practice by computer generated reminders at the point of care is effective.25 Computerised request programmes with pre- established algorithms can guide the clinician to comply with accepted guidelines and ask for additional clinical reasons when overriding the guidelines. They also provide an effective means of online documentation.3 Computerisation is known to reduce human error in the many steps involved in the administration of blood. We recommend that hospital authorities should evaluate the use of computerised systems for the whole transfusion process from pre-transfusion patient sampling through to the administration of the transfusion of blood to the recipient. This will be essential for full traceability.
The hospital executive or health board has the responsibility to establish the hospital transfusion committee. The committee should be supported and resourced by hospital management which should also be represented.3 The membership of a hospital transfusion committee should be multidisciplinary representing the main users of blood and should include a consultant haematologist, transfusion scientist and TSO in a hospital or region. The committee should meet regularly and adopt a preventative/corrective approach to transfusion problems. Adverse events and near misses should be examined. The committee should review and audit the use of blood and blood components and make recommendations on appropriate use. The committee's recommendations should be conveyed to the hospital executive in regular reports.
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAMME
The TSO, or another identifiable member of staff, should be responsible for ensuring that all staff involved in the transfusion process receive adequate education and training relevant to their role within that process. This programme should be documented and subject to regular review.
Haemovigilance should be under the direction of the consultant haematologist and is the responsibility of all persons involved in the transfusion process.
Haemovigilance should include: Promoting the appropriate use of blood and blood components/products.
Provision and organisation of education and training relevant to staff involved in the transfusion process.
Co-ordination, collection and reporting to the NHO of serious adverse reactions/events relating to blood The tracing and recall of blood and blood components as requested by the IBTS.
Participation in an active hospital transfusion committee.
Review and audit of all aspects of the transfusion process.
The NHO receives and follows-up confidential reports from hospitals and medical practitioners of serious adverse events/reactions to blood components following transfusion. Feedback is provided as appropriate. The reports are analysed, the findings are then disseminated and published in the form of an Annual Report, which makes recommendations for future practice.
The NHO recognises the progress that has already been made in the area of administration of blood and blood components. This programme has been co-ordinated through the efforts of local TSO and their teams.
The National Haemovigilance Office can be contacted at:
Irish Blood Transfusion Service, National Blood Centre, Website: www.ibts.ie (Haemovigilance pages) Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components APPENDIX 1
What is a blood transfusion?
Giving a patient red blood cells, platelets or plasma is a blood transfusion. Blood is stored in a plastic bag and given
through a tube, which is connected to a needle usually inserted in the arm. The transfusion should not be painful but
having a needle in your arm may be slightly uncomfortable. Each unit of blood is generally transfused over two to four
Why do patients need blood transfusions?
Blood components1 are used to correct abnormalities in the blood, which cannot be corrected by any other means.
Common reasons for blood transfusions are,

Blood lost because of an accident or surgery, Bleeding or clotting disorders.
If you lose a significant amount of blood during an operation or an accident your doctor will want to replace the bloodloss with a blood transfusion immediately so that you do not suffer the serious effects of your blood loss.
If you have anaemia, your body does not have enough red cells to carry the oxygen you need and you may feel tired orbreathless. Many cases of anaemia may be treated with medication, however not all cases respond and blood transfusionmay be required. Your medical team will best explain details about why you may need blood.
Steps taken to ensure that the blood is safe?
The Irish Blood Transfusion Service have many s
afeguards on our national blood supply . All the donors are voluntary and unpaid as such donors are the safest source of blood. Before giving blood, donors must answer detailed questions about their health and risk factors for diseases to ensure that they are in good health. Every unit is tested for infections whichcan be transmitted through blood, i.e. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, HIV I and 2 (the cause of AIDS), Syphilis and HTLV Iand II.
Are there risks involved when having a blood transfusion?
The serious risks of having a blood transfusion are rare and must be balanced against the risk to your health of not having
a transfusion. Many hundreds of lives are saved each year by blood transfusions. Investigations and operations can be
performed because blood is available. W blood transfused in Ireland is tested for these viruses. W hen a blood transfusion is needed the risk of not receiving blood far outweigh the risks of a transfusion. The serious risks are reactions to the blood or the transmission of infections. These risks areminimised by the careful selection of donors, testing and handling of the blood.
Infections and Viruses
A great deal of publicity has been given to the potential risk of getting AIDS or Hepatitis from blood transfusions. All
LEhen you consider the risks of transfusion, it is important to realise
that the risk of infection from a blood transfusion is very low. Daily activities such as road travel are associated with muchgreater risks than the risks of a blood transfusion when you need it. The estimated risks in Ireland for known viruses are: HIV 1 possibility in 4 million units of blood transfused 1 possibility in 4 million units of blood transfused 1 possibility in 200,000 units of blood transfused The careful collection and storage of the blood reduces the risk of bacterial infection, which is rare but can be fatal.
Variant Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease (vCJD), a degenerative neurological disease, was first recognised in 1996 and iscaused by eating BSE contaminated meat. Over 150 cases have occurred to date, the vast majority in UK patients orin patients who have lived in the UK for extended periods of time. vCJD is a new disease and the risks of transmissionthrough blood transfusion have been of concern to blood services since its discovery. One case where vCJD hasprobably been transmitted by transfusion has been identified in the UK. The donor was well at the time of donation butlater developed vCJD. The recipient developed vCJD 6 years after the transfusion and it is thought that this was muchmore likely to have been caused by the transfusion than by eating beef. The predicted incidence of vCJD due to eatinginfected beef in Ireland is calculated to be very small due to the much lower amount of BSE infected meat consumed inIreland. To reduce the risks of possible transmission of vCJD through transfusion from a donor who might have becomeinfected with vCJD, the IBTS has introduced a number of precautionary measures since 1999. These include theremoval of white cells (believed to contain much of the infectious agent, the prion), the deferral of donors who have livedfor a number of years in the UK or who have a history of transfusion outside Ireland and the importation of virally safeplasma from outside of Europe. It is important to realise that the risks of not having a necessary blood transfusionexceeds the extremely low risk of vCJD transmission by transfusion.
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components APPENDIX 1
Matching Blood
A harmful reaction to the blood transfusion can be caused by the transfusion of blood, which is not matched to the
patient's blood. This is prevented by matching the donated blood with a carefully identified sample from the patient. At
the bedside, before the transfusion is started both you and the unit of blood will be carefully identified. This is the reason
why the nurse, doctor or phlebotomist asks you to state your name when taking a blood sample and prior to transfusion.
Your nurse will observe you carefully during transfusion particularly at the beginning. Tell your nurse immediately if you
feel unwell or experience fever or chills during or after the transfusion. Even if you have a reaction to blood it does not
mean that there is cause for concern. As a precaution your nurse will stop the transfusion and call a doctor, your
symptoms will be treated and the reason for the reaction investigated. All significant reactions are reported to the
National Haemovigilance Office at the Irish Blood Transfusion Service.
Transfusions after a reaction
If a patient develops a reaction to the blood transfusion, medication given prior to the next transfusion or giving a different
blood product may prevent a further reaction.
The most important blood groups, the AB
O and Rh D groups, are matc hed prior to transfusion. However a match of the patient's blood against the donors can never be perfect. Rarely some months after a transfusion, patients may developantibodies to the transfused red cells. These antibodies will not usually make the person ill, but will be important for futuretransfusions or in pregnancy. They will be discovered when the blood is tested and this test will also help decide whatblood should be given next time around.
Are there alternatives to having a blood transfusion?
Some blood loss can be replaced by other fluids and your body will then make new red cells over the next few weeks.
The following is a brief outline of the alternatives, which can be offered to some patients. The availability of thesealternatives generally depends on your underlying illness and your general health. If you would like more information askyour doctor for advice.
infection or the transfusion of an incorrect unit of blood.
Fit persons undergoing a planned surgery may be able to donate their own blood a number of weeks before their surgery.
This is called autologous donation. In other circumstances, blood lost during or immediately after an operation can becollected and transfused back to the patient. Medication can, in some instances, be administered to reduce or preventbleeding.
Using your own blood will prevent the rare transmission of viral infections but will not avoid the rare risks of bacterial Some illnesses or dietary deficiencies, whic h cause anaemia, may be treated with medications including iron or vitamins.
Can my relatives or friends donate blood for me?
When relatives or friends donate blood it is called directed donation. Research has shown that such transfusions are not
any safer than carefully selected voluntary donations. Directed donations are not available in Ireland, the UK or in most
European countries.
Further information
You can discuss any worries you have about the blood transfusion with your doctor. If you would like any additional
information contact the Department of Transfusion Medicine here in the hospital.
1. Blood components
Unit of blood: A unit of donated blood can be separated into a number of individual components principally a red
cell preparation, platelets and plasma.
Platelets: Platelets are small blood cells. They are essential to enable blood to clot properly.
Plasma: Plasma is used to correct deficiencies in patients' blood clotting.
2. Anaemia: Anaemia refers to a lower than normal red blood count.
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components APPENDIX 2
You have been transfused with a blood transfusion as prescribed by your doctor here today.
Occasionally during or after a blood transfusion you may feel unwell; this is referred to as a reaction. Indeed reactions can occur up to several weeks after a transfusion. The symptoms of a transfusion reaction may include: Breathlessness/Chest pain/Back pain.
Jaundice/ Dark or Red Urine.
A reaction may not always be a cause for concern but it is important to inform your nurse or doctor immediately if you experience any unexplained worsening of your symptoms.
Rarely you may develop a reaction after the transfusion therefore if you experience any worsening of your symptoms it is important to contact a member of your Medical Team.
act during clinic hours or _ out of hours and during the weekend.
dapted from leaflet issued by Blood B harge Instructions, February 2 AF
ank and Nursing Staff, University of Michigan Hospitals and Health Centres, Patient Post Transfusion Disc Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components APPENDIX 3.
Symptons/Signs of Acute Transfusion Reaction
Fever, chills, tachycardia, flushing, urticaria, bone/muscle/chest/abdominal pain, nausea, dyspnoea, collapse, hypo/hypertension, dark urine or patient generally unwell.
Temporarily stop the transfusion and call the doctor
Check temperature, pulse, BP, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation. Check that the identity of the recipient, details on the unit and documentation match.
Wrong unit and/or ABO
Mild allergic reaction
incompatible transfusion
Urticaria/rash only. Is this the
Remove unit and giving set. Give 10mg chlorpheniramine slowly IV wrong unit
Leave cannula in place and put up new and restart infusion at slower rate.
and/or is it ABO
administration set. Start IV saline infusion.
Inform the transfusion laboratory
immediately as another patient may
be at risk of receiving an
Tachycardia, dyspnoea and cough, incompatible unit.
wheezing, malaise, angioedema (often Return unit intact to hospital
of the lips, eyes or tongue) Stop transfusion. If ABO incompatible see below for
Call for medical assistance. investigation and management as for Reaction
acute haemolysis and seek expert
Give chlorpheniramine 10mg slowly IV involves
haematological/ medical advice .
and hydrocortisone 100-200mg IV. mild fever or
If respiratory symptoms or history of urticarial
asthma give salbutamol nebuliser.
rash only?
If anaphylactic shock: hypotension,
Febrile non haemolytic reaction
sub-sternal or abdominal pain, worsening Temperature rise <1.5°C. Patient symptoms, laryngeal oedema, respiratory otherwise well and observations stable. Give paracetamol and restart transfusion Give adrenaline (epinephrine) 1:1000
solution 0.5mL (500 micrograms) IM
Observe more frequently.
into anterior aspect of mid thigh.
Repeat once after 5 minutes if no clinicalimprovement or deterioration. Severe allergic
Seek expert medical advice as soon as possible. InvestigationSend sample for IgA level.
Transfusion Related Acute Lung
Persists or patient
Clinical features of acute noncardiogenic pulmonary odema. Stop transfusion. Give oxygen and ventilate if required. Fever >1.5 °C
Contact anaesthetist for further and/or rigors,
management and investigation.
back pain
Fluid overload/acute pulmonary
Stop transfusion. Remove unit and administration set.
Give oxygen and frusemide 40-80mg Leave cannula in place and put up a new administration set. Start IV saline infusion. Take blood cultures and samples for Other severe
repeat group/crossmatch/DCT, FBC, coagulation studies, biochemistry. Check for haemoglobinuria andmonitor urine output. Maintain urine output at >100mls/hr.
Start IV antibiotics immediately if
suspected bacterial transmission.
Return unit with all used/unused units
to hospital transfusion laboratory
Inform transfusion laboratory and seek
expert haematological/medical advice.
Seek Haematological advice where severe acute reactions occur
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components ample and patient C, coagulation studies ake culture from both able and the patient is aline infusion.
k to exclude other sources of amples for repeat group and al transfusion laboratory IC with appropriate blood hemistry to include bilirubin. Urinalysis al transfusion laboratory ain blood pressure and renal perfusion. ain urine output at >100mls/hr Management
and outcome
Discontinue transfusion and c administration set but leave cannula in place. Monitor urine output/catheterise. for haemoglobinuria and urobilinogen.
In the event of fever t Do not transfuse any further units from this Return unit and administration set int Give frusemide if output falls.
Transfuse compatible red cells.
Seek expert haematological/medical advice systems to ensure correct s If temperature rise is less than 1.5 observations are st otherwise well give paracet transfusion at slower rate and observe more IC and acute renal al leucodepletion in 19 O incompatible transfusion occur in Onset of symptoms and
frequency of occurrence
Often during first few mls of transfusion. Death 1:2.6 million Towards the end of the transfusion or within hours of completing the Frequency: as low as 0.05% of transfusions since the introduction of transfusion, e.g. Group A blood to Group O recipient. Usually occurs due to simple clerical error e.g. t wrong patient or failure of resulting in transfusing blood to the wrong patient.
See also under severe allergic reaction.
ation, flushing, nausea, hycardia, collapse, Symptoms
and signs
Symptoms of apprehension, pain at venepuncture site, pain in abdomen, flank or hypotension, generalised oozing from wounds or puncture sites, dark urine or patient generally unwell. An isolated fever of 1.5 above normal.
Most commonly occurs with transfused red cells
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components M into the anterior
hlorpheniramine 10 mgs Repeat once after , wheeze, respiratory hlorpheniramine) 10mg slow hlopheniramine 10-20mg before 00 micrograms) I
and outcome
hlorpheniramine 10mg slowly IV/ ample for IgA level.
the transfusion at a slower rate and observe more Premedicate with c transfusion in patients having recurrent episodes.
Stop the transfusion. Call for medical assist slowly IV and hydrocortisone 100-200mg IV respiratory symptoms or history of asthma, give Life- threatening.
Consider diagnosis of anaphylaxis if severe allergic- type reaction with stridor distress and/or clinical signs of shoc Give adrenaline (epinephrine) 1:1000 solution
aspect of the mid-thigh.
about 5 minutes in the absence of clinical improvement or if deterioration occurs after the initial treatment especially if consciousness remains impaired as a result of hypotension.
IV and hydrocortisone 100-200mgs IV Seek specialist haematology advice for future Onset of symptoms and
frequency of occurrence
requency: he less severe urticarial reactions 1-3% of transfusions.
can sometimes be delayed for up to 2-3 hours after the st In general the shorter the interval between the initiation of the transfusion and the onset of symptoms the more severe the reaction is likely to be.
Anaphylaxis is very rare.
ance of inflammatory cytokines he cause of these allergic reactions More likely to occur with transfusions of platelets or plasma than with red is not fully elucidated. Reactions to plasma proteins have been implicated in some cases. Increasingly the released from platelets during storage, and to a lesser extent since the advent of leucodepletion, from white cells, are being recognised as a cause of allergic transfusion reactions.
Often the cause is unknown.
Occasionally patients will have severe IgA deficiency (<0.05mgs/dl) Symptoms
and signs
orsening symptoms as hycardia, hypotension, Pruritis and rash Pruritis, rash, t dyspnoea and cough, wheezing, malaise and angioedema (often of the lips, eyes or tongue).
above, laryngeal oedema, inspiratory stridor cyanosis, substernal or abdominal pain, pronounced Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components xygen support.
ake blood cultures from C, coagulation screen and art IV broad spectrum antibiotics al transfusion laboratory with all k, repeat blood group and 0mgs. Place the patient in a sitting Cs per 12 hour period and , discontinue transfusion, and LA typing and inform I , commence fluid and o . Monitor urine output.
and outcome
isual inspection of units immediately prior to Discontinue transfusion and return unit and set used/unused units. T Seek haematological advice.
If confirmed, inform I Correct storage and handling of blood components.
Discontinue the transfusion. Give o position. Monitor fluid balance closely If ‘at risk' patients must be transfused, eac should be given slowly with a prophylactic diuretic and the patient observed closely with particular attention to fluid balance. Restricting transfusion to transfusing during normal working hours with optimum medical/nursing cover should reduce the May be life-threatening.
acute respiratory distress syndrome. May require Investigations: If suspected clinical diagnosis, t 0,000-100,000 platelet Cs Rare: 1 in 3-5 million red cell Onset of symptoms and
frequency of occurrence
he incidence is about 1:5,000 units Usually during transfusion of first 100ml of the cont therapeutic doses Death 1 in 8 –13 million units During or within several hours following the transfusion.
Incidence from 1:3,000 units transfused, but probably under diagnosed. In some reported series to up to 1% of transfusions in elderly Symptoms typically begin within 1-2 hours of transfusion and are usually present by 4-6 hours. Onset of symptoms after 12 hours is most unlikely to represent TRALI. transfused but it is probably under hronic anaemia.
O is increased in amination of blood aminated with psyc aphylococci, Serratia and acillus cereus are the most hite cell antibodies in donor components most commonly occurs with platelets as they are stored at room temperature: common offending organisms.
transfused or the transfusion is too rapid, symptoms of circulatory overload may develop.
infants, adults over 6 patients with diminished cardiac reserve or with c plasma (usually from multiparous women) interacting with recipients leucocytes, leading to complement activation and white cell sequestration in the lungs.
Typically seen as bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on CX associated with cardiac failure.
and signs
VF) may occur with and circulatory collapse Acute left ventricular failure dyspnoea, orthopnoea, hypertension, raised jugular venous pressure (JVP) and pulmonary oedema. Symptoms of acute respiratory distress, associated bilateral pulmonary oedema. Transient hypertension may acute lung injury
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components hoice is high-dose intravenous A-1a-negative red cell and plateletP ation has occurred this should be al transfusion laboratory patient records Management
and outcome
able antigen negative blood.
ersisting anemia may require transfusion of he risk of renal decompens hrombocytopenia is usually associated with reduced by adequate hydration. W appropriately managed. should be amended to include the presence of red cell antibodies. In the future, irrespective of whether the antibody is subsequently detected on antibody screen, antigen negative red cells should only be issued for that patient.
Seek specialist medical advice.
Gamma-irradiation of cellular blood components for susceptible recipients.
Seek expert haematological advice. T immunoglobulin (IVI given over 2 or 5 days.
Platelet transfusions may be required in bleeding Despite the low incidence of recurrence patients with a documented history of PTP should receive, concentrates for subsequent transfusions.
Onset of symptoms and
frequency of occurrence
Usually 5-10 days or longer after 1-6 weeks post transfusion.
5-12 days after transfusion.
D in the recipient who D in immunocompetent h but further transfusion he antibodies are undetect Patient has IgG antibodies to red cell Duffy because of previous pregnancies or transfusions. causes a secondary immune response resulting in delayed haemolysis.
Transfused donor T cells can engraft is often immunodeficient e.g bone marrow allograft recipient, Hodgkin's disease, fetus receiving intrauterine transfusion. Because of haplotype sharing, blood from relatives can Confirmed by skin/bone marrow biopsy appearances and/or the presence of circulating donor lymphocytes.
usually occurring in parous women.
Antibodies against human platelet patient's serum, usually anti-H Symptoms
and signs
Unexplained fall in haemoglobin, rising Progression of fever often associated with bleeding and poor response to platelet Delayed haemolysis of
transfused red cells
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components xamine to increase iron excretion , endocrine and cardiac damage.
and outcome
Seek specialist medical advice.
All cases of suspected transfusion-transmitted infection should be reported to the I investigation. If donated blood is excluded, other sources of acquisition, including nosocomial infection, should be considered.
Seek specialist medical advice for prevention and treatment in multi transfused patients.
in patients likely to receive long-term IV – 1:4 million per Onset of symptoms and
frequency of occurrence
CV – 1:4 million per units transfused. BV – 1:200,000 per units transfused Depends on virus: weeks or months or Residual risk of viral transmission with tested blood is very low and has been estimated to be: H After several years of frequent 0mg of iron.
iral infection in donor notV detected by donor screening and testing.
One unit of red cells Patients receiving multiple transfusions are at risk.
H Guideline on the administration of blood and blood components and the management of transfused patients.
and signs
Symptoms depend on virus.
Often silent.
Chronically transfused patients, especially those with haemoglobinopathies have progressive and continuous accumulation of cardiac and liver damage.
ransfusion Medicine, 3rd Edition dapted from the Handbook of T Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components Voak D, Chapman JF, and Phillips P. Quality of transfusion practice beyond the blood transfusion laboratory isessential to prevent ABO-incompatible death. Transfusion Medicine, 2000; 10: 95-96.
McClelland DBL, McMenamin JJ, Moores HM, and Barbara JAJ. Reducing risks in blood transfusion: process andoutcome. Transfusion Medicine, 1996; 6: 1-10.
Blood safety in the European Community: an initiative for optimal use. Conference Proceedings. EuropeanCommission, 2000. ISBN-3-00-005705-6. Conclusions and Recommendations. 3-7.
British Committee for Standards in Haematology, (BCSH) Blood Transfusion Task Force. The administration ofblood and blood components and the management of transfused patients. Transfusion Medicine, 1999; 9: 227-238.
Cummins D, Sharp S, Vartanian M, Dawson D, Amin S, and Halil O. The BCSH guideline on addressographlabels: experience at a cardiothoracic unit and findings of a telephone survey. Transfusion Medicine 2000; 10: 117-120.
National Blood Users Group (NBUG). A Guideline for Transfusion of Red Blood Cells in Surgical Patients.
Dublin: Irish Blood Transfusion Service, 2001.
Williamson LM, Lowe S, Love E et al. Serious Hazards of Transfusions (SHOT) Annual Report 1996-1997.
Manchester: SHOT Office, 1998.
Williamson LM, Lowe S, Love E et al. Serious Hazards of Transfusions (SHOT) Annual Report 1997-1998.
Manchester: SHOT Office, 1999.
Love E, Williamson LM, Cohen H, et al. Serious Hazards of Transfusions (SHOT) Annual Report 1998-1999.
Manchester: SHOT Office, 2000.
Love E, Jones H. Williamson LM, et al. Serious Hazards of Transfusions (SHOT) Annual Report 1999-2000.
Manchester: SHOT Office, 2001.
Asher D, Atterbury CLJ, Chapman C, et al. Serious Hazards of Transfusions (SHOT). Annual Report 2000-2001.
Manchester: SHOT Office, 2002.
National Haemovigilance Office. Annual Report 2000. Dublin: Irish Blood Transfusion Service, 2001.
National Haemovigilance Office. Annual Report 2001. Dublin: Irish Blood Transfusion Service, 2002.
National Haemovigilance Office. Annual Report 2002. Dublin: Irish Blood Transfusion Service, 2003.
McClelland DBL. (editor) Handbook of Transfusion Medicine, 3rd Edition. London: The Stationery Office, 2001.
Brecher ME. (editor) American Association of Blood Banks Technical Manual, 14th Edition. Bethesda, MD: AABBPress, 2002.
Council of Europe. Guide to the preparation use and quality assurance of blood components. RecommendationNo. R (95)15. 9th Edition. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing, 2003.
National Blood Users Group (NBUG). A Guideline for the Use of Blood Components in the Management ofMassive Haemorrhage. Dublin: Irish Blood Transfusion Service, 2002.
British Committee for Standards in Haematology, (BCSH) Blood Transfusion Task Force. (2000) Guidelines forblood bank computing. Transfusion Medicine 2000; 10: 307-314.
Guidelines for the Administration of Blood and Blood Components Vamvakas EC and Pineda AA. Allergic and Anaphylactic Reactions In: Popovsky MA.(editor) TransfusionReactions, 2nd Edition. Bethesda, MD: AABB Press, 2001.
Petz LD, Swisher SN, Kleinman S, Spence RK and Strauss RG. Clinical Practice of Transfusion Medicine, 3rdEdition. New York: Churchhill Livingstone, 1996.
Fitzpatrick T. and Fitzpatrick L. Nursing Management of Transfusion Reactions. In: Popovsky MA. (editor)Transfusion Reactions, 2nd Edition. Bethesda, MD: AABB Press, 2001. Roach M. BMT unit recommends less frequent measurement of vital signs during blood transfusion. OncologyNursing Forum 1995; Vol. 22, No. 4:717-718.
Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union 27 January 2003setting standards of quality and safety for the collection, testing, processing, storage and distribution of humanblood and blood components and amending Directive 2001/83/EC Official Journal L033 08/02/2003.
Leape LL. Error in Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) 1994; 272, 23: 1851-1857.
Linden JV, Wagner K, Voytovich AE, and Sheahan J. Transfusion errors in New York State: an analysis of 10 years'experience. Transfusion 2000; 40:1207-1213.
Rennie I, Rawlinson PSM, and Clark P. Universal leukodepletion of blood and febrile transfusion reactions.
Transfusion Medicine 2001; 11:115.
Boehlen F and Clemetson KJ. Platelet chemokines and their receptors: what is their relevance to platelet storageand transfusion practice? Transfusion Medicine, 2001; 11:403-417.
Resuscitation Council (UK). The Emergency Medical Treatment of Anaphylactic Reactions for First MedicalResponders and for Community Nurses. Revised January 2002. Retrieved: March 19, 2003 from http://www.resus.org.uk/pages/reaction.htm.
Kuehnert MJ, Roth VR, Haley NR et al. Transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection in the United States, 1998through 2000. Transfusion 2001; 41:1493-1499.
Popovsky MA. Circulatory Overload In: Popovsky MA. (editor) Transfusion Reactions, 2nd Edition. Bethesda, MD:AABB Press, 2001.
Popovsky MA. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI) In: Popovsky MA. (editor) Transfusion Reactions,2nd Edition. Bethesda, MD: AABB Press, 2001.
British Committee for Standards in Haematology, (BCSH) Blood Transfusion Task Force. (1996) Guidelines ongamma irradiation of blood components for the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease.
Transfusion Medicine 1996; 6: 261-271.
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The Rules for Boiling Points • The boiling points of compounds depend on how strongly they stick together: The more strongly they stick together, the higher the boilingpoint (the more heat it takes to rip them apart). • There are two main forces that hold molecules together: These require both positive hydrogens (from O-H or N-H bonds) and electron lone pairs (found mainly on O and N atoms)