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Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
Page 1 of 24
Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
"lap jointing primer for EPDM and butyl membranes", "Butynol Seam Primer"
■ The use of a quantity of material in an unventilated or confined space may result in increased exposure and
an irritating atmosphere developing. Before starting consider control of exposure by mechanical ventilation.
EPDM and butyl membrane lap jointing primer.
Company: Ardex Australia Pty Ltd
20 Powers Road
Seven Hills
NSW, 2147
Telephone: 1800 224 070
Emergency Tel:1800 224 070 (Mon- Fri, 9am- 5pm)
Fax: +61 2 9838 7817
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE. DANGEROUS GOODS. According to the Criteria of NOHSC, and the ADG

Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
Page 2 of 24
■ Highly flammable.
• Keep away from sources of ignition. No smoking.
■ Harmful if swallowed.
• Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray.
■ Irritating to eyes and skin.
• Avoid contact with skin.
■ Harmful: danger of serious damage to health • Avoid contact with eyes.
by prolonged exposure through inhalation.
■ Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause • Wear suitable protective clothing.
long- term adverse effects in the aquaticenvironment.
■ Possible risk of impaired fertility.
• Wear suitable gloves.
■ Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.
• Wear eye/face protection.
■ HARMFUL- May cause lung damage if swallowed.
• Use only in well ventilated areas.
■ Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
• Keep container in a well ventilated place.
■ Inhalation and/or skin contact may produce • Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions health damage*.
■ Cumulative effects may result following • Do not empty into drains.
■ May produce discomfort of the respiratory • To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use water and detergent.
■ Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect*.
• Keep container tightly closed.
■ Repeated exposure potentially causes skin • Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding dryness and cracking*.
* (limited evidence).
• In case of contact with eyes, rinse with plentyof water and contact Doctor or Poisons InformationCentre.
• If swallowed, IMMEDIATELY contact Doctor orPoisons Information Centre. (show this containeror label).
• This material and its container must be disposedof as hazardous waste.
solvent naphtha petroleum, light aliphatic Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
Page 3 of 24
• If spontaneous vomiting appears imminent or occurs, hold patient's head down, lower than their hips to help
avoid possible aspiration of vomitus.
• If swallowed do NOT induce vomiting.
• If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on left side (head-down position, if possible) to
maintain open airway and prevent aspiration.
• Observe the patient carefully.
• Never give liquid to a person showing signs of being sleepy or with reduced awareness; i.e. becoming
• Give water to rinse out mouth, then provide liquid slowly and as much as casualty can comfortably drink.
• Seek medical advice.
• Avoid giving milk or oils.
• Avoid giving alcohol.
■ If this product comes in contact with the eyes:
• Wash out immediately with fresh running water.
• Ensure complete irrigation of the eye by keeping eyelids apart and away from eye and moving the eyelids by
occasionally lifting the upper and lower lids.
• Seek medical attention without delay; if pain persists or recurs seek medical attention.
• Removal of contact lenses after an eye injury should only be undertaken by skilled personnel.
■ If skin contact occurs:
• Immediately remove all contaminated clothing, including footwear.
• Flush skin and hair with running water (and soap if available).
• Seek medical attention in event of irritation.
• If fumes or combustion products are inhaled remove from contaminated area.
• Lay patient down. Keep warm and rested.
• Prostheses such as false teeth, which may block airway, should be removed, where possible, prior to
initiating first aid procedures.
• Apply artificial respiration if not breathing, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve mask
device, or pocket mask as trained. Perform CPR if necessary.
• Transport to hospital, or doctor.
■ Any material aspirated during vomiting may produce lung injury. Therefore emesis should not be induced
mechanically or pharmacologically. Mechanical means should be used if it is considered necessary to evacuate
the stomach contents; these include gastric lavage after endotracheal intubation. If spontaneous vomiting has
occurred after ingestion, the patient should be monitored for difficult breathing, as adverse effects of
aspiration into the lungs may be delayed up to 48 hours.
Following acute or short term repeated exposures to toluene:

Toluene is absorbed across the alveolar barrier, the blood/air mixture being 11.2/15.6 (at 37 degrees C.) The concentration of toluene, in expired breath, is of the order of 18 ppm following sustained exposure to100 ppm. The tissue/blood proportion is 1/3 except in adipose where the proportion is 8/10.
• Metabolism by microsomal mono-oxygenation, results in the production of hippuric acid. This may be detected in the urine in amounts between 0.5 and 2.5 g/24 hr which represents, on average 0.8 gm/gm of creatinine.
The biological half-life of hippuric acid is in the order of 1-2 hours.
• Primary threat to life from ingestion and/or inhalation is respiratory failure.
Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
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• Patients should be quickly evaluated for signs of respiratory distress (eg cyanosis, tachypnoea, intercostal retraction, obtundation) and given oxygen. Patients with inadequate tidal volumes or poorarterial blood gases (pO2 <50 mm Hg or pCO2 > 50 mm Hg) should be intubated.
• Arrhythmias complicate some hydrocarbon ingestion and/or inhalation and electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial damage has been reported; intravenous lines and cardiac monitors should be established inobviously symptomatic patients. The lungs excrete inhaled solvents, so that hyperventilation improvesclearance.
• A chest x-ray should be taken immediately after stabilisation of breathing and circulation to document aspiration and detect the presence of pneumothorax.
• Epinephrine (adrenaline) is not recommended for treatment of bronchospasm because of potential myocardial sensitisation to catecholamines. Inhaled cardioselective bronchodilators (e.g. Alupent, Salbutamol) are thepreferred agents, with aminophylline a second choice.
• Lavage is indicated in patients who require decontamination; ensure use.
BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE INDEX - BEI These represent the determinants observed in specimens collected from a healthy worker exposed at the Exposure Standard (ES or TLV):Determinant o- Cresol in urine Hippuric acid in urine 1.6 g/g creatinine Prior to last shift ofworkweek NS: Non-specific determinant; also observed after exposure to other materialB: Background levels occur in specimens collected from subjects NOT exposed.
• Foam.
• Dry chemical powder.
• BCF (where regulations permit).
• Carbon dioxide.
• Water spray or fog - Large fires only.
• Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
• May be violently or explosively reactive.
• Wear breathing apparatus plus protective gloves.
• Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
• Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
• Fight fire from a safe distance, with adequate cover.
• If safe, switch off electrical equipment until vapour fire hazard removed.
• Use water delivered as a fine spray to control the fire and cool adjacent area.
• Avoid spraying water onto liquid pools.
• Do not approach containers suspected to be hot.
• Cool fire exposed containers with water spray from a protected location.
• If safe to do so, remove containers from path of fire.
When any large container (including road and rail tankers) is involved in a fire,
consider evacuation by 500 metres in all directions.
• Liquid and vapour are highly flammable.
• Severe fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame and/or oxidisers.
Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
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• Vapour may travel a considerable distance to source of ignition.
• Heating may cause expansion or decomposition leading to violent rupture of containers.
• On combustion, may emit toxic fumes of carbon monoxide (CO).
Combustion products include:.
carbon dioxide (CO2).
other pyrolysis products typical of burning organic material.
Contains low boiling substance: Closed containers may rupture due to pressure buildup under fire conditions.
• Avoid contamination with oxidising agents i.e. nitrates, oxidising acids, chlorine bleaches, pool chlorine
etc. as ignition may result.
• Remove all ignition sources.
• Clean up all spills immediately.
• Avoid breathing vapours and contact with skin and eyes.
• Control personal contact by using protective equipment.
• Contain and absorb small quantities with vermiculite or other absorbent material.
• Wipe up.
• Collect residues in a flammable waste container.
• Clear area of personnel and move upwind.
• Alert Fire Brigade and tell them location and nature of hazard.
• May be violently or explosively reactive.
• Wear breathing apparatus plus protective gloves.
• Prevent, by any means available, spillage from entering drains or water course.
• Consider evacuation (or protect in place).
• No smoking, naked lights or ignition sources.
• Increase ventilation.
• Stop leak if safe to do so.
• Water spray or fog may be used to disperse /absorb vapour.
• Contain spill with sand, earth or vermiculite.
• Use only spark-free shovels and explosion proof equipment.
• Collect recoverable product into labelled containers for recycling.
• Absorb remaining product with sand, earth or vermiculite.
• Collect solid residues and seal in labelled drums for disposal.
• Wash area and prevent runoff into drains.
• If contamination of drains or waterways occurs, advise emergency services.
Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
Page 6 of 24
From IERG (Canada/Australia)Isolation Distance Downwind Protection Distance PROTECTIVE ACTION ZONE is defined as the area in which people are at risk of harmful exposure. This zone assumes that random changes in wind direction confines the vapour plume to an area within 30 degrees oneither side of the predominant wind direction, resulting in a crosswind protective action distance equal tothe downwind protective action distance.
2 PROTECTIVE ACTIONS should be initiated to the extent possible, beginning with those closest to the spill and working away from the site in the downwind direction. Within the protective action zone a level of vapourconcentration may exist resulting in nearly all unprotected persons becoming incapacitated and unable to takeprotective action and/or incurring serious or irreversible health effects.
3 INITIAL ISOLATION ZONE is determined as an area, including upwind of the incident, within which a high probability of localised wind reversal may expose nearly all persons without appropriate protection to life-threatening concentrations of the material.
4 SMALL SPILLS involve a leaking package of 200 litres (55 US gallons) or less, such as a drum (jerrican or box with inner containers). Larger packages leaking less than 200 litres and compressed gas leaking from asmall cylinder are also considered "small spills".
LARGE SPILLS involve many small leaking packages or a leaking package of greater than 200 litres, such as a cargo tank, portable tank or a "one-tonne" compressed gas cylinder.
5 Guide 128 is taken from the US DOT emergency response guide book.
IERG information is derived from CANUTEC - Transport Canada.
The maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed
for up to one hour WITHOUT experiencing or developing
life-threatening health effects is: irreversible or other serious effects or symptoms which could impair an individual's ability to take protective action is: other than mild, transient adverse effects without perceiving a clearly defined odour is: Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
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American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Ingredients considered according to the following cutoffs where percentage is percentage of ingredient found in the mixture Personal Protective Equipment advice is contained in Section 8 of the MSDS.
■ Contains low boiling substance:
Storage in sealed containers may result in pressure buildup causing violent rupture of containers not rated
• Check for bulging containers.
• Vent periodically
• Always release caps or seals slowly to ensure slow dissipation of vapours.
• Avoid all personal contact, including inhalation.
• Wear protective clothing when risk of exposure occurs.
• Use in a well-ventilated area.
• Prevent concentration in hollows and sumps.
• DO NOT enter confined spaces until atmosphere has been checked.
• Avoid smoking, naked lights, heat or ignition sources.
• When handling, DO NOT eat, drink or smoke.
• Vapour may ignite on pumping or pouring due to static electricity.
• DO NOT use plastic buckets.
• Earth and secure metal containers when dispensing or pouring product.
• Use spark-free tools when handling.
• Avoid contact with incompatible materials.
• Keep containers securely sealed.
• Avoid physical damage to containers.
• Always wash hands with soap and water after handling.
• Work clothes should be laundered separately.
• Use good occupational work practice.
• Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
• Atmosphere should be regularly checked against established exposure standards to ensure safe working
• DO NOT allow clothing wet with material to stay in contact with skin.
• Packing as supplied by manufacturer.
• Plastic containers may only be used if approved for flammable liquid.
• Check that containers are clearly labelled and free from leaks.
• For low viscosity materials (i) : Drums and jerry cans must be of the non-removable head type. (ii) : Where
a can is to be used as an inner package, the can must have a screwed enclosure.
• For materials with a viscosity of at least 2680 cSt. (23 deg. C)
• For manufactured product having a viscosity of at least 250 cSt. (23 deg. C)
• Manufactured product that requires stirring before use and having a viscosity of at least 20 cSt (25 deg. C)
Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
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(i) : Removable head packaging;(ii) : Cans with friction closures and(iii) : low pressure tubes and cartridges may be used.
• Where combination packages are used, and the inner packages are of glass, there must be sufficient inert cushioning material in contact with inner and outer packages• In addition, where inner packagings are glass and contain liquids of packing group I there must be sufficient inert absorbent to absorb any spillage, unless the outer packaging is a close fitting moulded plastic box and the substances are not incompatible with the plastic.
• Avoid reaction with oxidising agents.
• Store in original containers in approved flame-proof area.
• No smoking, naked lights, heat or ignition sources.
• DO NOT store in pits, depressions, basements or areas where vapours may be trapped.
• Keep containers securely sealed.
• Store away from incompatible materials in a cool, dry well ventilated area.
• Protect containers against physical damage and check regularly for leaks.
• Observe manufacturer's storing and handling recommendations.
May be stored together May be stored together with specific preventions Must not be stored together Section 8 - EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION
toluene (Toluene) n- hexane (Hexane The following materials had no OELs on our records• solvent naphtha petroleum, light aliphatic: EMERGENCY EXPOSURE LIMITS
Revised IDLH Value (mg/m³) Revised IDLH Value (ppm) Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
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NOTESValues marked LEL indicate that the IDLH was based on 10% of the lower explosive limit for safetyconsiderations even though the relevant toxicological data indicated that irreversible health effects orimpairment of escape existed only at higher concentrations.
OSF=0.042 (solvent naphtha petroleum, light aliphatic)
■ Exposed individuals are NOT reasonably expected to be warned, by smell, that the Exposure Standard is being
Odour Safety Factor (OSF) is determined to fall into either Class C, D or E.
The Odour Safety Factor (OSF) is defined as: OSF= Exposure Standard (TWA) ppm/ Odour Threshold Value (OTV) ppm Classification into classes follows: Over 90% of exposed individuals are aware by smell thatthe Exposure Standard (TLV- TWA for example) is beingreached, even when distracted by working activities As " A" for 50- 90% of persons being distracted As " A" for less than 50% of persons being distracted 10- 50% of persons aware of being tested perceive bysmell that the Exposure Standard is being reached As " D" for less than 10% of persons aware of beingtested MATERIAL DATA
■ For toluene:Odour Threshold Value: 0.16-6.7 (detection), 1.9-69 (recognition)NOTE: Detector tubes measuring in excess of 5 ppm, are available.
High concentrations of toluene in the air produce depression of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. Intentional toluene exposure (glue-sniffing) at maternally-intoxicating concentration has alsoproduced birth defects. Foetotoxicity appears at levels associated with CNS narcosis and probably occurs onlyin those with chronic toluene-induced kidney failure. Exposure at or below the recommended TLV-TWA is thoughtto prevent transient headache and irritation, to provide a measure of safety for possible disturbances tohuman reproduction, the prevention of reductions in cognitive responses reported amongst humans inhalinggreater than 40 ppm, and the significant risks of hepatotoxic, behavioural and nervous system effects(including impaired reaction time and incoordination). Although toluene/ethanol interactions are wellrecognised, the degree of protection afforded by the TLV-TWA among drinkers is not known.
Odour Safety Factor(OSF)OSF=17 (TOLUENE).
Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
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N-HEXANE:SOLVENT NAPHTHA PETROLEUM, LIGHT ALIPHATIC: ■ For n-hexane:Odour Threshold Value: 65 ppmNOTE: Detector tubes for n-hexane, measuring in excess of 100 ppm, are available commercially.
Occupational polyneuropathy may result from exposures as low as 500 ppm (as hexane), whilst nearly continuous exposures of 250 ppm have caused neurotoxic effects in animals. Many literature reports havefailed to distinguish hexane from n-hexane and on the assumption that the commercial hexane contains 30% n-hexane, a worst case recommendation for TLV is assumed to reduce the risk of peripheral neuropathies (due tothe metabolites 2,5-heptanedione and 3,6-octanedione) and other adverse neuropathic effects.
Concurrent exposure to chemicals (including MEK) and drugs which induce hepatic liver oxidative metabolism can reduce the time for neuropathy to appear.
Odour Safety Factor(OSF)OSF=0.15 (n-HEXANE).
■ Exposure limits with "skin" notation indicate that vapour and liquid may be absorbed through intact skin. Absorption by skin may readily exceed vapour inhalation exposure. Symptoms for skin absorption are thesame as for inhalation. Contact with eyes and mucous membranes may also contribute to overall exposure andmay also invalidate the exposure standard.
SOLVENT NAPHTHA PETROLEUM, LIGHT ALIPHATIC: ■ for benzeneOdour Threshold Value: 34 ppm (detection), 97 ppm (recognition)NOTE: Detector tubes for benzene, measuring in excess of 0.5 ppm, are commercially available. The relative quality of epidemiological data and quantitative health risk assessments related to documented andtheoretical leukaemic deaths constitute the basis of the TLV-recommendation.
One study [Dow Chemical] demonstrates a significant fourfold increase in myelogenous leukaemia for workers exposed to average benzene concentrations of about 5 ppm for an average of 9 years and that 2 out of fourindividuals in the study who died from leukaemia were characterised as having been exposed to average benzenelevels below 2 ppm. Based on such findings the estimated risk of leukaemia in workers exposed at dailybenzene concentrations of 10 ppm for 40 years is 155 times that of unexposed workers; at 1 ppm the risk fallsto 1.7 times whilst at 0.1 ppm the risk is about the same in the two groups. A revision of the TLV-TWA to 0.1ppm was proposed in 1990 but this has been revised upwards as result of industry initiatives.
Typical toxicities displayed following inhalation:• At 25 ppm (8 hours): no effect• 50-150 ppm: signs of intoxication within 5 hours• 500-1500 ppm: signs of intoxication within 1 hour• 7500 ppm: severe intoxication within 30-60 minutes• 20000 ppm: fatal within 5-10 minutesSome jurisdictions require that health surveillance be conducted on occupationally exposed workers. Some surveillance should emphasise (i) demography, occupational and medical history and health advice (ii)baseline blood sample for haematological profile (iii) records of personal exposure.
for ethyl benzene:Odour Threshold Value: 0.46-0.60 ppmNOTE: Detector tubes for ethylbenzene, measuring in excess of 30 ppm, are commercially available.
Ethyl benzene produces irritation of the skin and mucous membranes and appears to produce acute and chronic effects on the central nervous system. Animal experiments also suggest the effects of chronicexposure include damage to the liver, kidneys and testes. In spite of structural similarities to benzene, thematerial does not appear to cause damage to the haemopoietic system. The TLV-TWA is thought to be protectiveagainst skin and eye irritation. Exposure at this concentration probably will not result in systemic effects.
Subjects exposed at 200 ppm experienced transient irritation of the eyes; at 1000 ppm there was eye irritation with profuse lachrymation; at 200 ppm eye irritation and lachrymation were immediate and severe Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
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accompanied by moderate nasal irritation, constriction in the chest and vertigo; at 5000 ppm exposureproduced intolerable irritation of the eyes and throat.
Odour Safety Factor(OSF)OSF=43 (ETHYL BENZENE).
CEL TWA: 200 ppm, 800 mg/m3 EYE
• Safety glasses with side shields.
• Chemical goggles.
• Contact lenses may pose a special hazard; soft contact lenses may absorb and concentrate irritants. A
written policy document, describing the wearing of lens or restrictions on use, should be created for eachworkplace or task. This should include a review of lens absorption and adsorption for the class ofchemicals in use and an account of injury experience. Medical and first-aid personnel should be trained intheir removal and suitable equipment should be readily available. In the event of chemical exposure, begineye irrigation immediately and remove contact lens as soon as practicable. Lens should be removed at thefirst signs of eye redness or irritation - lens should be removed in a clean environment only after workershave washed hands thoroughly. [CDC NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 59], [AS/NZS 1336 or nationalequivalent].
• Wear chemical protective gloves, eg. PVC.
• Wear safety footwear or safety gumboots, eg. Rubber.
• Overalls.
• PVC Apron.
• PVC protective suit may be required if exposure severe.
• Eyewash unit.
• Ensure there is ready access to a safety shower.
•Type AX Filter of sufficient capacity. (AS/NZS 1716 & 1715, EN 143:2000 & 149:2001, ANSI Z88 or national
The local concentration of material, quantity and conditions of use determine the type of personal protectiveequipment required. For further information consult site specific CHEMWATCH data (if available), or yourOccupational Health and Safety Advisor.
■ Engineering controls are used to remove a hazard or place a barrier between the worker and the hazard. Well-
designed engineering controls can be highly effective in protecting workers and will typically be independent
of worker interactions to provide this high level of protection.
The basic types of engineering controls are:
Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

Version No:5
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Process controls which involve changing the way a job activity or process is done to reduce the risk.
Enclosure and/or isolation of emission source which keeps a selected hazard "physically" away from the workerand ventilation that strategically "adds" and "removes" air in the work environment. Ventilation can removeor dilute an air contaminant if designed properly. The design of a ventilation system must match theparticular process and chemical or contaminant in use.
Employers may need to use multiple types of controls to prevent employee overexposure.
For flammable liquids and flammable gases, local exhaust ventilation or a process enclosure ventilationsystem may be required. Ventilation equipment should be explosion-resistant.
Grey translucent highly flammable liquid with an aliphatic solvent odour; does
not mix with water.
Does not mix with water.
Floats on water.
Melting Range (°C) Boiling Range (°C) Solubility in water (g/L) Flash Point (°C) Decomposition Temp (°C) Autoignition Temp (°C) Vapour Pressure (kPa) Upper Explosive Limit (%) Specific Gravity (water=1) Lower Explosive Limit (%) Relative Vapour Density Volatile Component (%vol) toluenelog Kow (Sangster 1997): n- hexanelog Kow (Sangster 1997): Section 10 - STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
• Presence of incompatible materials.
• Product is considered stable.
• Hazardous polymerisation will not occur.
For incompatible materials - refer to Section 7 - Handling and Storage.
Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008

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■ There is some evidence to suggest that this material can cause, if swallowed once, irreversible damage of
Swallowing of the liquid may cause aspiration into the lungs with the risk of chemical pneumonitis; serious
consequences may result. (ICSC13733).
Ingestion of petroleum hydrocarbons can irritate the pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and small intestine, and
cause swellings and ulcers of the mucous. Symptoms include a burning mouth and throat; larger amounts can
cause nausea and vomiting, narcosis, weakness, dizziness, slow and shallow breathing, abdominal swelling,
unconsciousness and convulsions. Damage to the heart muscle can produce heart beat irregularities,
ventricular fibrillation (fatal) and ECG changes. The central nervous system can be depressed. Light species
can cause a sharp tingling of the tongue and cause loss of sensation there. Aspiration can cause cough,
gagging, pneumonia with swelling and bleeding.
Constant or exposure over long periods to mixed hydrocarbons may produce stupor with dizziness, weakness and
visual disturbance, weight loss and anaemia, and reduced liver and kidney function. Skin exposure may result
in drying and cracking and redness of the skin. Chronic exposure to lighter hydrocarbons can cause nerve
damage, peripheral neuropathy, bone marrow dysfunction and psychiatric disorders as well as damage the liver
and kidneys.
Chronic inhalation or skin exposure to n-hexane may cause damage to nerve ends in extremities, e.g. finger,
toes with loss of sensation. Symptoms can progress for months even after removal of exposure, and recovery
may take years and may not be complete.
■ There is evidence that material may produce eye irritation in some persons and produce eye damage 24 hours
or more after instillation. Severe inflammation may be expected with pain. There may be damage to the cornea.
Unless treatment is prompt and adequate there may be permanent loss of vision. Conjunctivitis can occur
following repeated exposure.
Direct eye contact with petroleum hydrocarbons can be painful, and the corneal epithelium may be temporarily
damaged. Aromatic species can cause irritation and excessive tear secretion.
The liquid produces a high level of eye discomfort and is capable of causing pain and severe conjunctivitis.
Corneal injury may develop, with possible permanent impairment of vision, if not promptly and adequately
The material may produce severe irritation to the eye causing pronounced inflammation. Repeated or prolonged
exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis.
■ There is some evidence to suggest that this material, on a single contact with skin, can cause irreversible
damage of organs.
Skin contact with the material may damage the health of the individual; systemic effects may result following
There is some evidence to suggest that the material may cause moderate inflammation of the skin either
following direct contact or after a delay of some time. Repeated exposure can cause contact dermatitis which
is characterised by redness, swelling and blistering.
Entry into the blood-stream, through, for example, cuts, abrasions or lesions, may produce systemic injury
with harmful effects. Examine the skin prior to the use of the material and ensure that any external damage
is suitably protected.
The material may cause skin irritation after prolonged or repeated exposure and may produce on contact skin
redness, swelling, the production of vesicles, scaling and thickening of the skin.
Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
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■ Inhalation of vapours or aerosols (mists, fumes), generated by the material during the course of normal
handling, may be harmful.
There is some evidence to suggest that this materialcan cause, if inhaled once, irreversible damageof organs.
There is some evidence to suggest that the material can cause respiratory irritation in some persons. The
body's response to such irritation can cause further lung damage.
Inhalation of vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness. This may be accompanied by sleepiness, reduced
alertness, loss of reflexes, lack of co-ordination, and vertigo.
If exposure to highly concentrated solvent atmosphere is prolonged this may lead to narcosis, unconsciousness,
even coma and possible death.
The use of a quantity of material in an unventilated or confined space may result in increased exposure and
an irritating atmosphere developing. Before starting consider control of exposure by mechanical ventilation.
Inhalation of high concentrations of gas/vapour causes lung irritation with coughing and nausea, central
nervous depression with headache and dizziness, slowing of reflexes, fatigue and inco-ordination.
■ Substance accumulation, in the human body, may occur and may cause some concern following repeated or long-
term occupational exposure.
There has been some concern that this material can cause cancer or mutations but there is not enough data to
make an assessment.
There is some evidence from animal testing that exposure to this material may result in toxic effects to the
unborn baby.
Ample evidence from experiments exists that there is a suspicionthis material directly reduces fertility.
Chronic solvent inhalation exposures may result in nervous system impairment and liver and blood changes.
Constant or exposure over long periods to mixed hydrocarbons may produce stupor with dizziness, weakness and
visual disturbance, weight loss and anaemia, and reduced liver and kidney function. Skin exposure may result
in drying and cracking and redness of the skin. Chronic exposure to lighter hydrocarbons can cause nerve
damage, peripheral neuropathy, bone marrow dysfunction and psychiatric disorders as well as damage the liver
and kidneys.
Chronic inhalation or skin exposure to n-hexane may cause damage to nerve ends in extremities, e.g. finger,
toes with loss of sensation. Symptoms can progress for months even after removal of exposure, and recovery
may take years and may not be complete.
■ unless otherwise specified data extracted from RTECS - Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
ARDEX WPM 299 (SEAM PRIMER):■ Not available. Refer to individual constituents.
SOLVENT NAPHTHA PETROLEUM, LIGHT ALIPHATIC:■ for petroleum:This product contains benzene which is known to cause acute myeloid leukaemia and n-hexane which has beenshown to metabolize to compounds which are neuropathic.
This product contains toluene. There are indications from animal studies that prolonged exposure to highconcentrations of toluene may lead to hearing loss.
This product contains ethyl benzene and naphthalene from which there is evidence of tumours in rodentsCarcinogenicity: Inhalation exposure to mice causes liver tumours, which are not considered relevant tohumans. Inhalation exposure to rats causes kidney tumours which are not considered relevant to humans.
Mutagenicity: There is a large database of mutagenicity studies on gasoline and gasoline blending streams,which use a wide variety of endpoints and give predominantly negative results. All in vivo studies in animalsand recent studies in exposed humans (e.g. petrol service station attendants) have shown negative results in Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
Hazard Alert Code: HIGH
Chemwatch Material Safety Data Sheet
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mutagenicity assays.
Reproductive Toxicity: Repeated exposure of pregnant rats to high concentrations of toluene (around orexceeding 1000 ppm) can cause developmental effects, such as lower birth weight and developmentalneurotoxicity, on the foetus. However, in a two-generation reproductive study in rats exposed to gasolinevapour condensate, no adverse effects on the foetus were observed.
Human Effects: Prolonged/ repeated contact may cause defatting of the skin which can lead to dermatitis andmay make the skin more susceptible to irritation and penetration by other materials.
Lifetime exposure of rodents to gasoline produces carcinogenicity although the relevance to humans has beenquestioned. Gasoline induces kidney cancer in male rats as a consequence of accumulation of the alpha2-microglobulin protein in hyaline droplets in the male (but not female) rat kidney. Such abnormal accumulationrepresents lysosomal overload and leads to chronic renal tubular cell degeneration, accumulation of celldebris, mineralisation of renal medullary tubules and necrosis. A sustained regenerative proliferation occursin epithelial cells with subsequent neoplastic transformation with continued exposure. The alpha2-microglobulin is produced under the influence of hormonal controls in male rats but not in females and, moreimportantly, not in humans.
Oral (human) LDLo: 50 mg/kg Skin (rabbit):20 mg/24h- Moderate Oral (rat) LD50: 636 mg/kg Skin (rabbit):500 mg - Moderate Inhalation (human) TCLo: 100 ppm Eye (rabbit):0.87 mg - Mild Inhalation (man) TCLo: 200 ppm Eye (rabbit): 2mg/24h - SEVERE Inhalation (rat) LC50: >26700 ppm/1h Eye (rabbit):100 mg/30sec - Mild Dermal (rabbit) LD50: 12124 mg/kg■ The material may cause skin irritation after prolonged or repeated exposure and may produce on contact skinredness, swelling, the production of vesicles, scaling and thickening of the skin.
For toluene:Acute ToxicityHumans exposed to intermediate to high levels of toluene for short periods of time experience adverse centralnervous system effects ranging from headaches to intoxication, convulsions, narcosis, and death. Similareffects are observed in short-term animal studies.
Humans - Toluene ingestion or inhalation can result in severe central nervous system depression, and in largedoses, can act as a narcotic. The ingestion of about 60 mL resulted in fatal nervous system depression within30 minutes in one reported case.
Constriction and necrosis of myocardial fibers, markedly swollen liver, congestion and haemorrhage of thelungs and acute tubular necrosis were found on autopsy.
Central nervous system effects (headaches, dizziness, intoxication) and eye irritation occurred followinginhalation exposure to 100 ppm toluene 6 hours/day for 4 days.
Exposure to 600 ppm for 8 hours resulted in the same and more serious symptoms including euphoria, dilatedpupils, convulsions, and nausea . Exposure to 10,000-30,000 ppm has been reported to cause narcosis and deathToluene can also strip the skin of lipids causing dermatitisAnimals - The initial effects are instability and incoordination, lachrymation and sniffles (respiratoryexposure), followed by narcosis. Animals die of respiratory failure from severe nervous system depression.
Cloudy swelling of the kidneys was reported in rats following inhalation exposure to 1600 ppm, 18-20hours/day for 3 daysSubchronic/Chronic Effects:Repeat doses of toluene cause adverse central nervous system effects and can damage the upper respiratorysystem, the liver, and the kidney. Adverse effects occur as a result from both oral and the inhalationexposures. A reported lowest-observed-effect level in humans for adverse neurobehavioral effects is 88 ppm.
Humans - Chronic occupational exposure and incidences of toluene abuse have resulted in hepatomegaly andliver function changes. It has also resulted in nephrotoxicity and, in one case, was a cardiac sensitiser andfatal cardiotoxin.
Neural and cerebellar dystrophy were reported in several cases of habitual "glue sniffing." An Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
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epidemiological study in France on workers chronically exposed to toluene fumes reported leukopenia andneutropenia. Exposure levels were not given in the secondary reference; however, the average urinaryexcretion of hippuric acid, a metabolite of toluene, was given as 4 g/L compared to a normal level of 0.6 g/LAnimals - The major target organs for the subchronic/chronic toxicity of toluene are the nervous system,liver, and kidney. Depressed immune response has been reported in male mice given doses of 105 mg/kg/day for28 days. Toluene in corn oil administered to F344 male and female rats by gavage 5 days/week for 13 weeks,induced prostration, hypoactivity, ataxia, piloerection, lachrymation, excess salivation, and body tremors atdoses 2500 mg/kg. Liver, kidney, and heart weights were also increased at this dose and histopathologiclesions were seen in the liver, kidneys, brain and urinary bladder. The no-observed-adverse effect level(NOAEL) for the study was 312 mg/kg (223 mg/kg/day) and the lowest-observed-adverse effect level (LOAEL) forthe study was 625 mg/kg (446 mg/kg/day) .
Developmental/Reproductive ToxicityExposures to high levels of toluene can result in adverse effects in the developing human foetus. Severalstudies have indicated that high levels of toluene can also adversely effect the developing offspring inlaboratory animals.
Humans - Variable growth, microcephaly, CNS dysfunction, attentional deficits, minor craniofacial and limbabnormalities, and developmental delay were seen in three children exposed to toluene in utero as a result ofmaternal solvent abuse before and during pregnancyAnimals - Sternebral alterations, extra ribs, and missing tails were reported following treatment of ratswith 1500 mg/m3 toluene 24 hours/day during days 9-14 of gestation. Two of the dams died during the exposure.
Another group of rats received 1000 mg/m3 8 hours/day during days 1-21 of gestation. No maternal deaths ortoxicity occurred, however, minor skeletal retardation was present in the exposed fetuses. CFLP Mice wereexposed to 500 or 1500 mg/m3 toluene continuously during days 6-13 of pregnancy. All dams died at the highdose during the first 24 hours of exposure, however none died at 500 mg/m3. Decreased foetal weight wasreported, but there were no differences in the incidences of skeletal malformations or anomalies between thetreated and control offspring.
Absorption - Studies in humans and animals have demonstrated that toluene is readily absorbed via the lungsand the gastrointestinal tract. Absorption through the skin is estimated at about 1% of that absorbed by thelungs when exposed to toluene vapor.
Dermal absorption is expected to be higher upon exposure to the liquid; however, exposure is limited by therapid evaporation of toluene .
Distribution - In studies with mice exposed to radiolabeled toluene by inhalation, high levels ofradioactivity were present in body fat, bone marrow, spinal nerves, spinal cord, and brain white matter.
Lower levels of radioactivity were present in blood, kidney, and liver. Accumulation of toluene has generallybeen found in adipose tissue, other tissues with high fat content, and in highly vascularised tissues .
Metabolism - The metabolites of inhaled or ingested toluene include benzyl alcohol resulting from thehydroxylation of the methyl group. Further oxidation results in the formation of benzaldehyde and benzoicacid. The latter is conjugated with glycine to yield hippuric acid or reacted with glucuronic acid to formbenzoyl glucuronide. o-cresol and p-cresol formed by ring hydroxylation are considered minor metabolitesExcretion - Toluene is primarily (60-70%) excreted through the urine as hippuric acid. The excretion ofbenzoyl glucuronide accounts for 10-20%, and excretion of unchanged toluene through the lungs also accountsfor 10-20%. Excretion of hippuric acid is usually complete within 24 hours after exposure.
Oral (rat) LD50: 28710 mg/kg Eye(rabbit): 10 mg - Mild Inhalation (human) TCLo: 190 ppm/8WInhalation (rat) LD50: 48000 ppm/4h■ The material may be irritating to the eye, with prolonged contact causing inflammation. Repeated orprolonged exposure to irritants may produce conjunctivitis.
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International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARCMonographs ILO Chemicals in the Reduced fertility or electronics industry that have toxic effectson reproduction Australia Exposure Standards - Skin Section 12 - ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
N-HEXANE:SOLVENT NAPHTHA PETROLEUM, LIGHT ALIPHATIC:■ For n-hexane:log Kow: 3.17-3.94BOD 5 if unstated: 2.21COD: 0.04ThOD: 3.52Environmental fate:Transport and Partitioning: The physical properties of n-hexane that affect its transport and partitioning inthe environment are: water solubility of 9.5 mg/L; log[Kow] (octanol/water partition coefficient), estimatedas 3.29; Henry's law constant, 1.69 atm-m3 mol; vapor pressure, 150 mm Hg at 25 C; and log[Koc] in the rangeof 2.90 to 3.61. As with many alkanes, experimental methods for the estimation of the Koc parameter arelacking, so that estimates must be made based on theoretical considerations.
The dominant transport process from water is volatilization. Based on mathematical models the half-life for n-hexane in bodies of water with any degree of turbulent mixing (e.g., rivers) would be less than 3 hours. Forstanding bodies of water (e.g. small ponds), a half-life no longer than one week (6.8 days) is estimatedBased on the log octanol/water partition coefficient (i.e. log[Koc]) and the estimated log sorptioncoefficient (i.e. log[Koc]) n-hexane is not expected to become concentrated in biota. A calculatedbioconcentration factor (BCF) of 453 for a fathead minnow further suggests a low potential for n-hexane tobioconcentrate or bioaccumulate in trophic food chains.
In soil, the dominant transport mechanism for n-hexane present near the surface probably is volatilisation(based on its Henry's law constant, water solubility, vapor pressure, and Koc). While its estimated Kocvalues suggest a moderate ability to sorb to soil particles, n-hexane has a density (0.6603 g/mL at 20 C)well below that of water and a very low water solubility of 9.5 mg/L. n-Hexane would, therefore, be viewed asa light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL), which would suggest a low potential for leaching into the lower soildepths since the n-hexane would tend to float on the top of the saturated zone of the water table. n-Hexanewould generally stay near the soil surface and, if not appreciably sorbed into the soil matrix, would beexpected eventually to volatilise to the atmosphere. Exceptions would involve locations with shallowgroundwater tables where there were large spills of hexane products. In such cases, the n-hexane could spreadout to contaminant a large volume of soil materials.
Air: n-Hexane does not absorb ultraviolet (UV) light at 290 nm and is thus not expected to undergo directphotolysis reactions. The dominant tropospheric removal mechanism for n-hexane is generally regarded to bedecomposition by hydroxyl radicals. Calculations assuming typical hydroxyl radical concentrations suggest ahalf-life of approximately 2.9 days. While n-hexane can react with nitrogen oxides to produce ozoneprecursors under controlled laboratory conditions, the smog-producing potential of n-hexane is very lowcompared to that of other alkanes or chlorinated VOCs. Hydroxyl ion reactions in the upper troposphere, Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
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therefore, are probably the primary mechanisms for n-hexane degradation in the atmosphere. As with mostalkanes, n-hexane is resistant to hydrolysisWater: Although few data are available dealing explicitly with the biodegradation of n-hexane in water,neither hydrolysis nor biodegradation in surface waters appears to be rapid compared with volatilization. Insurface waters, as in the atmosphere, alkanes such as n-hexane would be resistant to hydrolysis.
Biodegradation is probably the most significant degradation mechanism in groundwater. The ability ofPseudomonas mendocina bacteria to metabolise n-hexane in laboratory microcosms simulating groundwaterconditions has been documented. Mixed bacterial cultures as well as pure cultures are documented as capableof metabolizing n-hexane under aerobic conditions. In general, linear alkanes (such as n-hexane) are viewedas the most readily biodegradable fractions in petroleum , particularly when oxygen is present in solution.
Once introduced into groundwater, n-hexane may be fairly persistent since its degradation by chemicalhydrolysis is slow and opportunities for biodegradation may be limited under anoxic conditions or wherenutrients such as nitrogen or phosphorus are in limited supply.
Sediment and Soil: The most important biodegradation processes involve the conversion of the n-hexane toprimary alcohols, aldehydes and, ultimately, into fatty acids. Similar processes are encountered with otherlight hydrocarbons such as heptane. In general, unless the n-hexane is buried at some depth within a soil orsediment, volatilisation is generally assumed to occur at a much more rapid rate than chemical or biochemicaldegradation processes. Once introduced into deeper sediments, n-hexane may be fairly persistent.
Ecotoxicity:Fish LC50 (96 h): Oncorhyncus mykiss 4.14 mg/l; Pimephales promelus 2.5 mg/l (flow through); Lepomismacrochirus 4.12 mg/lDaphnia EC50 (48 h): 3.87 mg/l.
■ Do NOT allow product to come in contact with surface waters or to intertidal areas below the mean highwater mark. Do not contaminate water when cleaning equipment or disposing of equipment wash-waters.
Wastes resulting from use of the product must be disposed of on site or at approved waste sites.
SOLVENT NAPHTHA PETROLEUM, LIGHT ALIPHATIC:■ Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
For petroleum derivatives:Chemical analysis for all individual compounds in a petroleum bulk product released to the environment isgenerally unrealistic due to the complexity of these mixtures and the laboratory expense. Determining thechemical composition of a petroleum release is further complicated by hydrodynamic, abiotic, and bioticprocesses that act on the release to change the chemical character.
The longer the release is exposed to the environment, the greater the change in chemical character and theharder it is to obtain accurate analytical results reflecting the identity of the release. After extensiveweathering, detailed knowledge of the original bulk product is often less valuable than current site-specificinformation on a more focused set of hydrocarbon components. Health assessment efforts are frequentlyfrustrated by three primary problems: (1) the inability to identify and quantify the individual compoundsreleased to the environment as a consequence of a petroleum spill; (2) the lack of information characterizingthe fate of the individual compounds in petroleum mixtures; and (3) the lack of specific health guidancevalues for the majority of chemicals present in petroleum products. To define the public health implicationsassociated with exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons, it is necessary to have a basic understanding ofpetroleum properties, compositions, and the physical, chemical, biological, and toxicological properties ofthe compounds most often identified as the key chemicals of concern.
Environmental fate:Petroleum products released to the environment migrate through soil via two general pathways: (1) as bulk oilflow infiltrating the soil under the forces of gravity and capillary action, and (2) as individual compoundsseparating from the bulk petroleum mixture and dissolving in air or water. When bulk oil flow occurs, itresults in little or no separation of the individual compounds from the product mixture and the infiltration Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
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rate is usually fast relative to the dissolution rate. Many compounds that are insoluble and immobile inwater are soluble in bulk oil and will migrate along with the bulk oil flow. Factors affecting the rate ofbulk oil infiltration include soil moisture content, vegetation, terrain, climate, rate of release (e.g.,catastrophic versus slow leakage), soil particle size (e.g., sand versus clay), and oil viscosity (e.g.,gasoline versus motor oil).
As bulk oil migrates through the soil column, a small amount of the product mass is retained by soilparticles. The bulk product retained by the soil particles is known as "residual saturation".
Depending upon the persistence of the bulk oil, residual saturation can potentially reside in the soil foryears. Residual saturation is important as it determines the degree of soil contamination and can act as acontinuing source of contamination for individual compounds to separate from the bulk product and migrateindependently in air or groundwater. Residual saturation is important as it determines the degree of soilcontamination and can act as a continuing source of contamination for individual compounds to separate fromthe bulk product and migrate independently in air or groundwater. When the amount of product released to theenvironment is small relative to the volume of available soil, all of the product is converted to residualsaturation and downward migration of the bulk product usually ceases prior to affecting groundwaterresources. Adverse impacts to groundwater may still occur if rain water infiltrates through soil containingresidual saturation and initiates the downward migration of individual compounds. When the amount of productreleased is large relative to the volume of available soil, the downward migration of bulk product ceases aswater-saturated pore spaces are encountered. If the density of the bulk product is less than that of water,the product tends to "float" along the interface between the water saturated and unsaturated zones and spreadhorizontally in a pancake-like layer, usually in the direction of groundwater flow. Almost all motor andheating oils are less dense than water. If the density of the bulk product is greater than that of water, theproduct will continue to migrate downward through the water table aquifer under the continued influence ofgravity. Downward migration ceases when the product is converted to residual saturation or when animpermeable surface is encountered.
As the bulk product migrates through the soil column, individual compounds may separate from the mixture andmigrate independently. Chemical transport properties such as volatility, solubility, and sorption potentialare often used to evaluate and predict which compounds will likely separate from the mixture. Since petroleumproducts are complex mixtures of hundreds of compounds, the compounds characterized by relatively high vaporpressures tend to volatilise and enter the vapor phase. The exact composition of these vapors depends on thecomposition of the original product. Using gasoline as an example, compounds such as butane, propane, benzene,toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene are preferentially volatilised. Because volatility represents transfer ofthe compound from the product or liquid phase to the air phase, it is expected that the concentration of thatcompound in the product or liquid phase will decrease as the concentration in the air phase increases.
In general, compounds having a vapor pressure in excess of 10-2 mm Hg are more likely to be present in theair phase than in the liquid phase. Compounds characterized by vapor pressures less than 10-7 mm Hg are morelikely to be associated with the liquid phase. Compounds possessing vapor pressures that are less than 10-2mm Hg, but greater than 10-7 mm Hg, will have a tendency to exist in both the air and the liquid phases.
Lighter petroleum products such as gasoline contain constituents with higher water solubility and volatilityand lower sorption potential than heavier petroleum products such as fuel oil.
Data compiled from gasoline spills and laboratory studies indicate that these light-fraction hydrocarbonstend to migrate readily through soil, potentially threatening or affecting groundwater supplies. In contrast,petroleum products with heavier molecular weight constituents, such as fuel oil, are generally morepersistent in soils, due to their relatively low water solubility and volatility and high sorption capacity.
Solubility generally decreases with increasing molecular weight of the hydrocarbon compounds. For compoundshaving similar molecular weights, the aromatic hydrocarbons are more water soluble and mobile in water thanthe aliphatic hydrocarbons and branched aliphatics are less water-soluble than straight-chained aliphatics.
Aromatic compounds in petroleum fuels may comprise as much as 50% by weight; aromatic compounds in the C6-C13,range made up approximately 95% of the compounds dissolved in water.
Indigenous microbes found in many natural settings (e.g., soils, groundwater, ponds) have been shown to becapable of degrading organic compounds. Unlike other fate processes that disperse contaminants in theenvironment, biodegradation can eliminate the contaminants without transferring them across media.
The final products of microbial degradation are carbon dioxide, water, and microbial biomass. The rate ofhydrocarbon degradation depends on the chemical composition of the product released to the environment as Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
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well as site-specific environmental factors. Generally the straight chain hydrocarbons and the aromatics aredegraded more readily than the highly branched aliphatic compounds. The n-alkanes, n-alkyl aromatics, and thearomatics in the C10-C22 range are the most readily biodegradable; n-alkanes, n-alkyl aromatics, andaromatics in the C5-C9 range are biodegradable at low concentrations by some microorganisms, but aregenerally preferentially removed by volatilisation and thus are unavailable in most environments; n-alkanesin the C1-C4 ranges are biodegradable only by a narrow range of specialized hydrocarbon degraders; and n-alkanes, n-alkyl aromatics, and aromatics above C22 are generally not available to degrading microorganisms.
Hydrocarbons with condensed ring structures, such as PAHs with four or more rings, have been shown to berelatively resistant to biodegradation. PAHs with only 2 or 3 rings (e.g., naphthalene, anthracene) are moreeasily biodegraded. PAHs with only 2 or 3 rings (e.g., naphthalene, anthracene) are more easily biodegraded.
A large proportion of the water-soluble fraction of the petroleum product may be degraded as the compounds gointo solution. As a result, the remaining product may become enriched in the alicyclics, the highly branchedaliphatics, and PAHs with many fused rings.
In almost all cases, the presence of oxygen is essential for effective biodegradation of oil. Anaerobicdecomposition of petroleum hydrocarbons leads to extremely low rates of degradation. The ideal pH range topromote biodegradation is close to neutral (6-8). For most species, the optimal pH is slightly alkaline, thatis, greater than 7. The moisture content of the contaminated soil will affect biodegradation of oils due todissolution of the residual compounds, dispersive actions, and the need for microbial metabolism to sustainhigh activity. The moisture content in soil affects microbial locomotion, solute diffusion, substrate supply,and the removal of metabolic by-products. Biodegradation rates in soils are also affected by the volume ofproduct released to the environment. At concentrations of 0.5% of oil by volume, the degradation rate in soilis fairly independent of oil concentrations. However, as oil concentration rises, the first order degradationrate decreases and the oil degradation half-life increases. Ultimately, when the oil reaches saturationconditions in the soil (i.e., 30-50% oil), biodegradation virtually ceases.
Excessive moisture will limit the gaseous supply of oxygen for enhanced decomposition of petroleumhydrocarbons. Most studies indicate that optimum moisture content is within 50-70% of the water holdingcapacity.
All biological transformations are affected by temperature. Generally, as the temperature increases,biological activity tends to increase up to a temperature where enzyme denaturation occurs. The presence ofoil should increase soil temperature, particularly at the surface. The darker color increases the heatcapacity by adsorbing more radiation. The optimal temperature for biodegradation to occur ranges from 18 C to30 C. Minimum rates would be expected at 5 C or lower.
TOLUENE:■ For Toluene:log Kow : 2.1-3;log Koc : 1.12-2.85;Koc : 37-260;log Kom : 1.39-2.89;Half-life (hr) air : 2.4-104;Half-life (hr) H2O surface water : Half-life (hr) H2O ground : 168-2628;Half-life (hr) soil : <48-240;Henry's Pa m3 /mol : 518-694;Henry's atm m3 /mol : 5.94;E-03BOD 5 0.86-2.12, 5%COD - 0.7-2.52,21-27%; ThOD - 3.13 ; BCF - 1.67-380;log BCF - 0.22-3.28.
Atmospheric Fate: The majority of toluene evaporates to the atmosphere from the water and soil. The maindegradation pathway for toluene in the atmosphere is reaction with photochemically produced hydroxylradicals. The estimated atmospheric half life for toluene is about 13 hours. Toluene is also oxidized byreactions with atmospheric nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and ozone, but these are minor degradation pathways.
Photolysis is not considered a significant degradative pathway for toluene.
Terrestrial Fate: Toluene is moderately retarded by adsorption to soils rich in organic material, therefore, Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer)
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transport to ground water is dependent on soil composition. In unsaturated topsoil containing organicmaterial, it has been estimated that 97% of the toluene is adsorbed to the soil and only about 2% is in thesoil-water phase and transported with flowing groundwater. There is little retardation in sandy soils and 2-13% of the toluene was estimated to migrate with flowing water; the remainder was volatilized, biodegraded,or unaccounted for. In saturated deep soils with no soil-air phase, about 48% may be transported with flowinggroundwater. In surface soil, volatilization to air is an important fate process for toluene. In theenvironment, biodegradation of toluene to carbon dioxide occurs with a typical half life of 1-7 days.
Aquatic Fate: An important fate process for toluene is volatilization, the rate of which depends on the amount of turbulence in the surface water. The volatilization of toluene from static water has a half life of1-16 days, whereas from turbulent water the half life is 5-6 hours. Degradation of toluene in surface wateroccurs primarily by biodegradation with a half life of less than one day under favorable conditions (presenceof microorganisms, microbial adaptation, and optimum temperature). Biodegradation also occurs in shallowgroundwater and in salt water (at a reduced rate). No data are available on anaerobic degradation of toluenein deep ground water conditions where aerobic degradation would be minimal.
Ecotoxicity: Bioaccumulation in the food chain is predicted to be low. Toluene has moderate acute toxicity toaquatic organisms. Toluene is, on the average, slightly toxic to fathead minnow, guppies and goldfish and notacutely toxic to bluegill or channel catfish and crab. Toluene, on the average, is slightly toxic tocrustaceans specifically, shrimp species including grass shrimp and daggerblade grass shrimp. Toluene has anegative effect on green algae during their growth phase.
N-HEXANE:■ Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
solvent naphtha petroleum, light Section 13 - DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
• Containers may still present a chemical hazard/ danger when empty.
• Return to supplier for reuse/ recycling if possible.
Otherwise:• If container can not be cleaned sufficiently well to ensure that residuals do not remain or if the container cannot be used to store the same product, then puncture containers, to prevent re-use, and bury at an authorised landfill.
• Where possible retain label warnings and MSDS and observe all notices pertaining to the product.
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Labels Required: FLAMMABLE LIQUID Land Transport UNDG:
Class or division:
UN packing group: Shipping Name:ADHESIVES containing flammable liquid Air Transport IATA:
ICAO/IATA Subrisk: Special provisions: Shipping name:ADHESIVES Maritime Transport IMDG:
IMDG Class:
Special provisions: Limited Quantities: Shipping name:ADHESIVES Section 15 - REGULATORY INFORMATION
POISONS SCHEDULE S5 Regulations for ingredients
solvent naphtha petroleum, light aliphatic (CAS: 64742-89-8) is found on the following
regulatory lists;
"Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia
Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) - High
Production Volume List"
toluene (CAS: 108-88-3) is found on the following regulatory lists;
"Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Ambient environmental
standards (AQUA/1 to 6 - non-pesticide anthropogenic organics)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory -
Environment Protection Regulation: Ambient environmental standards (Domestic water supply - organic
compounds)","Australia - Australian Capital Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Pollutants
entering waterways taken to cause environmental harm (Aquatic habitat)","Australia - Australian Capital
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Territory - Environment Protection Regulation: Pollutants entering waterways taken to cause environmental harm (Domestic water supply quality)","Australia Customs (Prohibited Exports) Regulations 1958 - Schedule 9 Precursor substances - Part 2","Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical List (HVICL)","Australia Illicit Drug Reagents/Essential Chemicals - Category III","Australia Inventory of Chemical Substances (AICS)","Australia National Pollutant Inventory","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Appendix E (Part 2)","Australia Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) - Schedule 6","IMO IBC Code Chapter 17: Summary of minimum requirements","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk","IMO Provisional Categorization of Liquid Substances - List 3: (Trade-named) mixtures containing at least 99% by weight of components already assessed by IMO, presenting safety hazards","International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Agents Reviewed by the IARC Monographs","International Fragrance Association (IFRA) Standards Prohibited","WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality - Guideline values for chemicals that are of health significance in drinking-water" n-hexane (CAS: 110-54-3) is found on the following regulatory lists;
"Australia Exposure Standards","Australia Hazardous Substances","Australia High Volume Industrial Chemical
List (HVICL)","Australia National Pollutant Inventory","IMO MARPOL 73/78 (Annex II) - List of Other Liquid
No data for Ardex WPM 299 (Seam Primer) (CW: 4560-89)
■ Established occupational exposure limits frequently do not take into consideration reproductive end points
that are clearly below the thresholds for other toxic effects. Occupational reproductive guidelines (ORGs)
have been suggested as an additional standard. These have been established after a literature search for the
reproductive no-observed-adverse effect-level (NOAEL) and the lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL).
In addition the US EPA's procedures for risk assessment for hazard identification and dose-response
assessment as applied by NIOSH were used in the creation of such limits. Uncertainty factors (UFs) have also
been incorporated.
■ These exposure guidelines have been derived from a screening level of risk assessment and should not beconstrued as unequivocally safe limits. ORGS represent an 8-hour time-weighted average unless specifiedotherwise.
CR = Cancer Risk/10000; UF = Uncertainty factor:TLV believed to be adequate to protect reproductive health:LOD: Limit of detectionToxic endpoints have also been identified as:D = Developmental; R = Reproductive; TC = Transplacental carcinogenJankovic J., Drake F.: A Screening Method for Occupational ReproductiveAmerican Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 57: 641-649 (1996).
■ "Worst Case" computer-aided prediction of vapour components/concentrations:
■ Composite Exposure Standard for Mixture (TWA) (mg/m3): 800 mg/m³
■ If the breathing zone concentration of ANY of the components listed below is exceeded, "Worst Case"
considerations deem the individual to be overexposed.
Component Breathing Zone ppm Breathing Zone mg/m3 Mixture Conc: (%).
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Breathing zone (ppm) Breathing zone (mg/m3) ■ Classification of the preparation and its individual components has drawn on official and authoritative sources as well as independent review by the Chemwatch Classification committee using available literature references.
A list of reference resources used to assist the committee may be found at:
■ The (M)SDS is a Hazard Communication tool and should be used to assist in the Risk Assessment. Many factors determine whether the reported Hazards are Risks in the workplace or other settings. Risks may be determined by reference to Exposures Scenarios. Scale of use, frequency of use and current or available engineering controls must be considered.
This document is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, review orcriticism, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without writtenpermission from CHEMWATCH. TEL (+61 3) 9572 4700. Issue Date: 2-Sep-2008Print Date: 12-Dec-2011 This is the end of the MSDS.


Working Paper No. 79, 2015 Desigualdades estructurales en el aprovechamiento de un recurso estratégico La economía global del litio y el caso de Bolivia Juliana Ströbele-Gregor Working Paper Series Research Network on InterdependentInequalities in Latin America Working Paper Series

Microsoft word - position statement hepatitis c.doc

Hepatitis C Background Hepatitis C (HCV) is now recognised as a serious public health problem world-wide and the World Health Organisation estimates that around 170 million people are chronically infected with the virus (WHO, 2003). Estimates vary from between 200,000 to 500,000 people infected with HCV in England and Wales. There is also variation in prevalence between groups; for example, 0.4% in women attending antenatal clinics in inner London, and up to 50% in intravenous drug users (National Institute for Clinical Excellence 2006). HCV is a blood-borne virus with infection occurring through the transfer of body fluids. Intravenous drug users are more at risk of contracting the virus through the sharing of needles (Hope VD, et al. 2001). Health care workers are also at risk from 1exposure prone procedures and through occupational injuries such as needle stick injuries. In 2004, 1624 hepatitis C infections were confirmed in Scotland with 851 new cases between during January and June of 2005; 8240 cases of hepatitis infections were reported in England and Wales, and 100 in Northern Ireland. Given that most hepatitis C infections are asymptomatic, reports of new infections reflect increase in testing patterns rather than trends in incidence. (Advisory Group on Hepatitis, 2005). Some people infected with the HCV may clear the virus in the acute stages of the infection. However, most people infected with HCV are unaware that they carry the virus as they remain well and may only develop symptoms of chronic liver disease many years after the initial infection. There is no known available vaccine to prevent transmission of HCV, however, the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recommended a combination of treatment for moderate to chronic hepatitis C, There is no routine testing UK for detecting HCV in asymptomatic pregnant women. Mother to child transmission (vertical transmission) is known to occur but is less common and estimated to be around 6% and higher if there is parallel infection such as with the HIV virus.