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Impact Factor: 0.98 · DOI: 10.1016/j.sajb.2011.07.003
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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com African seed oils of commercial importance — Cosmetic applications I. Vermaak a, G.P.P. Kamatou a, B. Komane-Mofokeng a, A.M. Viljoen a,⁎, K. Beckett b a Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa b PhytoTrade Africa, 5 Calvert Avenue, London, E2 7JP, United Kingdom Seed oils have been used for centuries by rural communities as food, medicine, for cosmetic applications and as fuel. Recently there has been a renewed interest in these non-timber forest products (NTFPs) specifically for use in cosmetic formulations. The cosmetic industry remains underimmense consumer pressure to produce innovative products for this lucrative industry. Like the pharmaceutical industry, the wellness industryturns to nature for guidance, inspiration and as a source of novel compounds to produce new consumer products. Furthermore, discerningconsumers of cosmetic products are nowadays informing themselves of the validity of scientific claims made on various products. The seed oilsextracted from several plant species are popularly included as ingredients in cosmetic products due to their high fatty acid composition. Theinformation on African seed oils is scattered in literature and often published in obscure and dated manuscripts. With an emphasis on (but notrestricted to) cosmetic applications the botanical aspects, uses, physico-chemical properties and oil composition as well as biological activity of sixcommercially important species are coherently united and reviewed in this paper and include; Adansonia digitata (baobab), Citrullus lanatus(Kalahari melon), Schinziophyton rautanenii (manketti/mungongo), Sclerocarya birrea (marula), Trichilia emetica (mafura butter) and Ximeniaamericana (sour plum).
2011 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Adansonia digitata; Citrullus lanatus; Commercial importance; Cosmetic; Seed oils; Schinziophyton rautanenii; Sclerocarya birrea; Skin; Trichiliaemetica; Ximenia americana timber forest products (NTFPs), in southern Africa was estimatedat only US$12 million per year. There is growing consumer The multibillion dollar natural products industry (food, interest in natural and/or organic cosmetics with the major beverages, cosmetics, herbal medicines, pharmaceuticals) has markets being Europe and North America. As a result, there has grown enormously with an annual growth rate of 15–20%. In been a remarkable growth in the sales of natural organic cosmetic 2005, it was valued at US$65 billion/year with a US$1 billion/ care products in retail outlets, pharmacies and skin care clinics year growth in the global sales of natural and organic cosmetics specifically for the wellness industry ( survey conducted in the United States indicated that there has ). Natural cosmetics specifically exhibited an increased been an increase in the number of adults using herbs to treat revenue of 20.9% partly due to increased wariness towards the medical and cosmetic conditions from 3% in 1990 and 12% in chemicals contained in some commercial products. The 1997 to 21% in 2001 (). In 2002, it was personal care category showed high growth of 12.7% with estimated that a total of 38 million people in the United States $2.35 billion in sales (). However, used herbal therapies the formal natural products trade, commonly referred to as non- Oils extracted from plant sources have a rich history of use by local people as a source of food, energy, medicine and forcosmetic applications. It has been used in the production of lubricants, soaps and personal care products, as well as in the Corresponding author. Tel.: + 27 12 3826360; fax: + 27 12 3826243.
E-mail address: (A.M. Viljoen).
topical treatment of various conditions such as hair dandruff, 0254-6299/$ - see front matter 2011 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
I. Vermaak et al. / South African Journal of Botany 77 (2011) 920–933 muscle spasms, varicose veins and wounds ( natural health and beauty products. However, the men and In recent years, demand for seed oils as women (mainly) who collect the materials usually receive only ingredients for food, cosmetics and biofuel has greatly increased a small fraction of the final selling price of the product. Rural as industry seeks natural alternatives. The global production of women are especially involved in the harvesting of raw seed oils increased dramatically, creating pressure on countries materials such as seeds from indigenous trees as they provide providing the raw material to meet the growing demand. In food and income to care for their families. The seeds are used to 2004–2005, the global production of seed oils was approxi- obtain oils of specific interest to cosmetic industries mately 113 million metric tonnes (MMT). Currently, the global as many are rich in fatty acids supply is obtained from only about 15 plant species out of which have been shown to be beneficial to the skin nearly half a million known to man, highlighting the greater ). Commercialisation of these oils can have a great economic impact for local communities and This continued commercial interest may also have socio- significantly contribute to household economy ( economic and ecological impact. The use of non-timber forest ). However, the emphasis should be not only on increasing products has been boosted as a result of renewed interest in livelihoods but also on encouraging communities to manage Fatty acids
Arachidic acid (eicosanoic acid) Fig. 1. Chemical structures for compounds isolated from seed oils.
I. Vermaak et al. / South African Journal of Botany 77 (2011) 920–933 Fig. 1 (continued).
their resources effectively and protect the environment.
vulgaris (. Plants containing linoleic acid Creating markets for these non-timber forest products may may be beneficial in acne lesion reduction as the anti-inflammatory play a role in conservation as increased economic importance of effects have been shown to inhibit Propionibacterium acnes. Many natural resources may reduce destructive timber harvesting plants containing high levels of linoleic and linolenic acids are used (). It is evident that commercialisation in the treatment of acne, though clinical evaluation is lacking and formal trade agreements will have a positive impact on rural . Oleic acid is reported to be communities, conservation, and the natural products industry as an effective percutaneous absorption enhancer. It markedly enhanced the penetration of tenoxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), by as much as 15% and is reported 2. Fatty acids in cosmetics to increase diffusivity and partitioning as well as the fluidity andflux by interaction with subcutaneous lipids ( Natural seed oils used in cosmetics contain a range of fatty Another study investigated the permeation enhancing acids which contribute several beneficial properties in cosmetic effects of various fatty acids using diclofenac as a model drug. Of and personal care products. Fatty acids are divided into saturated the unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid exhibited the best acids (e.g. palmitic; stearic; arachidic) and unsaturated acids (e.g.
permeation enhancing effect, while amongst the saturated fatty oleic; linoleic). Palmitic, oleic and stearic acids are synthesised in acids, palmitic acid had the most potent skin permeation the body but linoleic acid is not and a deficiency will cause enhancing effect (). Skin permeation enhance- various signs. The skin dries out and becomes scaly, nails crack, ment effects were also recorded for linoleic, lauric, myristic and and hairloss as well as transepidermal water loss increases.
stearic acids (all of which Linoleic acid is the most frequently used fatty acid in cosmetic are present in various seed oils which are described in the products as it moisturises the skin, aids in the healing process of following sections. The chemical structures of selected fatty acids dermatoses and sunburns and is used for the treatment of Acne are shown in .
I. Vermaak et al. / South African Journal of Botany 77 (2011) 920–933 3. Species discussion comparable to some of the edible oils such as marula oil,groundnut oil and palm oil 3.1. Adansonia digitata ). The iodine value of the oil is 87.9 g/100 gand therefore it is classified as a non-drying oil ( 3.1.1. Botanical aspects In relatively small quantities of up to 20%, the oil A. digitata L., commonly known as "baobab" (Malvaceae) may be incorporated into another carrier oil or base (or bottle tree, upside-down tree, and monkey bread tree), is regarded as the largest succulent plant in the world. It is an The oil contains saturated (33%), monounsaturated (36%) extremely large deciduous tree easily distinguishable by its and polyunsaturated (31%) fatty acids ( huge trunk with a diameter of 10–12 m and a height of up to ). Palmitic and oleic acids are major constituents of the oil 25 m. The hand-shaped leaves are present only 3 months per ) and investigation of the year whilst the white pendulous flowers are seen in October to oil stability index (OSI) revealed results comparable to olive oil December. The large egg-shaped fruit capsule, covered by and evening primrose oil. Baobab oil displayed the slowest rate velvety hairs, contains numerous seeds A) and can reach of oxidation (8.2 h) compared to olive and evening primrose oil, 12 cm or more. The fruit pulp (white in colour), clustered 5.4 and 3.1 h, respectively ). The around the seeds and fibres can be removed from the shell and it seed oil composition is presented in β-Sitosterol is very rich in vitamin C. It is estimated that it takes 8 to 23 years (≈ 80% of the total sterols) is one of the major sterol before the baobab can produce seeds and the mature plant can constituents present in baobab seed oil. Other sterols include produce more than 30 kg of fruits ( campesterol (8.3%) and stigmasterol (2.9%) ) (Baobab Fruit Company).
In southern Africa, baobab is commonly found in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa especially in the 3.1.4. Biological properties warm parts of the Limpopo Province, while in West Africa, it is β-Sitosterol is a known anti-oxidant able to reduce DNA found in Mali, Benin, Senegal, the Ivory Coast, Cameroon and damage and the level of free radicals, in addition to possibly Burkina Faso. In East Africa, the plant is found in countries increasing the level of typical anti-oxidant enzymes. Peanuts such as Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. It is believed that the display anti-oxidant activity on DPPH radical scavenging and centre of origin of the genus Adansonia is Madagascar. Seven this activity was correlated to the high amount of oleic acid out of the eight known species are found on the island of contained in the skin ). It can be speculated Madagascar and six of them are endemic ). Baobab that the high proportion of monounsaturated oleic acid is key to trees are restricted to hot, semi arid regions, dry woodlands and the anti-oxidant capacity of the oil. Several fixed oils such as places with low rainfall (less than 1500 annually) ( almond oil (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb), sesame oil The slow growth of the baobab is mainly attributed to (Sesamum indicum L.), avocado oil (Persea americana Mill.), the low amount of rainfall received ( apricot kernel oil (Prunus armeniaca Blanco), rapeseed oil(Brassica napus L.), linseed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.), 3.1.2. Traditional and modern day uses sunflower seed oil (Helianthus annuus L.), and palm oil (Elaeis Baobab plant parts are used in Africa as a panacea (to treat guineensis A. Chev.) have been included in cosmetic prepara- various diseases) and the seed oil is used alone or in tions as moisturisers or emollients ().
combination with other plant parts to treat various conditions In recent years, baobab oil has been added to the list of fixed oils such as fever, diarrhoea, coughs, dysentery, haemoptysis and commonly included in cosmetic products. Baobab oil will not burn the skin when applied as such, and it is said to be non- The oil is used in wound care therapy and bath oil preparations, irritating as well as non-sensitising (Like as a moisturiser and massage oil, and hot oil soaks are used for avocado oil, baobab oil is highly penetrating, deeply nourishing hair and nail conditioning and softens dry skin. It is known to restore and re-moisturise the . Baobab oil has been included in a few patented compositions. In one case, baobab oil may be included as a Several vitamins, including vitamins A, D, E and ‘F', are carrier/vehicle in a dermatological/cosmetic preparation con- present in baobab oil (Vitamins A and taining an extract from baobab leaves (Another ‘F' are polyunsaturated fatty acids and these acids are directly patent for an oil absorbent wipe intended for use on the skin or implicated in the rejuvenation and renewal of cell membranes, hair, lists baobab oil as a possible ingredient while vitamin E is a superior anti-oxidant, with an anti-ageingeffect. Baobab oil is ideal to help treat dry and damaged skin, is 3.1.3. Physico-chemical properties and oil composition used for intensive hair care and its soothing properties are The physico-chemical properties of all the oils are helpful for eczema and psoriasis treatments. Baobab oil is summarised in . The semi-fluid slightly scented considered to be a natural source of vitamin D3 which increases golden-yellow oil is generally obtained by pressing calcium absorption and decreases blood pressure in the elderly the seeds followed by filtration. Baobab oil is extremely stable The oil is said to alleviate pain from burns with a highly variable shelf life estimated to be between 2 to and regenerates the epithelial tissues in a short time, thereby 5 years. The high saponification value of baobab oil is improving skin tone and elasticity (


I. Vermaak et al. / South African Journal of Botany 77 (2011) 920–933 Fig. 2. (A) Fruit and seeds of Adansonia digitata; (B) Citrullus lanatus fruit; (C) seeds of Ximenia americana; (D) women gathering fruits of Sclerocarya birrea;(E) pressed oil and seeds of Adansonia digitata; (F) seeds of Trichilia emetica; and (G) seeds of Sclerocarya birrea (photographs courtesy of PhytoTrade Africa).
3.2. Citrullus lanatus herb of up to 10 m long with broad leaves and yellow flowersThe green or yellow fruits are soft and fleshy 3.2.1. Botanical aspects with a length of 9.7–25 cm and width of 6.1–16 cm C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai commonly known as Fruit of wild plants is small with a diameter of 15–20 cm, while Kalahari Tsamma melon, is one of the species of the cultivated fruits are larger with a diameter of 30–60 cm. In Cucurbitaceae family (). C. lanatus is a trailing addition, they vary from pale yellow or light green (wild form) Table 1The physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oils of Adansonia digitata, Citrullus lanatus, Schinziophyton rautanenii, Sclerocarya birrea, Trichilia emetica and Ximenia americana.
Yellow golden brown (g/cm3) at 20 °C (g/cm3) at 30 °C Saponification value I. Vermaak et al. / South African Journal of Botany 77 (2011) 920–933 to dark green (cultivars), with or without stripes and the pulp varies from yellow or green (wild forms) to dark red (cultivars) ). The fruit contains smooth compressed seeds "pistachio" of a black or yellowish white colour ( C. lanatus is native to the western Kalahari region of Namibia and Botswana, where it occurs in several morphological forms together with other Citrullus species. Its centre of origin has been traced to both the Kalahari and Sahara deserts in Africa ) but more than 3000 years ago C. lanatus cultivation became widespread in Mediterranean Africa, the Middle East and West Asia, and it grows abundantly in Sudan ( ). C. lanatus reached China around the 10TH century and Japan in the 16TH century and it was introduced to the Americas in early post-Columbian times. It is commonly found on river banks, dry lakes, drainage areas or disturbed areas 3.2.2. Traditional and modern day uses cited that C. lanatus seeds are comprised of 50% oil and 35% protein, hence the seeds have both nutritional and cosmetic values. The fruits and/or seeds are used in different ways in different countries. In the Kalahari region in Africa, C. lanatus is used as a source of drinking water. In Zimbabwe the cooked melons are mixed with cooked beans or cowpeas.
–78.0 –7.0 –0.7 The rind of some cultivars is made into a pickle or a sweet preserve in the United States and in the south of France, the preserved melon is popular for jams. The seeds are commonly roasted and salted for nutritional purposes and the pulp used as soup thickener in Sudan, Egypt and Western Africa. The residue from oil extraction is made into balls that are fried to produce a local snack in Nigeria ().
The seed oil, known since the time of ancient Egyptians, was used to care for the skin to maintain its healthy appearance and aid – 16.7 21.5 – in its regeneration (This moisturising oil has a light texture and is therefore a highly suitable emollient in cosmetic care formulations. The high essential fatty acid content aids in nourishing the skin and restoring the elasticity ). In addition, the oil has traditionally been used for making soap in Namibia. Tar extracted from the seeds is used for the treatment of scabies and for skin tanning. In Central America –70.8 –1.1 –1.6 and India the oil extracted from the seeds is applied to herpes lesions, venereal sores, stubborn leg ulcers and the face to treat acne vulgaris (). Traditionally, it has been used medicinally as a diuretic, for treating urinary diseases and fever (). A patent has been filed which mentions the use of the oil in a self tanning formulation but it is listed amongst numerous other possible ingredients ( – –– –– 3.2.3. Physico-chemical characteristics and oil composition Kalahari melon seed oil is light yellow in colour and rich in essential fatty acids ). The oil has a very low saponification value According to an oil with an iodine value that ranges between 100 and 150 has good properties of absorbing oxygen on exposure to the atmosphere. This makes C. lanatus oil, with α Linole Eruc Arachidonic Refe an iodine value of 119 Wijs, useful for soap manufacturing due I. Vermaak et al. / South African Journal of Botany 77 (2011) 920–933 to its thick, sticky consistency which doesn't form a hard dry inflammatory properties ( film. Furthermore, the saponification value indicates the ). The high vitamin E level in C. lanatus could be average molecular weight of the oil considered for pharmaceutical and cosmetic use due to its A high saponification value implies a greater proportion protective nature against oxidative stress ).
of fatty acids of low molecular weight. The values compared Despite the vast nutritional and medicinal significance of favourably with the saponification values of olive oil which C. lanatus oil, little detail on its cosmetic benefits is available.
ranges between 185 and 196 (Theperoxide value is the measure of oxidative rancidity of oil.
3.3. Schinziophyton rautanenii Oxidative rancidity is the addition of oxygen across the doublebonds in unsaturated fatty acids in the presence of enzymes 3.3.1. Botanical aspects (). The odour and flavour associated with S. rautanenii (Schinz) Radcl.-Sm., formerly known as rancidity are due to the liberation of short chain carboxylic Ricinodendron rautanenii Schinz, is part of the Euphorbiaceae acids. High peroxide values are associated with a higher rate of family. This large deciduous, dioecious tree, known as rancidity. Variation of peroxide value could be due to the level mungongo in Zambia and manketti in many other African of unsaturated fatty acid content, since the rate of auto-oxidation countries, reaches a height of up to 7–15 m. It has thick whitish, of fats and oils increases with increasing levels of unsaturation.
pale grey or pale brown bark, dark-green leaves, and small The generally low peroxide values of oils from the Cucurbi- whitish-yellow flowers appearing in October to December. The taceae family indicate that they are less liable to oxidative egg-shaped green fruits, 3.5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, are rancidity at room temperature covered in fine small hairs. The young fruits fall from the tree in ). Specific gravity and the refractive index indicate April to May and ripen to red-brown on the ground causing the the purity of oil and the results indicated that the oil is of high flesh to become soft. About 20% of the fruit consists of the pulp layer which has a full sweet flavour comparable to the taste of Phytochemical analysis of the fatty acid content of the oil dates. The large seed forms 70% of the fruit. The shell is very revealed that linoleic acid is present in the highest concentration hard and tough, and it is traditionally broken between two rocks followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. A low presence of to remove the kernel(s). The creamy yellow flesh encapsulating myristic, linolenic and lauric acids was also demonstrated the seed has nutritional value (57% lipid; 26% protein) and may (). Furthermore, C. lanatus oil contains a high be eaten raw or roasted ( level of γ-tocopherol (70.56 mg/100 g) as the major component The tree is found growing in a rough band across the followed by α-tocopherol (25.94 mg/100 g). These high values subtropical latitudes of southern Africa, from the border of of α- and γ-tocopherol provide anti-oxidant properties as well northern Namibia and Angola, stretching through southern and as a reasonably good shelf life and could signify potential use of Western parts of Zambia, the Okavango of Botswana, northwest the oil for industrial, nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetic and central Zimbabwe, central Mozambique and the Limpopo purposes ().
Province of South Africa. Its preferred habitat is wooded hills as Amongst the phytosterols, β-sitosterol (485.49 mg/100 g) part of the savanna woodlands and the deep sands of the was the key phytosterol extracted from C. lanatus seed oils Kalahari. It is adapted to withstand several years of drought and followed by campesterol (130.41 mg/100 g) and stigmasterol temperatures that range from −5 °C in winter to well over 40 °C (25.87 mg/100 g) (The main phenolic acids present are in summer ).
gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic,syringic (trace), p-coumaric and ferulic acids These key secondary metabolites exhibit highly efficient 3.3.2. Traditional and modern day uses peroxyl-radical scavenging activity and may have beneficial The seed oil is used by local communities as a source of pharmacological effects nutrition in food preparation (soups), and in personal care ). Low levels of trace elements including products due to its healing and nurturing properties. A hair calcium, magnesium, copper, cobalt, iron, manganese and zinc lotion prepared with the oil is used to revitalise, strengthen and are present in the oil. Some trace elements in oils are pro- detangle hair and it is used as a body rub during dry winter oxidant and it is important to remove them from the oil during months. It protects the skin by acting as a cleanser, moisturiser and emollient (The fatty acidprofile of manketti oil resembles that of maize oil (Zea mays), 3.2.4. Biological properties indicating that it may be used in a similar way in food products C. lanatus is a popular fruit endowed with high natural anti- Patents have been filed for manketti oil- oxidant capacity, an aspect which is an important qualitative containing products as a possible component in topical factor for cosmetic uses. Interest in C. lanatus seed oil by the formulations forming part of the base as opposed to the active cosmetic industry, especially European companies, has led to ingredient. This includes an antiparasitic formulation and a soap the formulation of moisturising and skin rejuvenating products bar for microdermabrasion ( (). Fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid followed ). It has also been included in nutritional food supplements by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids, isolated from seed oil of the including a gluten-free food product and a health food Cucurbitaceae family have been used in medicine for their anti- containing beneficial lipids I. Vermaak et al. / South African Journal of Botany 77 (2011) 920–933 3.3.3. Physico-chemical properties and oil composition 3.4.2. Traditional and modern day uses The thin oil is ideal for the aromatherapy and cosmetic In southern Africa, the oil obtained from marula kernels is industries as it has a light texture and is easily absorbed into the used for different purposes. Women in the Limpopo region of skin. Manketti seed oil consists mainly of fatty acids including South Africa use the oil to massage babies and as body lotion linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic, and erucic acids, with lesser massaged onto the skin of their face, feet and hands. Local quantities of myristic and myristoleoic acids. In addition, it is populations in southern Africa, particularly in South Africa, rich in vitamin E (565 mg/100 g of the kernel) which provides have been using marula oil for several years to protect against excellent oxidative stability and a long shelf life dry and cracking skin, and as a shampoo for dry, damaged and fragile hair (The oil is used as a base oil chemical properties of the oil are shown in and the for soap and as nose-drops for infants (The chemical composition of manketti seed oil is indicated in moisturising capacity is so effective that in some rural areas, the oil is used to treat leather and preserve meat Marula oil, amongst numerous other oils, is listed as apossible ingredient where its reaction with glycerine in the 3.3.4. Biological properties presence of a basic catalyst results in retention of the The presence of Vitamin E, linoleic and eleostearic acids unsaponifiable portion of the oil. The resulting reaction renders the oil useful for skin protection and hydration, for the products are to be used in cosmetic and personal care treatment of eczema and atopic disorders where it may assist applications As for manketti oil, it may with reduction of inflammation and promotion of cellular repair also be included in the soap base used to manufacture a soap for and tissue generation. It may also be useful in the reduction of microdermabrasion according to the patent filed by itching, redness, scarring and the prevention of keloids ( ). Reactive oxygen species produced as a result ofexposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) light may cause skin 3.4.3. Physico-chemical properties and oil composition damage. Skin supplementation with anti-oxidants may play an Marula oil is a clear, pale, yellowish-brown colour and has a important role in the reduction of photodamage and photoaging pleasant nutty aroma. The oil is classified as medium rich and is due to free-radical oxidative stress. Topical tocopherol (vitamin silky to the touch with an excellent ‘slip factor' making it ideal E) may protect the skin against such photoaging due to its anti- as massage oil. Like many other fixed oils (e.g. baobab seed oil; oxidant action after ultraviolet radiation-induced free-radical olive oil), marula oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids which makes the oil very stable Some physico-chemical properties of marula oil are presented in . The 3.4. Sclerocarya birrea oxidative stability of marula oil is very high (induction period of32 h) when compared to other fixed oils such as olive oil 3.4.1. Botanical aspects (4.6 h), sunflower oil (1.9 h) and cottonseed oil (3.1 h) ( The marula tree (S. birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro) (Anacardiaceae) is an important food, The fatty acid composition of marula oil which is commercial, cultural and ethnomedicinal plant in Africa comparable to that of olive oil is presented in ( (This medium size deciduous tree can The oil is particularly rich in oleic acid and can be grow up to 18 m in height. It is leafless for several months considered an excellent source of natural oleic acid. A study (winter) of the year (), flowers from September to conducted by revealed that the oil was rich in November and bears fruits from January to March stearic and palmitic acids (50.8 and 22.6%, respectively).
). It produces edible yellow oblong shaped fruits (3–4 cm who investigated the composition of in diameter) with a plain tough skin and a juicy mucilaginous selected Sudanese oils found that the marula oil contained, in flesh (). The seed encloses 2–3 soft white edible addition to saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, kernels which are rich in oil and protein ( sterols, procyanidine, gallotannin. The tocopherol content of the oil (mainly dominated by γ-tocopherol) amounted to This tree is distributed throughout Africa with its southern 13.7 mg/100 g oil. The total content of sterols was most location in the lowlands of KwaZulu-Natal (South 287 mg/100 g oil with β-sitosterol () being the main Africa) from where it extends northwards through tropical compound comprising about 60% of the total sterols. The study Africa into Ethiopia and Sudan. In southern Africa, the tree is also revealed the presence of 5-avenasterol (4.8 mg/100 g) in also found in Swaziland, Botswana, Angola, Zimbabwe and high levels ). The presence of other fatty Namibia and Malawi ). In West Africa, the tree acids in the oil including caproic and arachidonic acids was also is found in Gambia, Nigeria, Cameroon and the Central confirmed. Marula oil is similar to olive oil in terms of the high African Republic. The tree grows in various woodland habitats content of oleic acid. Therefore it can be used as starting and on sandy loam soils, but is more often found in semi-arid material for the production of cocoa butter equivalents that can and savannah regions of sub-Saharan Africa ( be used in the food and cosmeceutical industries I. Vermaak et al. / South African Journal of Botany 77 (2011) 920–933 3.4.4. Biological properties ). In some instances, T. emetica oil is combined Marula oil has been shown to improve skin hydration and with coconut oil to provide emollient and moisturising effects.
smoothness as well as reduce skin redness ( T. emetica oil is listed as a possible active from a botanical Oleic acid is known to exert good anti-oxidant activity and as source included in a patent filed by the Estee Lauder Companies marula oil is reported to contain a high content of this acid it Inc. describing a powder make-up product containing ‘skin could be expected to also exhibit antioxidative properties.
treatment actives'. Another species included as a possible active However, there is limited scientific evidence to substantiate this.
is S. rautanenii kernel oil which was described earlier The free radical scavenging property of the oil is mainly attributed to the unsaponifiable fraction which varies from 3800to 4300 mg/kg (). Clinical tests (including 3.5.3. Physico-chemical properties and oil composition skin hydration, ‘transepidermal water loss' and ‘increase in skin Originally the oil was used as a starting material in lipase smoothness') to determine its potential use as an ingredient in catalysis for the production of cocoa butter equivalents. The cosmetic formulations have been completed with moderate pressed seed yields two types of oil, "mafura" oil (solid butter) success for marula oil (). Easy absorption, a from the fleshy seed envelope and "mafura" butter from the kernel high proportion of oleic acid, as well as the presence of linoleic Gas chromatography was acid (4–7%) all contribute to rendering the oil ideal for topical used to analyse methyl esters of the glycerides of T. emetica to determine the fatty acid profile of the oil. It was determined thatthe oil is rich in fatty acids containing high proportions of palmitic 3.5. Trichilia emetica and oleic acids, with lower proportions of linoleic, linolenic andstearic acids indicated in 3.5.1. Botanical aspects The genus name "Trichilia" is derived from Greek "tricho" referring to the 3-lobed fruits and the epithet "emetica" refers to 3.5.4. Biological activity the emetic properties of the tree There is a paucity of scientific studies related to the use of ). T. emetica Vahl (Meliaceae), also known as the Natal T. emetica seed oil. However, it is known to be rich in palmitic mahogany, is an evergreen tree reaching 20 m but occasionally and oleic acids which have proved to be good skin permeation even up to 35 m in height (). It enhancers (In a previous study anti-oxidant has red-brown or grey-brown bark and the leaves are dark activity was correlated to a high oleic acid content and it may be glossy green on the upper surface and covered with brownish plausible to predict that the high levels of oleic acid in T. emetica hairs on the lower surface. The flowers are small, creamy to pale seed oil will exhibit good anti-oxidant properties ( yellow-green, and fragrant. The furry, rounded, red-brown fruit capsules (± 3 cm across), contain 3–6 shiny black seeds (1.4–1.8 cm) with a large fleshy scarlet or orange-red aril F) 3.6. Ximenia americana T. emetica is widely distributed and grows naturally 3.6.1. Botanical aspects throughout sub-Saharan Africa extending from KwaZulu- The genus Ximenia (Olacaceae) consists of eight species of Natal in the south, through Swaziland, Mpumalanga and small trees and thorny shrubs of which two occur Limpopo Provinces (South Africa), into Zimbabwe and in southern Africa. Ximenia americana L. (sour plum) is a northwards into Cameroon, Sudan and Uganda thorny bush-forming shrub or small tree that can grow up to 7 m ). It has a preference for areas with a high high. The trunk is rarely thicker than 10 cm with dark brown to rainfall and well-drained rich alluvial or sandy soil and is pale grey smooth to scaly bark, and it has small, pale grey-green therefore abundant along coastal areas hairless leaves. The flowers are fragrant and can be white, yellow-green or pink. The young oval green fruits turnyellowish or orange-red upon ripening. They contain a juicy 3.5.2. Traditional and modern day uses pulp with an almond acid taste and have one light-yellow T. emetica is a coveted multipurpose tree which has been woody seed with a fatty kernel and brittle shell (. The used throughout Africa for several centuries. The seeds are rich seed, 1.5 cm long and 1.2 cm thick, forms a large part of the in fat and produce good quality oil used for cosmetic purposes fruit which is 3 cm long and 2.5 cm thick such as in the manufacturing of natural soaps X. americana bears fruit and flowers ). Women in Gazaland applied the oil throughout the year, seemingly not governed by climatic for cosmetic purposes and used it in combination with Cyathula natalensis Sond. to treat leprosy ). In This drought-resistant, mostly solitary tree grows at low Senegal, T. emetica is used to treat a range of skin ailments altitudes in a wide range of habitats including, savannahs, dry (). T. emetica oil is rich in essential fatty woodlands, dry forests, and along coastal areas or on river acids and has nourishing, revitalising effects on the skin and banks (). It has a wide geographical hair. "Mafura" butter is used for soap production, lip balm distribution throughout many countries in Africa, Central and therapy, cosmetics and candle making South America, as well as Australasia. Consequently it has I. Vermaak et al. / South African Journal of Botany 77 (2011) 920–933 many vernacular names including: kleinsuurpruim (Afrikaans), sour plum/tallow wood (English), cerise de mer (French),habbuli (Fulani), and mtundakala (Swahili) amongst several Seed oils obtained from plant sources have been commonly used for topical skin application since ancient times. However,during the last century, synthetic substitutes have becomeavailable and have been used to replace natural seed oils. Due to 3.6.2. Traditional and modern day uses toxic effects of synthetic oils, there is a growing trend to replace The leaves and twigs are used as traditional medicine to treat them and revert to the use of natural oils in the cosmetic and fever, headaches, toothache (mouthwash), angina, and consti- pharmaceutical industries However, pation. The roots are used to treat skin problems, leprotic ulcers, this does not imply that all natural oils are safe. Toxicity data is mouth ulcers, haemorrhoids, abdominal pains, dysentery, not readily available and it is imperative that these studies be guinea worm and venereal disease ( conducted for any product intended for human use, whether ). However, the use of consumed orally or applied topically. There is increasing X. americana is not restricted to medicinal applications and it consumer demand for high-quality cosmetic products of natural is also considered a food source rich in vitamin C which can be origin which industry is responding to. Seed oils are ideally consumed raw or used to produce juice, jams and alcoholic suited to satisfy this need due to their high fatty acid content.
drinks. The bark and roots contain high levels of tannin and are Fatty acids have been shown to have beneficial effects when used to tan leather. The yield of oil from the seed is high and has applied onto the skin as such. In addition, the oils may be used been applied as an emollient, conditioner, skin softener, body as a carrier/vehicle for other active ingredients. The presence of and hair oil as well as included as an ingredient in lipsticks and certain fatty acids has also proved to enhance skin permeation of lubricants. In addition it is used in soap manufacturing and as a co-administered molecules. The concept of developing cos- vegetable butter ).
metics derived from African seed oils and integrating the Patents have been filed for the possible inclusion of the oil in a traditional use component is extremely attractive to interna- moisturising lotion (and a ximenynic acid rich tional companies as it has strong marketing potential. However, formulation said to have beneficial effects on skin ageing this review has identified a general lack of good scientific information on the cosmetic application of these oils that willcorroborate the traditional use. The fatty acids identified havebeen tested mostly in a solitary fashion and the application of 3.6.3. Physico-chemical properties and oil composition the crude oil may reveal synergistic effects.
The physico-chemical properties of the pale yellow The current major concerns for the use of seed oils as Ximenia seed oil are indicated in . Essential oils can ingredients in natural cosmetic products are conservation be extracted from the heartwood and flowers and the bark aspects as well as trade agreements with local communities to contains about 17% oils. Analysis of the seed oil revealed prevent exploitation. One of the key objectives of the that the major components were oleic, hexacos-17-enoic convention on biological diversity (CBD) is access and benefit (ximenic), linoleic, linolenic and stearic acids together with sharing (ABS). ABS relates to the sharing of benefits derived smaller quantities of triacont-21-enoic (lumequic), octadec- from the use of genetic resources and associated traditional 11-en-9-ynoic (ximenynic), arachidonic, erucic, and nervonic knowledge. In October 2010, the Nagoya protocol on "access to acids (). Fatty acids with more than 22 carbon atoms, genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits termed very long chain fatty acids, are rarely found naturally.
arising from their utilisation" was adopted. It was designed to Ximenia oil contains very long chain fatty acids with up to 40 create incentives to conserve biodiversity, ensure sustainable use of the biological resources and enhance sustainable development and quality of human life. It sets the framework ). The fatty acid composition of on which national law can be based and provides legal clarity Ximenia oil is shown in for the providers and users of genetic resources and associatedtraditional knowledge Prior to the adoption of the Nagoya protocol there was 3.6.4. Biological properties uncertainty as to whether plant-based cosmetic oils were included Scientific studies on the biological activities of the seed oil in the ABS framework. However, the Nagoya protocol makes it are not available. However, it is composed of several long chain clear that ‘genetic resources' can include ingredients pending fatty acids such as linolenic, linoleic, oleic and stearic acids interpretation by States when they enact their National regulations shown to be beneficial upon topical application. Studies on on ABS. Those involved in the cosmetics sector should be aware of ximenynic acid (Ximenoil®) have revealed improvement in these procedures when dealing with plant-based resources. With blood circulation. Blood perfusion was increased in a group of increasing interest and demand for natural cosmetic ingredients the female volunteers (n = 40) applying a cream containing 0.5% role of the CBD and the Nagoya protocol is likely to increase along ximenynic acid. The greatest effect of 50% increase was seen with a focus on the positive role that utilisation of these genetic after 60 min especially on cellulitic areas were blood perfusion resources play in economic development, livelihoods and is usually very low biological diversity ().
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Report Korea Open 2014 in Seoul , 07. – 12.01.2014 (von Klaus Schlieben) Mein zweiter Besuch im „Land der Morgenstille", wie Korea auch genannt wird. Nach meinem ersten Besuch 2006 in Incheon, einer an der Westküste gelegenen Hafenstadt und Vorstadt Seouls, sind wir, Carol aus IRL und ich, auch dieses Mal ebenda nach fast elfstündigem Flug, von Frankfurt kommend, gelandet. Wir wurden, nach einem einstündigen Bustransfer vom Flughafen, im Zentrum von Seoul, in dessen Großraum mittlerweile 25 Millionen Menschen leben, bestens untergebracht. Ein Beispiel für die Größenverhältnisse: die Untergrundbahn mit ihren 13 Linien befördert täglich mehr als 6,9 Millionen Fahrgäste. Das Netz wird selbst für Einheimische erst über eine App am Mobiltelefon oder Computer überschaubar. Die Turnierstätte befand sich im 1988 eröffneten Olympiapark, mittlerweile mitten in der Stadt gelegen und 30 Minuten Fahrt im Transferbus vom Hotel entfernt. Die Winter sind kalt wie in unseren Breiten, die Kälte kommt aus dem fernen Ostsibirien.

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SPEAKING FOR THE SALMON SUMMIT OF SCIENTISTS ON AQUACULTUREAND THE PROTECTION OF WILD SALMON JANUARY 25-27, 2007 INNER COAST NATURAL RESOURCE CENTRE and LAWRENCE AMBERS RECREATION CENTRE ALERT BAY, BC Rick Routledge, Patricia Gallaugher, and Craig Orr The conveners wish to thank the ‘Namgis First Nation, the Village of Alert Bay and the Inner Coast Natural Resource Centre for their support in making the workshop possible, and to the ‘Namgis First Nation for welcoming us into their territory and sharing their culture.