Ogni antibiotico è efficace in relazione a un determinato gruppo di microrganismi acquista antibiotici onlinein caso di infezioni oculari vengono scelte gocce ed unguenti.

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Standards and Medical Management for Captive Insectivorous Bats 117 Medications are typically selected on the basis of blood work and culture results from urine or tissue samples that have confirmed the presence of specific microorganisms. Blood samples are compared with baseline data obtained from healthy animals to determine additional information. Due to the small size of insectivorous bats, however, it is not possible to obtain sufficient quantities of tissue samples for culturing or comparison with base-line data. The author cautions against the indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics when access to culture and sensitivity results would permit the use of a more specific antibiotic. However, when access to culture and sensitivity results are not available, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has allowed bat care specialists to save animals with clinical signs formerly associated with high mortality. Note: Except when indicated, medications should always be administered with food. The use of medications for bats is extra-label drug use and no claims can be made for the efficacy or safety of the dosages. Recommended dosages for many of the medications used to treat conditions in bats as described in this book are significantly higher than those used to treat other mammals. Nonetheless, careful observation and trial and error by the author for a period of almost 20 years have led to treatments that have proven successful for ameliorating a variety of clinical signs of disease in insectivorous bats. ANALGESICS
*Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
WARNINGS
Cetacaine®
Apply small amount Topical anesthesia occurs Do not use in the eyes. Localized
within 30 seconds and allergic reactions may occur after branes where pain lasts 30 to 60 minute prolonged or repeated use. control is required. Metacam®
Unknown in insectivorous Do not use in conjunction with bats. Has been used for 14 corticosteroids, ketoprofen, continuous days without aspirin or any other NSAID drug incident. Can be given as intestinal bleeding and gastroin- with Tramadol for testinal ulceration may result. increased efficacy. Tramadol
0.00375mg/g Dissolve one tablet Unknown in insectivorous Constipation and vomiting can in 20mls distilled wa- bats. Has been used for 14 occur. Bats suffering from diseases ter. Administer continuous days without of the liver or kidneys should not 0.015mls, PO, TID. incident. Can be given receive Tramadol. with Metacam® for
increased efficacy. Buprenex
0.0001mg/g 0.02 PO, BID Vomiting, diarrhea, loss of May be applied to the appetite, sedation, tremor, hypoven- gums to be absorbed tilation, dyspnea and cyanosis can ANESTHETICS
Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
WARNINGS
Isoflurane
Isoflurane is not significantly (Inhalant Anesthetic) metabolized, therefore, toxic metabolites are not produced. Telazol®, Diazepam
Serious adverse reactions and Ketamine
leading to death. Standards and Medical Management for Captive Insectivorous Bats 118 ANTIBIOTICS
Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
WARNINGS
Side effects can include vomiting, diarrhea, anemia and loss of appetite. TMP) (200 mg/40mg per 5ml) Mix 0.25ml Baytril®
Side effects can include vomiting, with 3.0ml SMZ-TMP. diarrhea, anemia and loss of appetite. TMP) (200 mg/40mg per Administer 0.05ml PO, 5ml) mixed with Bay-
tril® (Enrofloxacin,
2.27%)
Amoxicillin
Side effects can include anorexia, (Oral Suspension, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Baytril®
0.01 to .02ml SQ, SID. 7 to 10 days. Do not administer by injection to Injectable Solution Mix 0.02 to 0.04ml with bats that are easily stressed. Use the (Enrofloxacin 2.27%) 0.25ml electrolyte solu- oral mixtures instead. Do not inject tion to lessen sting and IM. High doses can cause sloughing at aid in hydration. the injection site. Clavamox® Drops
Reconstitute with 14ml Keep refrigerated. Discard after ten
(Amoxicillin trihydrate/ water. Administer (Continue for 48 days. Do not use if mixture becomes Clavulanate potassium) hours after bat is discolored. Clavamox® Drops
Reconstitute Clavamox® 14 to 21 days
Keep refrigerated. Discard after ten (Amoxicillin trihydrate/ with 14ml water. Add (Continue for 48 days. Do not use if mixture becomes Clavulanate potassium) 0.05ml Baytril® to 1.0ml hours after bat is discolored. Clavamox® and
Baytril® (Enrofloxacin,
administer 0.05ml
Cephalexin
Mix 5ml (one tsp) water 14 to 30 days. Keep refrigerated. with 8gm (one tsp) Cephalexin and adminis-ter 0.05ml PO, BID Cephalexin
Mix 0.25ml Baytril®
Keep refrigerated. (50mg/5ml) mixed with with 3.0ml reconstituted Baytril® (Enrofloxacin,
Cephalexin (see above). Administer 0.05ml PO, BID. Clindamycin
0.0002 ml/g Mix with an equal amount 10 to 14 days May cause vomiting and diarrhea. (Hydrachloride oral of apple juice. Administer Doxycycline
Reconstitute according to 21 days. Administer with food. May cause light (25mg/5ml)
bottle directions. Admin- ister 0.05ml PO, BID ANTIFUNGALS
Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
Grifulvin V®
0.05 ml PO, BID. Anorexia and/or vomiting. Do not ad- minister to pregnant bats, bats sus- pected of having liver disease, or bats sensitive to penicillin. Nolvasan® Solution
Apply a 10% solution to Until condition is Do not use on or near the eyes, ears, (Chlorhexidine diace- fungal infections twice a cleared. nose or mouth as it can cause nerve irritation and serious problems. Standards and Medical Management for Captive Insectivorous Bats 119 ANTI-GAS
Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
Simethicone
0.03 to 0.05ml PO 0.005ml/g every 2 hours as Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
0.03mg/g Mix 0.02ml Praz- Discard unused mixture as it (5.68mg/ml solution) iquantel with 0.35 does not remain stable. sterile water. Admin-ister 0.10 ml SQ. Albon Suspension 5%
0.002ml/g 0.02ml PO, SID. 5 days. Continue for 48 hours (Sulfadimethoxine 50mg/ml) after bat is asymptomatic. Panacur Suspension
0.005ml/g 0.05ml PO, SID. One dose weekly for Do not administer with flukicides (i.e. Valbazen). 0.005ml applied di- Do not use on sick, weak, or rectly onto the skin of underweight bats. the tail membrane.
OPHTHALMICS
Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
Triple Antibiotic Ophthal-
Apply a thin film over Administer until Itching, burning or inflam- mic Ointment (Bacitracin-
the cornea 3 or 4 improvement is noted. mation may occur in animals Neomycin-Polymyxin) sensitive to the product. Dis- continue use in such cases. Tobramycin Ophthalmic
Apply a thin film over Administer until Keratitis, erythema, local- Ointment (0.3%)
the cornea 2 or 3 improvement is noted. ized ocular toxicity, lid itch- ing and swelling. Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
Manuka honey
Apply topically to the Until injury is healed. Do Thoroughly drain abscesses wound and surround- not clean hardened layers before applying. Drain ab- of honey from the wound as it scesses daily or as needed, acts as a protective layer. Vetericyn VF™
Apply topically to the Reapply twice daily until in- wound and surround- fection is cleared. Novalsan® Solution
Dilute with water to One to two applications. (chlorhexidine diacetate) 10%. Flush affected areas twice a day. Apply liberally to Two to three times daily or as Can cause severe eye and (Lidocaine 0.5%, chlorhexi- necessary, until healing is mouth irritation. Avoid get- dine 0.2% solution) ting into eyes or mouth. Use a cotton swab to Apply once weekly to control (Plaque prevention gel)
apply a thin layer of plaque and tartar. gel to the teeth. Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
0.003ml/g Mix 0.03ml dexa- 2 to 7 days. When given for May cause excessive thirst (Injectable Solution more than 3 days, taper dose and urination. Do not use in 0.25ml LRS and ad- conjunction with NSAIDS minister entire dose by administering SID for two as gastric bleeding may re- SQ, BID. Warm fluids days, then SID every other before injecting. DIURETIC
Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
Lasix® (Furosemide) 0.01ml administered One to two doses only for May cause appetite loss, bloat caused by hypoproteine- diarrhea, thirst, nausea and mia. Standards and Medical Management for Captive Insectivorous Bats 120 SYMPATHOMIMETIC Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
Epinephrine
0.01ml/5g Mix 0.1ml epinephrine with Dramatic improvement An additional dose will be 1:1000 Sterile Solution 9.0ml sterile water. Inject should be seen within 5 needed if symptoms return. 0.01 SQ per every 5 grams of to 10 minutes. Inject an body weight. additional dose if symp- toms are not alleviated within 20 minutes. Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
Electrolyte Solution
See Dehydration and Fluid Until bat is Except when heat exhaustion/ Parenteral fluids Replacement Therapy. stroke is suspected, always (Lactated Ringers, Nor- NA warm fluids before a SQ in- mosol, Plasmalyte) jection. Excess fluids can ac- cumulate in the head, neck, and wrists. In severe cases fluid can accumulate in the lungs. Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
Vital® HN
Mix 1 part Vital® HN to 2 24 hours, then switch Can result in diarrhea if used (Peptide and free amino parts water. Administer up to soft food diet. in excess. As soon as im- acid based powder) provement is noted, switch to soft food. Calsorb® Gel
For pups and adults: 0.02 1 to 2 doses only. Is extremely bitter. Should be to 0.04ml PO, SID. given with honey to help mask Calcium supplement) Denosyl Tablets
0.005ml/g Dissolve one 90mg Denosyl® 10 to 14 days. Should be given on an empty (S-Adenosylmethionine tablet in 5.0ml water. Slip stomach. Can be mixed with the brown coating off the tablet as soon as it has sof- tened. Continue dissolving the tablet in the water. Ad- minister 0.05ml PO, BID. Milk Thistle
Administer 0.05 to 1.0ml Side effects are rare but can (Alcohol free liquid) include itching and diarrhea. Pet-Tinic®
0.005ml/g 0.05ml PO, BID. Until improvement (Iron supplement)
TRANQUILIZERS
Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
0.008ml/g 0.05ml Acepromazine with Every 4 to 6 hours. Do Side effects include anorexia (Acepromazine 10mg/ml, 0.05ml Torbugesic® and
not use for more than and drowsiness. Avoid using butorphanol 2mg/ml) 9.8ml LRS. Administer in bats with head trauma or 0.08ml SQ. Re-dose in 20 nervous system dysfunction. minutes if needed. RABIES VACCINE
Dose/g bw DOSAGE
DURATION
Three year vaccine 0.05ml SQ for pups weigh- One dose. Bats that are already incubat- 0.01ml/g ing up to 3.9 g. ing rabies infection may pre- sent with clinical signs of in- 0.1ml SQ for pups and adult fection within two weeks of bats weighing 4g and over. being vaccinated, and should be humanely euthanized.

Source: https://batworld.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/2011-medications.pdf

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