No. 121 June, 2015 The Ministry of Agricul-
ture Livestock and Fisheries has brought together several research institutions includ- ing the former Kenya Agricul- tural Research Institute (KARI), Coffee Research Foundation (CRF), Tea Research Founda- tion of Kenya (TRFK) and Kenya Sugar Research Foundation (KESREF) under one Research umbrella, the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organi- zation (KALRO). This is aimed at better coordination of research operations, increasing efficiency and improving generation of research outputs, reducing wastage by tightening admin- istration and resource alloca- tion and spurring the country's agricultural development. This will run within the framework of the long-term Agricultural Sector Development Pro- gramme Strategy (ASDPS) and National Agricultural Research Farmers can get good harvest of honey and other bee products through proper management of bee System (NARS) Policy to ensure colonies. In this way, bee pests and diseases can also be easily controlled. the country achieves its overall objectives in food self-suffi- Use organic methods to feed and protect crops ciency, which is in line with the country's Vision 2030 goals. TOF - After planting, the period sources, including fossil fuels. cidal and antifungal properties Agricultural research in any
between May and July is very Once these sources are depleted such as the African marigold, country is the goose that lays critical since the crops are in it is difficult to regenerate them. chillies, garlic, soddom's apple the golden egg. It has enabled their growth stage. They need and pyrethrum, the farmer can countries to develop demanded weeding, enough nutrients, The problem with chemi- easily control harmful crop new seed varieties and technol-
disease and pest control. During cal fertilizers
pests and diseases. Using these ogies that enhance food produc- this time agro-veterinary shops It has been scientifically proven organic inputs, the farmers not tion and income for small-scale make good sales from selling only reduce the cost of buying farmers and confront emerging that excessive use of fertilizers chemicals, but also ensure they threats in terms of pests and chemicals to farmers. Top damages the soil and causes have food crops that are safe diseases.
dressing, and pest and disease other negative environmen- control cost a lot of money. from chemical residues.
Inevitably, restructuring of
tal effects. This is one of the research institutions has to be Chemical fertilizers commonly reasons why farmers in the Organics work differently done in a very careful way to
used by farmers are primar- breadbasket areas of Kenya like ensure that the ongoing research ily made from non-renewable Trans Nzoia County no longer Farmers should remember that activities are not interfered with, enjoy the bountiful harvest of plant extracts do not work in delayed or abandoned. This in this issue
the same way as chemicals. For calls for careful redeployment Dolichos are healthy
instance, organic fertilizers like of staff such that there is proper Use plant extracts
farmyard manure break down matching of skills, experience The yellow and purplish colour according to nature's rules. and competences in every This means that they may not research discipline to make sure of the maize, beans and other release nutrients as quickly as all research operations continue crops usually shows that the as they were before or even crops do not have enough Organic plant extracts should improved.
Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) be applied two to three times a In the past, claims have been
Improving egg quality
and Potassium (K) and there- week for them to protect your made that there are lots of valu- fore require supply of these crops against harmful pests. able research findings in terms TOF on the web
nutrients (See TOF No. 24 May There's little to no risk of toxic of information, technologies, 2007, page 5). build up of chemicals and salts practices and systems that that can be deadly to plants and haven't benefited farmers. The Well prepared plant extracts new umbrella research body will other organisms that consume can address these deficiencies therefore need to operate differ- them. Organic fertilizers are if nutrient rich plants such ently to enhance effectiveness renewable, biodegradable, as tithonia, stinging nettle and efficiency in redefining the environmentally friendly and and comfrey, complemented agricultural research agenda by TOF partners on the web
therefore sustainable. identifying gaps that should be with bioslurry, are applied Past editions of TOF magazine can addressed and forging partner- to growing crops in the right be accessed through Infonet Biovi- ships with organizations, net- way. These correct the deficien- sion website (http://www.infonet- works and forums for strength- cies and even make the crop ening dissemination of research stronger to withstand pests merGroup) or The Organic Farmer outputs. We need to ensure that and diseases. When prepared majority of the farmers including KBC Thursday 8.15 pm with plants that have insecti- small-scale farmers benefit from Milele FM Tuesday 8.30 pm investments in research.
TOF P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi 00100, Tel. +254 20 863 21 86, SMS: 0715 916 136, Email: [email protected]

No. 121 June, 2015 Go organic on insect-pest and disease control Although many farmers nies develop stronger pesticides know the benefits of that can overcome the resistant organic pest and disease pests. However, a number of control, they prefer using new pesticides introduced to the market have serious side effects. dangerous pesticides. The risks of using chemical pes- The chemicals kill beneficial insects like parasitic wasps and ticides outweigh their ladybirds that control harmful benefits in the long term.
pests such as thrips, worms and caterpillars naturally. Also, Marigold The Organic Farmer Farmers most chemical elements in the
have a very difficult time at the pesticides do not breakdown moment due to pressure of pests completely when used on target and diseases and declining soil crops. Chemical residues remain fertility. Pest and diseases usually on the crop up to the time of tend to increase when it is warm harvest which has negative side and wet. At this time of the year, effects on people who consume shops selling chemical pesticides them. Some of the side effects make good sales because farmers include allergies, liver and kidney prefer use of "fast acting" chem- complications and cancers that Stinging neetle ical pesticides to deal with the are difficult to cure.
There are many safe, natural Malaria parasites usually and simple methods that farmers develop resistance to common can use to protect their crops anti-malaria drugs, which prompts from pests. In the past issues drug companies to develop stron- of The Organic Farmer, we have ger ones to prevent death. In the explained various methods that same way, pests also become farmers can use to protect their resistant to chemical pesticides. To crops without using chemicals. deal with this, chemical compa- One of these is the use of plant Garlic Chilliextracts. If properly used, plant extracts can not only prevent Other methods of insect pest and disease control pest damage, but also control Organic farming promotes an parasitic wasp (Ceranisus menes). separate one crop from another common fungal and bacterial integrated system of pest and The farmer can increase the also helps to control pests. For diseases while saving farmers a disease management where number of these natural enemies instance, a tithonia hedge can lot of money. the farmer, for instance, tries by providing protective habitats act as a barrier to insects such to restore the natural balance for them. as aphids. A row of pigeon Aggressive marketing of
between pests and their natural The use of chemicals disrupts peas (Mbaazi) can protect your chemicals
enemies (predators and parasit- all these systems because chemi- tomatoes, potatoes and even cabbages from red spider mites. Considering that preparing cals kill the natural enemies or Beans planted around toma- plants extracts requires more In this system, each organism beneficial insects, therefore toes, potatoes or any other crop labour and time, many farmers has an important part to play in allowing the pest population to also attract aphids and many are usually not ready to do the the ecosystem. For example, a increase to a level where they can other insects that may attack the extra work required to prepare few pests in a farm may not be destroy an entire crop. crop, thus protecting it.
plant extracts. They would a threat to your crops if there are Disease control is also possible prefer to walk to a shop selling predators which feed on them. in this system if the farmer prac- When planted in the farm, chemical pesticides and fertil- This helps to keep the predators tises crop rotation and intercrop- some plants such as the African izers.
alive. The predators on the other ping. marigold, aloe, blackjack, garlic, tephrosia, crotalaria, chilli, Chemical companies are hand ensure the pest popula- Crop rotation eliminates the peppers and eucalyptus natu- spending millions of shil- tion does not increase to a level problem of pests or diseases that rally repel and kill a number lings every month to advertise where they can devastate a crop. attack a particular crop; if maize of pests like the diamondback various chemical pesticides over For example, thrips are a is rotated with potatoes which moth, stemborer, cutworm and the local FM radio stations, most common vegetable pest. Their are affected by bacterial wilt, the aphids. When prepared and of which have a wide coverage natural enemies include preda- disease disappears in 3 to 4 years used as natural insecticides, in rural areas. In the advertise- tory thrips, predatory mites (like because the disease causing bac- African marigold, black jack, ments, the farmers are not told Amblyseius spp.), anthocorid teria cannot survive for long in tephrosia, lantana camara, garlic, of the numerous side effects of bugs or minute pirate bugs a maize field. The bacteria dies tea, papaya, pyrethrum and cro- the chemicals being sold. There- (Orius spp.), ground beetles, lace- because the host plant has been talaria kill the pests mentioned wings, hoverflies, spiders and removed. Planting hedges that above. continued on page 7 The Organic Farmer is an
Unported License.
(KARI), Dr. Henry Kiara (ILRI), Dr. David Amudavi independent magazine pro- Publisher icipe-African Insect Science for Food (ICIPE), George Nyamu (KENDBIP), John Njoroge
duced monthly for the East and Health, P.O. Box 30772, 00100 Nairobi, (KIOF), William Makechi (farmer, Likuyani), Regina African farming community. KENYA, +254 20 863 20 00; [email protected]; Muthama (farmer, Machakos) and Rt Snr Chief It promotes organic farming and supports discussions on Josiah Arende (farmer, Rongo).
all aspects of sustainable development. The articles in Editors Caroline Nyakundi, Peter Kamau
Layout James Wathuge
the The Organic Farmer do not necessarily reflect the Administrator Lucy W. Macharia, 020 863 21 86 Sponsor Biovision, a Swiss-based
views of ICIPE and Biovision Foundation. foundation for the promotion of License This work is licensed
Editorial Advisory Board Dr. Sunday Ekesi (ICIPE), ecological development, based in
under a Creative Commons Dr. Nguya Maniania (ICIPE), Dr. Joseph Mureithi Zürich, Switzerland. Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 No. 121 June, 2015 PGS certification is better for organic farmers Participatory Guarantee ities that bring them together Systems (PGS) are built on beyond aspects of agriculture. trust, integrity and trans- These activities are encouraged parency among organic as individuals within groups farmers. They are cheaper could have different interests and reduce bureaucra- cies involved in organic Such activities should, however, meet a particular certification and make it market demand. For example, possible for farmers to sell the group can start supermar- their produce in local and kets, schools, home deliver- regional markets. ies and farmers' markets. It is always good to have diverse Jack Juma Many small-scale
local markets to cushion farmers farmers who have gone into against market risks. organic certification, through The PGS products require the third party (certification active promotion through brand companies) have had to go development, good packaging, through a rigorous process and advertisement and participation incurred additional costs. They in trade fairs. Many PGS groups A farmer sells her organic produce during an organic farmers market also have a lot of paper work have their own logos. In Kenya day in Nairobi. to do to prove their compli- and East Africa region, Kilimohai ance with the requirements. directly participate in the cer- and India lead in the number of mark is used on PGS certified Third party certification is very tification process. This is real- farmers involved. PGS is, there- organic products. relevant for access to regulated istic and beneficial especially fore, unique as it is designed to The PGS groups should, export market. However, there for small-scale farmers and the suit particular markets and com- know from the start how they is growing realisation that third local, direct markets that PGS munities.
are going to fund their activi- party certification is not always systems are most likely to serve. ties. One option is to start with possible especially for farmers Stakeholders in a PGS system members' financial contribu- targeting the local and regional Active participation of
have shared vision, engage in tions or consumer support like processes of participatory, trans- in the case of Consumer Sup- parency, trust and learning. All ported Agriculture in USA. Efforts to promote PGS
Active participation on the members are basically equal in A local NGO or Government for local farmers
part of the farmers and other terms of power. In many cases agency can provide support. stakeholders results in greater PGS starts from community net- In recent times there has been a The PGS groups should empowerment and greater works where members meet to strong need to acknowledge and analyse their external and inter- responsibility. This requires address common issues, which develop PGS as an alternative nal funding opportunities and PGS to place a high priority on may range from table banking, and/or complementary option knowledge and capacity build- social issues or members' aim at being self-sustaining in to the third party certification. ing through training not only welfare. the long run. This is possible if Indeed the International Fed- for producers (in this case the some profits are put back into eration of Organic Agriculture farmers) but also for consumers. Interaction between
the operations that can sustain Movements (IFOAM) acknowl- farmers and consumers full operations.
edges that PGS are locally Most importantly, this direct Local organic markets are focused quality assurance involvement allows PGS pro- always a great drive for starting systems. They certify producers grammes to be less involving in PGS. When consumers interact The PGS groups should deliver based on active participation of terms of paperwork and record- with farmers or visit their farms, diverse quality organic prod- farmers and other stakeholders keeping, since PGS systems they get to see their production ucts in the market that meet the and are built on foundation of seek to be absolutely inclusive needs of consumers and enable methods and techniques. trust, networks and knowledge in bringing small-scale farmers them earn a reasonable income.
into an organic system of pro- Consumers also meet farmers at the organic farmers market, PGS has great potential
Two main factors have made ask questions, and get responses the growth of PGS certifica- PGS model built on trust
PGS has great potential for tion important: The desire to from the producers of food or developing both local and even Common certification pro- improve the way organic food is participate in peer reviews. This regional markets. Many con- grammes are usually based on certified and need for an organic builds trust and assures the sumers who want organic prod- the idea that farmers must prove guarantee system that is recog- consumers of the quality of the ucts will usually check whether they have complied with organic nised in local markets and not product, beyond the paper cer- the product is marked as "certi- standards and regulations to be controlled by the compliance fied organic" and not just the certified. PGS programmes use requirements and costs associ- certificate and logos. an integrity-based approach that Regular peer review or on ated with third party certifica- starts with the foundation of farm inspection carried by The fact that farmers are trust. Farmers and consumers farmers is a valuable tool for entrusted with guarantee of organic produce provides Fundamental values of
are expected to be transparent knowledge exchange as farmers and open, while maintaining discuss problems, challenges them motivation to do better. an environment that minimizes and share advice.
However, caution must always be taken to ensure that PGS PGS shares a common goal hierarchies and administrative with third-party certification levels.
Sustaining the PGS
does not appear less effective systems in providing a cred- Any group of farmers who want than third party certification. ible guarantee for consumers How does PGS Work?
to establish PGS must think *Jack Juma is the Technical Advisor, seeking organic produce. The There are several PGS operating beyond establishing the usual Standards and Certification, Kenya difference is in the approach. all over the world with an esti- rules that govern the group Organic Agriculture Network In PGS, farmers and consumers mated 46,000 farmers across 38 members. Many PGS groups are (KOAN), email: kajuma@koan. are encouraged and required to countries. Philippines, Uganda involved in other common activ- No. 121 June, 2015 Common bee pests and diseases in East Africa can be controlled with good farming practices Honey bees are respon- (such as cutting down trees and was found to be sible for at least one third shrubs that bees forage on), a common pest of agricultural production certain diseases and parasites, in most of the in the world. Unfortu- poor nutrition, loss of queens bee colonies. and certain commercial bee The team found nately, these bees have keeping practices. been dying very fast mite, also called and this threatens our East African bees more
Varroa Destruc- ability to produce enough tolerant
tor, destroys or and affordable nutritious It has been established that bees attacks broods in Kenya and other parts of East (young ones Africa are generally resistant of bees) in the Caroline Nyakundi or tolerant of the parasites and combs as well
Although tough and well- pathogens that threaten honey- as adults. adapted to the environment than bee populations in other parts Some of the do bees in Europe and America, of the world. One reason could bee colonies African bees are also affected by be that they have not yet been have genes pests and diseases. In Europe affected by stressors like expo- that provide and America, the Colony Col- sure to toxins in the environ- good "groom- lapse Disorder (CCD) has led ment. ing behaviour" Beekeepers should always check their hives for the presence of wax moth which can be easily controlled by to huge reduction of honey bee It is likely that low levels of burning the honey combs and cleaning the hives. (scientific name of the Kenyan resisting varroa pesticides in hives from across bee is Apis melifera scutellata) However, because of the migra- populations. CCD happens Kenya, compared to that in recessive genes (not dominant) tory nature of bees, it is pos- when worker bees from hon- developed countries, may be enable some bee colonies to sible that some bees may carry eybee colonies suddenly disap- responsible for the resistant resist the varroa mite, resulting the mites, especially when they pear. The colony remains with nature of the bees. Scientists in in a "hygienic colony". Some are swarming (bees reproduce no adult bees or dead bee bodies ICIPE are, however, working to bee species may not resist the when swarming). The varroa but with a live queen, and some establish the factors that contrib- mite as their grooming behav- mites have to be controlled as honey and immature bees. ute to the resilience of the East iour may not be so efficient. But they can be destructive going by what has been observed in CCD has not been identified grooming ability depends on Europe and America – which in bee colonies in Kenya or East Pests identified in East
the genetic ability of a particular have much higher levels of Africa. Although no particular varroa mite infestation than in cause of CCD is known, scien- African bees had been found East Africa. tists have established that due 1. Varroa mites
to resist attack by the varroa to environmental pollution and The varroa mite is an external mites. Dr. Eliud Muli, a bee- Research into controlling
pesticide applications, there has parasitic mite that attacks the keeping and honey produc- varroa mites
been a decline in the population honey bees. It is common in tion expert in ICIPE, in a study Kenya and many other parts of conducted in a few African Although varroa mites have Other factors that may be Africa. countries, found that the East been located in nearly all the responsible for colony loses In a survey by the ICIPE bee African bees are quite resistant locations surveyed by ICIPE include climate change, loss of health team in Central, West and to varroa as compared to the in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethio- habitats (for bees to get food), Southern part of Africa (Mada- European ones – as they groom, pia, not all colonies (hives) are destruction of the environment gascar) in 2014, the varroa mite they kick the varroa mite out of affected by the mites. their bodies; they also chew and "ICIPE is working on ways Signs of pest and disease infestation throw out the mite. of rearing colonies that are free of varroa mites. This involves • Reduced honey production ling honey bee diseases. breeding queens that are resis- • Dead bees at the entrance of • Replace the queen every two tant to varroa. To breed a new the hives. When there is severe years. This prevents the diseases generation of varroa-resistant infection or pesticide pollution and pests from being transmit- bees, scientists get drones from you get many bees dead at the ted from the queen to her gen- another hive which is resistant to varroa mite then artificially How to manage bee
• Routinely inspect your hives Varroa mite inseminate the resistant queen. • Check them for symptoms of The next generation of queens is colonies for maximum
pest and diseases and contact Varroa mites spread
likely to have at least 40 – 60% ICIPE or a qualified bee keeper viruses
of the resistant gene in the first • Ensure you protect your When bees get infested by filial generation. By repeating environment and its biodiver- • Avoid domestication of bees, varroa mites, they are infected the breeding line one can have which has been related to the sity (all the living things in an by their viruses. The mites have 80% resistant strain of bees – a collapse of bee populations in environment). Do not cut trees spread viruses that cause bee strong queen that produces a other parts of the world. and shrubs as these provide diseases in most parts of the robust colony," says Prof. Suresh nutritious food that ensures For more information or training world except a few particularly Raina. bees have a strong immunity to on bee keeping you can get in East African countries. When Hives that are infested with resist diseases and pests.
touch with Prof. Suresh Raina, they get into a hive they trans- the varroa are then replaced the Team Leader, the Bee Health • Bee keepers should always mit the viruses through the with the new generation of Programme; Tel. No. 020-8632060. avoid using industrial pesti- brood, they suck up their body A Practical Guide for Sericul- queens that are varroa-resistant. cides in controlling crop pests. fluids and destroy them. Scien- ture and Apiculture is avail- Currently, scientists are validat- They weaken the bees and make tists have found out that Varroa able at a cost of Ksh. 1,000. ing the results of the experi- them susceptible to diseases.
mites transmits many different The book is available in English, ments after which the resistant types of viruses in East Africa. • Avoid using aggressive Kiswahili, Luganda, French, Arabic queens will be distributed coun- chemical treatments for control- and Spanish. The source of the mites in trywide. This will ensure that East Africa is not yet known. we have varroa-free apiaries, No. 121 June, 2015 Common bee pests and diseases in East Africa can be controlled with good farming practices the beetles love the The fungus affects the gut or organisms that cause diseases. smell of honey and intestines of the bee and affects Since they are foraging insects so are naturally their ability to make food. The (this means that they travel over attracted to bee bees do not go out of the hive but a wide area to search for food), hives. It is some- stay in and put their faeces on the bees can easily be poisoned by times difficult to comb – you can see some lines chemicals in the environment detect the presence of the bee faeces in the combs. such as pesticides used on the of this beetle in the When the bees defecate in the plants and flowers that they bee colony because combs they spread the spores of visit for food. Even in small once the hive is the fungus. High levels of infec- doses, pesticides can weaken the opened, the beetle tion can result in death of bees. immunity of the bees and this usually escapes The colony gets weak because makes them very vulnerable to into the dark. To be of the disease as the adult bees diseases and pests. able to catch them, die, honey production reduces special traps can be Pesticides have been identi- and the population of bees gen- used in the hive. fied as one of the major causes erally decreases because there is The beetle hides in of death of bees, especially in not enough royal jelly to feed the the trap and this Europe and America where brood. If the queen gets infected, makes it easy to whole colonies have collapsed. her ovaries can degenerate and detect the presence In many cases, spraying crops this reduces her capacity to lay Beekeepers should always check their hives for the presence of wax moth which can be easily controlled by of the beetle early. with pesticides may instantly eggs. If the colony is largely burning the honey combs and cleaning the hives. If not controlled, kill the bees or impair their affected the colony can disapper which means possibly virus free behaviour, and they do not (collapse). It is possible to detect beetle can destroy the whole return to the hives once they hives that have been infected leave to forage. The colony col- Veterinary officers and bee colony. This beetle can also be with Nosema apis by the fact that lapses naturally as there are no experts from 46 African Union controlled using a strip contain- such hives usually fail to build adult bees to take care of the (AU) member states have been ing a repellent that has been up after death of the queen or "babies" or grubs. trained on how to develop api- developed by ICIPE. aries that are free of the pests 3. Wax moth
Farmers and bee keepers Symptoms of Nosema (spores) and diseases. The breeding of should know that destroy- Although not common in hives have been identified in the Coast, varroa-free colonies is not only ing the environment kills the in East Africa, the wax moth can although ICIPE scientists have being done in Kenya, but also in agents of pollination and this be destructive in infested hives. not yet located the disease in the some parts of Africa. This has seriously affects food produc- The moth lays eggs and their colonies that have been studied.
been done in Ethiopia, and initi- tion. When the bees are weak grubs (larvae), eat the comb, wax ated in Cameroon, Madagascar, 2. Chalk brood disease
due to pesticides, pollution and and honey. These moths liter- Burkina Faso and Liberia. Another disease that had been other environmental issues – the colony gets weak. Remember Prof. Raina's team is also identified in the country is the the amount of pesticide used by conducting experiments to find Chalk Brood disease which is beekeepers has already been out what happens to the East caused by a fungus. Although, shown to be related to high African bees when they are there are some indications of levels of varroa mite infestation attacked by the mites or get this disease in East Africa, more in hives in Europe and America. exposed to pesticides. This may research is being done to deter- provide insights as to why the mine the seriousness of this Why African bees are
East African bees seem resilient disease, in West, Central and East more resistant?
to the varroa pest yet those in other parts of the world are A wax moth larvae 3. Foulbrood disease
About 90% of bees in East Africa ally chew up everything, leaving The two major diseases – Euro- live in the natural environment 2. Small hive beetle
powdery residue in the hive. The pean Foulbrood and American and this should be maintained. Farmers make traditional hives, This is another pest that troubles solution to this is to maintain the Foulbrood – that are common which bees visit during some bees in the East African region. apiaries including cleaning and in Europe and America have not seasons to make honey then These beetles spread in the repairs. been located or recorded any- leave. This allows frequent world as a result of global trade where in East Africa. In the 2014 or through flight. The beetles Common diseases that
survey of hives, in East Africa swarming, and the diseased bees can be a real menace to bees as ,ICIPE scientists did not detect die naturally leaving the healthy affect bees in East Africa
any signs of the disease but some they disturb the bees, eat the ones to thrive. The domesticated 1. Nosema disease
spores have been detected in honey and wax and crush the hives do not swarm and this Nosema in honey bees is caused some hives. combs. The large hive beetle has reduces their ability to survive by one of two (or both) fungi been identified in some hives So far, farmers in Kenya are harsh conditions such as disease, called Nosema apis and Nosema but is usually not problematic. safe from this disease. But in drought and cold. ceranae. Nosema apis has been Libya, and some parts of North How to detect the beetle identified in bee colonies in Africa like Tunisia, Algeria and De-forestation affects
Kenya. This disease causes a kind According to Dr. Ayuka Libya, the disease has been bees' health
of dysentery (in humans, it is an Fombong, a research scientist infection of the intestines result- Farmers should avoid cutting in the ICIPE bee health project, ing in severe diarrhoea with the Effects of pesticides on
trees and shrubs which results presence of blood and mucus in bees' health
in less sources of food for bees. the faeces). It usually affects the This problem is common in East adult bees and has been known Bees have a more delicate Africa where people cut down to cause a lot of bee deaths in immune system than do humans trees for charcoal and firewood. many parts of the world. The and cannot withstand pollution Bees have to travel long dis- spores of the fungus have been or harmful chemicals. Honey tances to find food and water identified in the Coastal area of bees (called Apis melifera) can be and this makes it difficult for Kenya, but the situation is not affected by pathogens - viruses, them to get sufficient amount of Small hive beetle in a honey comb serious, according to Prof. Raina. bacteria, fungi and other micro- pollen and nectar. No. 121 June, 2015 Eat and enjoy the health benefits of dolichos Dolichos are rich in good How to sprout and cook
quality proteins and dolichos
fibre. They help regulate Black beans are available blood sugar and blood year-round, in the market and in pressure, among other grocery stores either dried and health benefits for con- packaged or canned. They have a dense, almost meaty texture that makes them a popular Dr. Peter Mokaya Dolichos,
source of protein in vegetarian also called turtle beans, are a dishes. One is, however, encour- small type of legume. In Kenya, aged to find and purchase the they are a delicacy among the organically grown varieties. Kikuyu community (referred One way to eat "njahi" is to as Njahi). They are typically in the form of sprouts. Sprouts served during traditional cer- have a very rich concentration emonies including weddings. of high quality proteins loaded Their history, however, dates quality protein that can replace Excess weight is partly respon- with useful enzymes and highly back 7000 years ago when they "nyama" for those who cannot sible for diabetes, hypertension, bioavailable micronutrients. You were popular in the Latin Amer- afford meat.
arthritis and other lifestyle dis- can add the "njahi" sprouts to ican cuisine.
salads or eat the sprouts them- • They are a good source of eases.
selves by adding a little salt, They fix nitrogen
insoluble fibre. This fibre has • Dolichos have been shown to have anti-cancerous and anti- cummin, lemon, finely minced Dolichos are a rich source of several benefits including aging properties because their onions and olive oil. nitrogen, through nitrogen fixa- serving as pre-biotics (food for dark colour shows they are tion, and are often intercropped the healthy bacteria in your gut), Sort and soak them
a rich source of antioxidants. with maize to provide the as a "filler food" which create a These antioxidants neutral- When preparing dolichos, it is much-needed nitrogen. feeling of "fullness" and hence reduce the need to eat extra ize free radicals in our bodies important to first sort (pick out In this article, we seek to food.
that cause cell damage associ- any small rocks or other debris encourage more communities, ated with cancer cells develop- that may have ended up in the other than the Kikuyu, to plant • They cleanse the gut, by ment and speeding up the aging package). Wash and soak them these black beans using organic serving a bulk forming purga- process.
in water for about 8 to 10 hours methods-without synthetic fer- tive - through various mecha- before cooking in order to achieve tilizers and pesticides - and to nisms and complement the Other benefits of Njahi
optimum flavor and texture and consume them as part of their healing process of inflamma- Other benefits, which should enable faster cooking.
health diet and as a source of tory gut conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, leaky gut and encourage more people to Pour the soaking water- when healthy protein and fibre.
hemorrhoids (bleeding from consume dolichos include: you can split them easily between Many health benefits
piles at the extreme end of the • They also contain minerals your fingers, you know they are ready for cooking. Be careful not Why should you consume like potassium, magnesium to soak them for more than 12 organically grown ‘njahi"? • When absorbed into circula- and low sodium levels which hours, otherwise they become Some of the reasons why you tion and metabolised, through make them good for the heart mushy and spoil the taste. are encouraged to grow and various processes, they contrib- and generally aid in regulating Soaking dried legumes consume organically grown ute to reduction of blood pres- blood pressure.
sure and heart health.
dolichos is that: reduces the amount of time • The beans also play a key • They also contain vital nutri- needed to cook them. In addition • They are an excellent source role in blood sugar regulation ents like iron, zinc, B vitamins, it helps remove substances that of vegetarian protein; good by slowing down the release of folate and manganese, which cause gas and flatulence associ- simple sugars. This is because make dolichos a rich and deli- ated with eating beans.
they contain complex carbohy- cious "superfood." drates and fibre which create a • Ayurveda uses njahi to treat Some cooking tips
feeling of satiety (fullness) and a variety of conditions ranging You can make a hearty black reduce more intake of sugar. from rheumatism to worm bean soup to warm you up on Dolichos have a low glycaemic cold days, especially these cold index and are therefore rec- removal, treating conjunctivitis and rainy months of May, June ommended for diabetics and (eye inflammation) and piles and July by blending cooked people, including farmers, who (haemorrhoids).
black beans with onions, toma- may want to regulate their blood • Another great benefit of njahi toes, and your favourite spices.
sugar levels.
is its use in extracting phlegm • Blend cooked black beans • Research studies have shown (thick mucous) associated with with garlic, onion, fresh cilantro that dolichos have powerful coughs and colds. and lime juice for a quick and diuretic properties- this means • Taking njahi powder in a little easy bean dip.
that they can facilitate the body's removal of excess fluids, bit of water regularly, helps in • Mix black beans, onions, through the kidneys. Infact, their treating and controlling skin lettuce, tomatoes, avocado, effect, in some studies has been rashes and boils.
sharp cheddar cheese and salsa found to be similar or equal to • Njahi liquid is also used to together for a simple taco salad.
using the drug Lasix, without regulate fever.
Dr. Peter Mokaya is the Direc- the associated side effects.
Njahi also helps in lowering tor of Organic Consumers Alliance • For those keen on losing cholesterol levels.
(OCA). For more information go weight, it has compounds • Contrary to what many to or known as phenols, which help people think, if well prepared contact him at Mokayapm@gmail. to reduce weight thus eating and cooked, they help alleviate com or info@organicconsumers. Varieties of dolichos njahi is highly recommended. and relief gas or flatulence.
No. 121 June, 2015 Preventive measures against maize disease I would like to know more on how to grow maize and how to protect it from MLND.
It is important to prepare land meant for maize planting early before the rains. Make sure the soil is finely ploughed. The right spacing in highland areas is usually 75 cm x 25 cm while in lowland areas, it is 90cm x 30cm. Plant 2 seeds per hole or 1 seed alternating with 2 seeds per hole. Plant early before the begin- ning of the rains. Reduce the use of chemical fertilizers but use organic fertilizers that are now available in the market. Up to now no cure has been maize last year, it is advisable harbor insect pests that transfer Preventive measures
found for the control of the to plant a different crop where the disease to your new maize Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease maize was planted to reduce the crop. against MLND
(MLND). But farmers can take a incidence of infection. Infected green or dry maize Early weeding is also important number of preventive measures Destroy all volunteer maize stalks can be fed to livestock to ensure the maize utilizes all to contain the disease. One of plants, weeds or other crops thereby mitigating the maize loss the nutrients in the soil without these measures is to practise crop in the field where you intend through increased milk produc- competition from the weeds. rotation; if a field was under to plant maize since they may tion. continued from page 2 How to control banana Xanathomonas wilt disease fore, this explains why many of the leaves and the buds of the farmers would opt for the easy male part of the plant, which later on shrivels (collapses).
Farmers who know the Control measures: Farmers
dangers posed by chemicals, have should observe their banana adopted plant extracts and other plants for any symptoms of the biological methods to control disease and remove the diseased pests and diseases. These organic plants in order to stop its spread. farmers spend less money, have Cut the infected plants into small healthier crops and their income pieces. Removal of the male bud is also higher because they spend can reduce chances of infection less in terms of inputs. Healthier crops can also withstand diseases of the entire plant; this is also How do we overcome banana Tanzania, Kenya and Burundi.
essential to maintain the quality For those farmers who find it wilt challenge in our farm? (Con- of the fruit. Do not cover any Symptoms: The main symptoms
to be time consuming to prepare tinued from TOF May 2015) part of the banana plant with of BXW show on the fruit. A plant extracts to control pests, topsoil. Disinfect all tools used bacterial pus comes out of the some local companies have Ban ana Xathomonas wilt i infected banana plant organs. The in the banana plantation to stop started making organic pesticides bacterial disease caused by fruit has an internal discoloura - them from spreading the disease. some of which are highlighted Xathomonas campestris pv. tion and shows immature ripen - Practising crop rotation by plant- Musacearium. It originated from ing. There is also an orange-yel- ing other crops such as maize, Nimbecidine: This is a pesticide Uganda in 2001 and affected all low discolouration on stem tissue beans, vegetables such as suku-
made from neem oil that can varieties of bananas. Since then including a dark brown tissue mawiki and cabbages can reduce control a wide range of insect it has spread to Rwanda, DRC, scars. There is gradual yellowing the spread of the disease. pests and mites and nematodes. It is safe and does not harm ben- eficial insects.
Thuricide HP: This is a pesticide
made from Bacillus Thurigien- sis (Bt) that effectively controls Making animal feeds on the farm
cabbage looper and other pests Several times, we have by constituting feeds the feeds for the farmers. All in tomatoes, cabbages, coffee responded to farmers' at home, farmers the farmer needs is to giv and citrus fruits. Bt is available requests on the issue under different brands, so the have been able to a feed formular and they use to of feed preparation by farmer has to enquire which of cut these cost by up mix the various ingredients for the Bt brands are available in the providing different to 50 per cent espe- you. agrovet shops.
feed formulae that can cially where the raw be used to make feeds Farmer facing this challenge Pyegar: This is a pesticide made
materials are cheaply at home. This is one can now contact Tarime sup- from a pyrethrum extract that is available. Quite a way our magazine is pliers on Tel. 0729 099 550 very effective in the control of all number of farmers using to ensure farmers types of pests that attack a wide are unable to constitute the increase their earnings from (city stadium, Nairobi). Farmers range of crops.
feeds on their own. To deal with poultry, pig and dairy farming who require feed formulae can Phosphite: This is a fungicide
this problem, Tarime Suppliers, one of the companies selling download them from TOF Nos.102, that can be used to control a number of fungal diseases (more Feeds take up to 80 per cent of feed to farmers has started a 111 and 116. Visit our website at on this product later).
a farmers total production costs; service where they constitute No. 121 June, 2015 answers your questions 0717 551 129 / 0738 390 715 TOFRadio is broadcast on Milele FM at 8:45pm on Sunday, and KBC on Thursday at Beehives for sale: We make
8:45pm. Tune in and listen to farmer experiences and expert advice on agribusiness beehives for sale. Interested and eco-friendly farming methods. On this page, we respond to some of the issues farmers can make orders on any raised by farmers in their correspondence to the radio program. Send your questions quantity they require. The fol- and comments via SMS 0715 916 136.
lowing are prices for various hives: Langstroth Ksh 4,500, Ensure your chickens lay eggs with strong shell Kenya Top Bar Hive Ksh 3,800,
Stingless bee hives cost Ksh 400 Joyce Wambui Mahui It
and Ksh 1,500 depending on is quite distressing for farmers size. Interested farmers can call when their chickens suddenly Stephen on 0734 371 557. start laying eggs with weak shells which are not strong Liquid organic fertilizer:
enough for storage and even Seaweed extract with over 60 sale. Such eggs present a big nutrients. Ideal for all crops loss to the farmer who has spent sukumawiki, wheat, tomatoes, time and money rearing the chillies, potatoes, fruit trees, chickens to make a profit. Napier grass, tea, coffee, beans and others. Quantity 1-4 liters. Nobody is interested in Contact 0721 96 09 49 or 0734 buying such eggs even at a 020 982. Email: bweru@gmail.
throw away price. The eggs are not any good either for hatch- ing to produce the next batch of Fruit seedlings: We have fruit
chickens. Many poultry farmers seedlings for sale. Grafted depend on their chickens to Apple mango at Ksh 150 per provide them and their fami- seedling, grafted Avocado lies with good quality eggs and at Ksh120, grapes at Ksh 300, quality meat and income.
challenge to ensure the chick- eggs. On the other hand, grafted purple passion at Ksh ens have a balanced diet that adequate calcium contributes 300, tree tomato at Ksh 50, Eggs a steady source of
includes calcium in their daily greatly to chickens producing pawpaw at Ksh 50, breadfruit at eggs with thick shells. It is also Ksh 500, tangerines at Ksh150, Like any other enterprise, very important for a farmer to peach at Ksh 300, Pomegranate farmers have to pay their bills, Common in old birds
make sure the chickens are fed a Ksh 150. Call 0714 118 794. feed and pay school fees for Cases of hens laying eggs with well-balanced diet even at matu- Cypress seedlings for sale: We
their children, and provide for weak shells or no shells at all rity so that they remain healthy have 200,000 cypress seedlings other family needs. It's impor- are usually higher with the and produce good quality eggs. for sale, price is negotiable. Call tant for poultry farmers to have older birds in the flock. This Robert 0705 185 225 Molo sub- information at their finger tips is because the birds have been Calcium easily available county.
on the best feeding practices for laying eggs for a long time. A As most farmers are limited White dry maize for sale: I
poultry to make them produc- hen loses calcium as it lays eggs. by resources, they do not have want to buy white dry maize, tive and provide an income. Calcium is the primary to spend much money to get cash on delivery. Contact: So, how can a farmer prevent mineral that makes up egg- calcium for their chickens feed. [email protected] his or her birds from laying eggs Good sources of calcium are with weak shells? shells and when not supplied easily available in the locality of Seedlings: Garlic and sweet
in adequate amounts in their Farmers can overcome this bananas in Karatina. Contact diet, the hens may not have this Limestone and oyster shells 0723 900 051. basic mineral that it needs to make the eggshell. The problem can be a very good source of comes about when whole grains calcium when mixed well with Advice to farmers
or feeds deficient in miner- the chicken feed. Diatomite is We have been receiving many als and vitamins make up the also a good souce of calcium.
calls and enquiries on items bulk of the laying hen's diet. For farmers who do not live advertised in this column. We Thin eggshells are observed near the sea, egg shells and would like to bring to the atten- when calcium, phosphorus and bones are also a good source tion of buyers and sellers of vitamin D3 are not provided in of calcium. After using the egg, various items advertised that diets in adequate amounts. crush the eggshells into powder they should contact the adver-
and feed your chickens. Dry and tisers directly through tele-
Provide balanced diet
crush the eggshells first, other- phone, emails and facebook
The problem of soft eggshells wise the chickens may get into accounts given and not The
is also more common during the habit of eating their own Organic Farmer magazine. We periods of hot weather because eggs. would also like to advise farmers calcium is conserved and to be careful not to send money Give your chickens well-bal- before they have verified the retained within the hen's body anced feed that contains carbo- quality of any items they intend and released less efficiently. hydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, to buy. The magazine will not Like human beings and other minerals and fresh, clean water, accept any responsibility for any animals, chickens also need and try to keep them comfort- loss as a result of any transaction energy sources, protein, fat and able. between the buyers and sellers of oils, vitamins, and minerals in After the eggshell quality is items advertised in the maga- their daily ration. Absence of restored, farmers should strive zine. The symbol denotes the minerals like calcium in the to maintain this by ensuring the facebook address of the contact hens continue to get complete advertiser - it is not possible to daily feed, affects egg forma- access facebook unless you have tion. Lack of adequate calcium layer diet supplemented with Eggs on sale in a market in feed rations results in weak minerals.


Mosaico xpress 2

Periodico edito dal Centro Servizi per ilVolontariato - Ferrara Sped. in A.P. Comma 20/c art.2 Legge 662/96 Filiale di Ferrara 4 Un convegno suletteratura e diversità CSV Ferrara - Settore Documentazione Questo numero spe- versità, emarginazione. I e Volontariato', tenutosi il ciale di "Mosaico" generi, le esperienze", il 31 maggio 2003 a Ferra-

Topamax fi ohne korrekturkennung

Information for Healthcare Professionals NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT Haldol-Janssen solution for injection 5 mg/mL QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION 1 mL solution for injection contains 5 mg haloperidol. For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM Solution for injection Clear, colourless solution.