Ogni antibiotico è efficace in relazione a un determinato gruppo di microrganismi comprare amoxil senza ricettain caso di infezioni oculari vengono scelte gocce ed unguenti.
No. 121 June, 2015
The Ministry of Agricul-
ture Livestock and Fisheries
has brought together several
research institutions includ-
ing the former Kenya Agricul-
tural Research Institute (KARI),
Coffee Research Foundation
(CRF), Tea Research Founda-
tion of Kenya (TRFK) and Kenya
Sugar Research Foundation
(KESREF) under one Research
umbrella, the Kenya Agricultural
and Livestock Research Organi-
zation (KALRO). This is aimed at
better coordination of research
operations, increasing efficiency
and improving generation of
research outputs, reducing
wastage by tightening admin-
istration and resource alloca-
tion and spurring the country's
agricultural development. This
will run within the framework
of the long-term Agricultural
Sector Development Pro-
gramme Strategy (ASDPS) and
National Agricultural Research
Farmers can get good harvest of honey and other bee products through proper management of bee
System (NARS) Policy to ensure
colonies. In this way, bee pests and diseases can also be easily controlled.
the country achieves its overall
objectives in food self-suffi-
Use organic methods to feed and protect crops ciency, which is in line with the
country's Vision 2030 goals.
TOF - After planting, the period sources, including fossil fuels. cidal and antifungal properties Agricultural research in any
between May and July is very Once these sources are depleted such as the African marigold, country is the goose that lays
critical since the crops are in it is difficult to regenerate them. chillies, garlic, soddom's apple the golden egg. It has enabled
their growth stage. They need
and pyrethrum, the farmer can countries to develop demanded
weeding, enough nutrients, The problem with chemi- easily control harmful crop new seed varieties and technol-
disease and pest control. During cal fertilizers
pests and diseases. Using these ogies that enhance food produc-
this time agro-veterinary shops It has been scientifically proven organic inputs, the farmers not tion and income for small-scale
make good sales from selling
only reduce the cost of buying farmers and confront emerging
that excessive use of fertilizers chemicals, but also ensure they threats in terms of pests and
chemicals to farmers. Top damages the soil and causes have food crops that are safe diseases.
dressing, and pest and disease other negative environmen-
control cost a lot of money.
from chemical residues.
Inevitably, restructuring of
tal effects. This is one of the
research institutions has to be
Chemical fertilizers commonly reasons why farmers in the Organics work differently done in a very careful way to
used by farmers are primar- breadbasket areas of Kenya like
ensure that the ongoing research
ily made from non-renewable Trans Nzoia County no longer Farmers should remember that activities are not interfered with,
enjoy the bountiful harvest of plant extracts do not work in delayed or abandoned. This
in this issue
the same way as chemicals. For calls for careful redeployment
Dolichos are healthy
instance, organic fertilizers like of staff such that there is proper
Use plant extracts
farmyard manure break down matching of skills, experience
The yellow and purplish colour according to nature's rules. and competences in every
This means that they may not research discipline to make sure
of the maize, beans and other release nutrients as quickly as all research operations continue
crops usually shows that the
as they were before or even
crops do not have enough Organic plant extracts should improved.
Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) be applied two to three times a In the past, claims have been
Improving egg quality
and Potassium (K) and there- week for them to protect your made that there are lots of valu-
fore require supply of these crops against harmful pests. able research findings in terms
TOF on the web
nutrients (See TOF No. 24 May There's little to no risk of toxic of information, technologies,
2007, page 5).
build up of chemicals and salts practices and systems that
that can be deadly to plants and haven't benefited farmers. The
Well prepared plant extracts
new umbrella research body will
other organisms that consume
can address these deficiencies
therefore need to operate differ-
them. Organic fertilizers are
if nutrient rich plants such
ently to enhance effectiveness
as tithonia, stinging nettle
and efficiency in redefining the
environmentally friendly and
and comfrey, complemented
agricultural research agenda by
TOF partners on the web
identifying gaps that should be
with bioslurry, are applied Past editions of TOF magazine can addressed and forging partner-
to growing crops in the right be accessed through Infonet Biovi- ships with organizations, net-
way. These correct the deficien- sion website (http://www.infonet- works and forums for strength-
cies and even make the crop biovision.org/default/text/-1/orgFar- ening dissemination of research
stronger to withstand pests merGroup) or The Organic Farmer outputs. We need to ensure that
and diseases. When prepared
majority of the farmers including
KBC Thursday 8.15 pm
with plants that have insecti-
small-scale farmers benefit from
Milele FM Tuesday 8.30 pm
investments in research.
TOF P.O. Box 30772, Nairobi 00100, Tel. +254 20 863 21 86, SMS: 0715 916 136, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
No. 121 June, 2015
Go organic on insect-pest and disease control
Although many farmers
nies develop stronger pesticides
know the benefits of
that can overcome the resistant
organic pest and disease
pests. However, a number of
control, they prefer using
new pesticides introduced to the
market have serious side effects.
dangerous pesticides. The
risks of using chemical pes-
The chemicals kill beneficial
insects like parasitic wasps and
ticides outweigh their
ladybirds that control harmful
benefits in the long term.
pests such as thrips, worms
and caterpillars naturally. Also, Marigold
The Organic Farmer Farmers most chemical elements in the
have a very difficult time at the pesticides do not breakdown
moment due to pressure of pests completely when used on target
and diseases and declining soil crops. Chemical residues remain
fertility. Pest and diseases usually on the crop up to the time of
tend to increase when it is warm harvest which has negative side
and wet. At this time of the year, effects on people who consume
shops selling chemical pesticides them. Some of the side effects
make good sales because farmers include allergies, liver and kidney
prefer use of "fast acting" chem- complications and cancers that Stinging neetle
ical pesticides to deal with the are difficult to cure.
There are many safe, natural
Malaria parasites usually and simple methods that farmers
develop resistance to common can use to protect their crops
anti-malaria drugs, which prompts from pests. In the past issues
drug companies to develop stron- of The Organic Farmer, we have
ger ones to prevent death. In the explained various methods that
same way, pests also become farmers can use to protect their
resistant to chemical pesticides. To crops without using chemicals.
deal with this, chemical compa- One of these is the use of plant Garlic
Chilliextracts. If properly used, plant
extracts can not only prevent
Other methods of insect pest and disease control pest damage, but also control
Organic farming promotes an parasitic wasp (Ceranisus menes). separate one crop from another common fungal and bacterial
integrated system of pest and The farmer can increase the also helps to control pests. For diseases while saving farmers a
disease management where number of these natural enemies instance, a tithonia hedge can lot of money.
the farmer, for instance, tries by providing protective habitats act as a barrier to insects such
to restore the natural balance for them.
as aphids. A row of pigeon Aggressive marketing of
between pests and their natural The use of chemicals disrupts peas (Mbaazi) can protect your chemicals
enemies (predators and parasit- all these systems because chemi- tomatoes, potatoes and even
cabbages from red spider mites. Considering that preparing
cals kill the natural enemies or Beans planted around toma- plants extracts requires more
In this system, each organism beneficial insects, therefore toes, potatoes or any other crop labour and time, many farmers
has an important part to play in allowing the pest population to also attract aphids and many are usually not ready to do the
the ecosystem. For example, a increase to a level where they can other insects that may attack the extra work required to prepare
few pests in a farm may not be destroy an entire crop.
crop, thus protecting it.
plant extracts. They would
a threat to your crops if there are Disease control is also possible
prefer to walk to a shop selling
predators which feed on them. in this system if the farmer prac- When planted in the farm, chemical pesticides and fertil-
This helps to keep the predators tises crop rotation and intercrop- some plants such as the African izers.
alive. The predators on the other ping.
marigold, aloe, blackjack, garlic,
tephrosia, crotalaria, chilli,
Chemical companies are
hand ensure the pest popula- Crop rotation eliminates the peppers and eucalyptus natu- spending millions of shil-
tion does not increase to a level problem of pests or diseases that rally repel and kill a number lings every month to advertise
where they can devastate a crop. attack a particular crop; if maize of pests like the diamondback various chemical pesticides over
For example, thrips are a is rotated with potatoes which moth, stemborer, cutworm and the local FM radio stations, most
common vegetable pest. Their are affected by bacterial wilt, the aphids. When prepared and of which have a wide coverage
natural enemies include preda- disease disappears in 3 to 4 years used as natural insecticides, in rural areas. In the advertise-
tory thrips, predatory mites (like because the disease causing bac- African marigold, black jack, ments, the farmers are not told
Amblyseius spp.), anthocorid teria cannot survive for long in tephrosia, lantana camara, garlic, of the numerous side effects of
bugs or minute pirate bugs a maize field. The bacteria dies tea, papaya, pyrethrum and cro- the chemicals being sold. There-
(Orius spp.), ground beetles, lace- because the host plant has been talaria kill the pests mentioned
wings, hoverflies, spiders and removed. Planting hedges that above.
continued on page 7
The Organic Farmer is an
(KARI), Dr. Henry Kiara (ILRI), Dr. David Amudavi
independent magazine pro-
Publisher icipe-African Insect Science for Food (ICIPE), George Nyamu (KENDBIP), John Njoroge
duced monthly for the East
and Health, P.O. Box 30772, 00100 Nairobi, (KIOF), William Makechi (farmer, Likuyani), Regina
African farming community.
KENYA, +254 20 863 20 00; email@example.com; Muthama (farmer, Machakos) and Rt Snr Chief
It promotes organic farming
and supports discussions on
Josiah Arende (farmer, Rongo).
all aspects of sustainable development. The articles in Editors Caroline Nyakundi, Peter Kamau
Layout James Wathuge
the The Organic Farmer do not necessarily reflect the Administrator Lucy W. Macharia, 020 863 21 86 Sponsor Biovision, a Swiss-based
views of ICIPE and Biovision Foundation.
foundation for the promotion of
License This work is licensed
Editorial Advisory Board Dr. Sunday Ekesi (ICIPE), ecological development, based in
under a Creative Commons
Dr. Nguya Maniania (ICIPE), Dr. Joseph Mureithi Zürich, Switzerland.
No. 121 June, 2015
PGS certification is better for organic farmers
ities that bring them together
Systems (PGS) are built on
beyond aspects of agriculture.
trust, integrity and trans-
These activities are encouraged
parency among organic
as individuals within groups
farmers. They are cheaper
could have different interests
and reduce bureaucra-
cies involved in organic
Such activities should,
however, meet a particular
certification and make it
market demand. For example,
possible for farmers to sell
the group can start supermar-
their produce in local and
kets, schools, home deliver-
ies and farmers' markets. It is
always good to have diverse
Jack Juma Many small-scale
local markets to cushion farmers
farmers who have gone into
against market risks.
organic certification, through
The PGS products require
the third party (certification
active promotion through brand
companies) have had to go
development, good packaging,
through a rigorous process and
advertisement and participation
incurred additional costs. They
in trade fairs. Many PGS groups
A farmer sells her organic produce during an organic farmers market
also have a lot of paper work
have their own logos. In Kenya
day in Nairobi.
to do to prove their compli-
and East Africa region, Kilimohai
ance with the requirements. directly participate in the cer- and India lead in the number of mark is used on PGS certified
Third party certification is very tification process. This is real- farmers involved. PGS is, there- organic products.
relevant for access to regulated istic and beneficial especially fore, unique as it is designed to The PGS groups should,
export market. However, there for small-scale farmers and the suit particular markets and com- know from the start how they
is growing realisation that third local, direct markets that PGS munities.
are going to fund their activi-
party certification is not always systems are most likely to serve.
ties. One option is to start with
possible especially for farmers
Stakeholders in a PGS system members' financial contribu-
targeting the local and regional Active participation of
have shared vision, engage in tions or consumer support like
processes of participatory, trans-
in the case of Consumer Sup-
parency, trust and learning. All ported Agriculture in USA.
Efforts to promote PGS
Active participation on the members are basically equal in A local NGO or Government
for local farmers
part of the farmers and other terms of power. In many cases agency can provide support.
stakeholders results in greater PGS starts from community net-
In recent times there has been a
The PGS groups should
empowerment and greater works where members meet to
strong need to acknowledge and
analyse their external and inter-
responsibility. This requires address common issues, which
develop PGS as an alternative
nal funding opportunities and
PGS to place a high priority on may range from table banking,
and/or complementary option knowledge and capacity build- social issues or members' aim at being self-sustaining in
to the third party certification. ing through training not only welfare.
the long run. This is possible if
Indeed the International Fed- for producers (in this case the
some profits are put back into
eration of Organic Agriculture farmers) but also for consumers. Interaction between
the operations that can sustain
Movements (IFOAM) acknowl-
farmers and consumers full operations.
edges that PGS are locally Most importantly, this direct Local organic markets are
focused quality assurance involvement allows PGS pro-
always a great drive for starting
systems. They certify producers grammes to be less involving in PGS. When consumers interact The PGS groups should deliver
based on active participation of terms of paperwork and record- with farmers or visit their farms, diverse quality organic prod-
farmers and other stakeholders keeping, since PGS systems they get to see their production ucts in the market that meet the
and are built on foundation of seek to be absolutely inclusive
needs of consumers and enable
methods and techniques.
trust, networks and knowledge in bringing small-scale farmers
them earn a reasonable income.
into an organic system of pro- Consumers also meet farmers
at the organic farmers market, PGS has great potential
Two main factors have made
ask questions, and get responses
the growth of PGS certifica- PGS model built on trust
PGS has great potential for
tion important: The desire to
from the producers of food or developing both local and even
Common certification pro-
improve the way organic food is
participate in peer reviews. This regional markets. Many con-
grammes are usually based on
certified and need for an organic
builds trust and assures the sumers who want organic prod-
the idea that farmers must prove
guarantee system that is recog-
consumers of the quality of the ucts will usually check whether
they have complied with organic
nised in local markets and not
product, beyond the paper cer- the product is marked as "certi-
standards and regulations to be
controlled by the compliance
fied organic" and not just the
certified. PGS programmes use
requirements and costs associ-
certificate and logos.
an integrity-based approach that Regular peer review or on
ated with third party certifica- starts with the foundation of farm inspection carried by The fact that farmers are
trust. Farmers and consumers farmers is a valuable tool for entrusted with guarantee of
organic produce provides
Fundamental values of
are expected to be transparent knowledge exchange as farmers
and open, while maintaining discuss problems, challenges them motivation to do better.
an environment that minimizes and share advice.
However, caution must always
be taken to ensure that PGS
PGS shares a common goal hierarchies and administrative
with third-party certification levels.
Sustaining the PGS
does not appear less effective
systems in providing a cred-
Any group of farmers who want than third party certification.
ible guarantee for consumers How does PGS Work?
to establish PGS must think *Jack Juma is the Technical Advisor,
seeking organic produce. The There are several PGS operating beyond establishing the usual Standards and Certification, Kenya
difference is in the approach. all over the world with an esti- rules that govern the group Organic Agriculture Network
In PGS, farmers and consumers mated 46,000 farmers across 38 members. Many PGS groups are (KOAN), email: kajuma@koan.
are encouraged and required to countries. Philippines, Uganda involved in other common activ- co.ke
No. 121 June, 2015
Common bee pests and diseases in East Africa can be controlled with good farming practices
Honey bees are respon-
(such as cutting down trees and was found to be
sible for at least one third shrubs that bees forage on), a common pest
of agricultural production certain diseases and parasites, in most of the
in the world. Unfortu-
poor nutrition, loss of queens bee colonies.
and certain commercial bee The team found
nately, these bees have
been dying very fast
mite, also called
and this threatens our
East African bees more
ability to produce enough tolerant
tor, destroys or
and affordable nutritious
It has been established that bees attacks broods
in Kenya and other parts of East (young ones
Africa are generally resistant of bees) in the
Caroline Nyakundi or tolerant of the parasites and combs as well
Although tough and well- pathogens that threaten honey- as adults.
adapted to the environment than bee populations in other parts Some of the
do bees in Europe and America, of the world. One reason could bee colonies
African bees are also affected by be that they have not yet been have genes
pests and diseases. In Europe affected by stressors like expo- that provide
and America, the Colony Col- sure to toxins in the environ- good "groom-
lapse Disorder (CCD) has led ment.
ing behaviour" Beekeepers should always check their hives for the presence of wax moth which can be easily controlled by
to huge reduction of honey bee
It is likely that low levels of
burning the honey combs and cleaning the hives.
(scientific name of the Kenyan
pesticides in hives from across
bee is Apis melifera scutellata)
However, because of the migra-
populations. CCD happens Kenya, compared to that in recessive genes (not dominant) tory nature of bees, it is pos-
when worker bees from hon- developed countries, may be enable some bee colonies to sible that some bees may carry
eybee colonies suddenly disap- responsible for the resistant resist the varroa mite, resulting the mites, especially when they
pear. The colony remains with nature of the bees. Scientists in in a "hygienic colony". Some are swarming (bees reproduce
no adult bees or dead bee bodies ICIPE are, however, working to bee species may not resist the when swarming). The varroa
but with a live queen, and some establish the factors that contrib- mite as their grooming behav- mites have to be controlled as
honey and immature bees.
ute to the resilience of the East iour may not be so efficient. But they can be destructive going
by what has been observed in
CCD has not been identified
grooming ability depends on Europe and America – which
in bee colonies in Kenya or East Pests identified in East
the genetic ability of a particular have much higher levels of
Africa. Although no particular
varroa mite infestation than in
cause of CCD is known, scien-
African bees had been found East Africa.
tists have established that due 1. Varroa mites
to resist attack by the varroa
to environmental pollution and The varroa mite is an external mites. Dr. Eliud Muli, a bee- Research into controlling
pesticide applications, there has parasitic mite that attacks the keeping and honey produc- varroa mites
been a decline in the population honey bees. It is common in tion expert in ICIPE, in a study
Kenya and many other parts of conducted in a few African Although varroa mites have
Other factors that may be Africa.
countries, found that the East been located in nearly all the
responsible for colony loses In a survey by the ICIPE bee African bees are quite resistant locations surveyed by ICIPE
include climate change, loss of health team in Central, West and to varroa as compared to the in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethio-
habitats (for bees to get food), Southern part of Africa (Mada- European ones – as they groom, pia, not all colonies (hives) are
destruction of the environment gascar) in 2014, the varroa mite they kick the varroa mite out of affected by the mites.
their bodies; they also chew and "ICIPE is working on ways
Signs of pest and disease infestation
throw out the mite.
of rearing colonies that are free
of varroa mites. This involves
• Reduced honey production
ling honey bee diseases.
breeding queens that are resis-
• Dead bees at the entrance of • Replace the queen every two
tant to varroa. To breed a new
the hives. When there is severe years. This prevents the diseases
generation of varroa-resistant
infection or pesticide pollution and pests from being transmit-
bees, scientists get drones from
you get many bees dead at the ted from the queen to her gen-
another hive which is resistant
to varroa mite then artificially
How to manage bee
• Routinely inspect your hives Varroa mite
inseminate the resistant queen.
• Check them for symptoms of
The next generation of queens is
colonies for maximum
pest and diseases and contact Varroa mites spread
likely to have at least 40 – 60%
ICIPE or a qualified bee keeper viruses
of the resistant gene in the first
• Ensure you protect your
When bees get infested by filial generation. By repeating
environment and its biodiver- • Avoid domestication of bees, varroa mites, they are infected the breeding line one can have
which has been related to the
sity (all the living things in an
by their viruses. The mites have 80% resistant strain of bees – a
collapse of bee populations in
environment). Do not cut trees
spread viruses that cause bee strong queen that produces a
other parts of the world.
and shrubs as these provide
diseases in most parts of the robust colony," says Prof. Suresh
nutritious food that ensures For more information or training world except a few particularly Raina.
bees have a strong immunity to on bee keeping you can get in East African countries. When Hives that are infested with
resist diseases and pests.
touch with Prof. Suresh Raina, they get into a hive they trans- the varroa are then replaced
the Team Leader, the Bee Health
• Bee keepers should always
mit the viruses through the with the new generation of
Programme; Tel. No. 020-8632060.
avoid using industrial pesti-
brood, they suck up their body
A Practical Guide for Sericul-
queens that are varroa-resistant.
cides in controlling crop pests.
fluids and destroy them. Scien-
ture and Apiculture is avail-
Currently, scientists are validat-
They weaken the bees and make
tists have found out that Varroa
able at a cost of Ksh. 1,000.
ing the results of the experi-
them susceptible to diseases.
mites transmits many different
The book is available in English,
ments after which the resistant
types of viruses in East Africa.
• Avoid using aggressive Kiswahili, Luganda, French, Arabic
queens will be distributed coun-
chemical treatments for control- and Spanish.
The source of the mites in trywide. This will ensure that
East Africa is not yet known. we have varroa-free apiaries,
No. 121 June, 2015
Common bee pests and diseases in East Africa can be controlled with good farming practices
the beetles love the The fungus affects the gut or organisms that cause diseases.
smell of honey and intestines of the bee and affects Since they are foraging insects
so are naturally their ability to make food. The
(this means that they travel over
attracted to bee bees do not go out of the hive but a wide area to search for food),
hives. It is some- stay in and put their faeces on the bees can easily be poisoned by
times difficult to comb – you can see some lines chemicals in the environment
detect the presence of the bee faeces in the combs. such as pesticides used on the
of this beetle in the When the bees defecate in the plants and flowers that they
bee colony because combs they spread the spores of visit for food. Even in small
once the hive is the fungus. High levels of infec- doses, pesticides can weaken the
opened, the beetle tion can result in death of bees. immunity of the bees and this
usually escapes The colony gets weak because makes them very vulnerable to
into the dark. To be of the disease as the adult bees diseases and pests.
able to catch them, die, honey production reduces
special traps can be
Pesticides have been identi-
and the population of bees gen-
used in the hive.
fied as one of the major causes
erally decreases because there is
The beetle hides in
of death of bees, especially in
not enough royal jelly to feed the
the trap and this
Europe and America where
brood. If the queen gets infected,
makes it easy to
whole colonies have collapsed.
her ovaries can degenerate and
detect the presence
In many cases, spraying crops
this reduces her capacity to lay
Beekeepers should always check their hives for the presence of wax moth which can be easily controlled by
of the beetle early.
with pesticides may instantly
eggs. If the colony is largely
burning the honey combs and cleaning the hives.
If not controlled,
kill the bees or impair their
affected the colony can disapper
which means possibly virus free
behaviour, and they do not
(collapse). It is possible to detect
beetle can destroy the whole
return to the hives once they
hives that have been infected leave to forage. The colony col-
Veterinary officers and bee colony. This beetle can also be with Nosema apis by the fact that lapses naturally as there are no
experts from 46 African Union controlled using a strip contain- such hives usually fail to build adult bees to take care of the
(AU) member states have been ing a repellent that has been up after death of the queen or "babies" or grubs.
trained on how to develop api- developed by ICIPE.
aries that are free of the pests 3. Wax moth
Farmers and bee keepers
Symptoms of Nosema (spores)
and diseases. The breeding of
should know that destroy-
Although not common in hives have been identified in the Coast,
varroa-free colonies is not only
ing the environment kills the
in East Africa, the wax moth can although ICIPE scientists have
being done in Kenya, but also in
agents of pollination and this
be destructive in infested hives. not yet located the disease in the
some parts of Africa. This has
seriously affects food produc-
The moth lays eggs and their colonies that have been studied.
been done in Ethiopia, and initi-
tion. When the bees are weak
grubs (larvae), eat the comb, wax
ated in Cameroon, Madagascar,
2. Chalk brood disease
due to pesticides, pollution and
and honey. These moths liter-
Burkina Faso and Liberia.
Another disease that had been other environmental issues – the
colony gets weak. Remember
Prof. Raina's team is also
identified in the country is the the amount of pesticide used by
conducting experiments to find
Chalk Brood disease which is beekeepers has already been
out what happens to the East
caused by a fungus. Although, shown to be related to high
African bees when they are
there are some indications of levels of varroa mite infestation
attacked by the mites or get
this disease in East Africa, more in hives in Europe and America.
exposed to pesticides. This may
research is being done to deter-
provide insights as to why the
mine the seriousness of this Why African bees are
East African bees seem resilient
disease, in West, Central and East more resistant?
to the varroa pest yet those in
other parts of the world are A wax moth larvae
3. Foulbrood disease
About 90% of bees in East Africa
ally chew up everything, leaving The two major diseases – Euro- live in the natural environment
2. Small hive beetle
powdery residue in the hive. The pean Foulbrood and American and this should be maintained.
Farmers make traditional hives,
This is another pest that troubles solution to this is to maintain the Foulbrood – that are common which bees visit during some
bees in the East African region. apiaries including cleaning and in Europe and America have not seasons to make honey then
These beetles spread in the repairs.
been located or recorded any- leave. This allows frequent
world as a result of global trade
where in East Africa. In the 2014
or through flight. The beetles Common diseases that
survey of hives, in East Africa swarming, and the diseased bees
can be a real menace to bees as
,ICIPE scientists did not detect die naturally leaving the healthy
affect bees in East Africa
any signs of the disease but some
they disturb the bees, eat the
ones to thrive. The domesticated
1. Nosema disease
spores have been detected in
honey and wax and crush the
hives do not swarm and this
Nosema in honey bees is caused some hives.
combs. The large hive beetle has
reduces their ability to survive
by one of two (or both) fungi
been identified in some hives
So far, farmers in Kenya are harsh conditions such as disease,
called Nosema apis and Nosema
but is usually not problematic.
safe from this disease. But in drought and cold.
ceranae. Nosema apis has been Libya, and some parts of North
How to detect the beetle identified in bee colonies in Africa like Tunisia, Algeria and De-forestation affects
Kenya. This disease causes a kind
According to Dr. Ayuka
Libya, the disease has been bees' health
of dysentery (in humans, it is an
Fombong, a research scientist
infection of the intestines result-
Farmers should avoid cutting
in the ICIPE bee health project, ing in severe diarrhoea with the Effects of pesticides on
trees and shrubs which results
presence of blood and mucus in bees' health
in less sources of food for bees.
the faeces). It usually affects the
This problem is common in East
adult bees and has been known Bees have a more delicate Africa where people cut down
to cause a lot of bee deaths in immune system than do humans trees for charcoal and firewood.
many parts of the world. The and cannot withstand pollution Bees have to travel long dis-
spores of the fungus have been or harmful chemicals. Honey tances to find food and water
identified in the Coastal area of bees (called Apis melifera) can be and this makes it difficult for
Kenya, but the situation is not affected by pathogens - viruses, them to get sufficient amount of
Small hive beetle in a honey comb
serious, according to Prof. Raina. bacteria, fungi and other micro- pollen and nectar.
No. 121 June, 2015
Eat and enjoy the health benefits of dolichos
Dolichos are rich in good
How to sprout and cook
quality proteins and
fibre. They help regulate
Black beans are available
blood sugar and blood
year-round, in the market and in
pressure, among other
grocery stores either dried and
health benefits for con-
packaged or canned. They have
a dense, almost meaty texture
that makes them a popular
Dr. Peter Mokaya Dolichos,
source of protein in vegetarian
also called turtle beans, are a
dishes. One is, however, encour-
small type of legume. In Kenya,
aged to find and purchase the
they are a delicacy among the
organically grown varieties.
Kikuyu community (referred
One way to eat "njahi" is
to as Njahi). They are typically
in the form of sprouts. Sprouts
served during traditional cer-
have a very rich concentration
emonies including weddings.
of high quality proteins loaded
Their history, however, dates quality protein that can replace Excess weight is partly respon- with useful enzymes and highly
back 7000 years ago when they "nyama" for those who cannot sible for diabetes, hypertension, bioavailable micronutrients. You
were popular in the Latin Amer- afford meat.
arthritis and other lifestyle dis- can add the "njahi" sprouts to
salads or eat the sprouts them-
• They are a good source of eases.
selves by adding a little salt,
They fix nitrogen
insoluble fibre. This fibre has • Dolichos have been shown to
have anti-cancerous and anti- cummin, lemon, finely minced
Dolichos are a rich source of several benefits including aging properties because their onions and olive oil.
nitrogen, through nitrogen fixa- serving as pre-biotics (food for dark colour shows they are
tion, and are often intercropped the healthy bacteria in your gut),
Sort and soak them
a rich source of antioxidants.
with maize to provide the as a "filler food" which create a These antioxidants neutral- When preparing dolichos, it is
feeling of "fullness" and hence
reduce the need to eat extra ize free radicals in our bodies important to first sort (pick out
In this article, we seek to food.
that cause cell damage associ- any small rocks or other debris
encourage more communities,
ated with cancer cells develop- that may have ended up in the
other than the Kikuyu, to plant • They cleanse the gut, by ment and speeding up the aging package). Wash and soak them
these black beans using organic serving a bulk forming purga- process.
in water for about 8 to 10 hours
methods-without synthetic fer- tive - through various mecha-
before cooking in order to achieve
tilizers and pesticides - and to nisms and complement the Other benefits of Njahi
optimum flavor and texture and
consume them as part of their healing process of inflamma- Other benefits, which should enable faster cooking.
health diet and as a source of tory gut conditions like irritable
bowel syndrome, leaky gut and encourage more people to Pour the soaking water- when
healthy protein and fibre.
hemorrhoids (bleeding from consume dolichos include:
you can split them easily between
Many health benefits
piles at the extreme end of the • They also contain minerals your fingers, you know they are
ready for cooking. Be careful not
Why should you consume
like potassium, magnesium to soak them for more than 12
organically grown ‘njahi"? • When absorbed into circula- and low sodium levels which hours, otherwise they become
Some of the reasons why you tion and metabolised, through make them good for the heart mushy and spoil the taste.
are encouraged to grow and various processes, they contrib- and generally aid in regulating Soaking dried legumes
consume organically grown ute to reduction of blood pres- blood pressure.
sure and heart health.
dolichos is that:
reduces the amount of time
• The beans also play a key • They also contain vital nutri- needed to cook them. In addition
• They are an excellent source role in blood sugar regulation ents like iron, zinc, B vitamins, it helps remove substances that
of vegetarian protein; good by slowing down the release of folate and manganese, which cause gas and flatulence associ-
simple sugars. This is because make dolichos a rich and deli- ated with eating beans.
they contain complex carbohy- cious "superfood."
drates and fibre which create a • Ayurveda uses njahi to treat Some cooking tips
feeling of satiety (fullness) and a variety of conditions ranging You can make a hearty black
reduce more intake of sugar. from rheumatism to worm bean soup to warm you up on
Dolichos have a low glycaemic
cold days, especially these cold
index and are therefore rec- removal, treating conjunctivitis and rainy months of May, June
ommended for diabetics and (eye inflammation) and piles and July by blending cooked
people, including farmers, who (haemorrhoids).
black beans with onions, toma-
may want to regulate their blood • Another great benefit of njahi toes, and your favourite spices.
is its use in extracting phlegm • Blend cooked black beans
• Research studies have shown (thick mucous) associated with with garlic, onion, fresh cilantro
that dolichos have powerful coughs and colds.
and lime juice for a quick and
diuretic properties- this means • Taking njahi powder in a little easy bean dip.
that they can facilitate the
body's removal of excess fluids, bit of water regularly, helps in • Mix black beans, onions,
through the kidneys. Infact, their treating and controlling skin lettuce, tomatoes, avocado,
effect, in some studies has been rashes and boils.
sharp cheddar cheese and salsa
found to be similar or equal to • Njahi liquid is also used to together for a simple taco salad.
using the drug Lasix, without regulate fever.
Dr. Peter Mokaya is the Direc-
the associated side effects.
• Njahi also helps in lowering tor of Organic Consumers Alliance
• For those keen on losing cholesterol levels.
(OCA). For more information go
weight, it has compounds • Contrary to what many to www.organicconsumers.co.ke or
known as phenols, which help people think, if well prepared contact him at Mokayapm@gmail.
to reduce weight thus eating and cooked, they help alleviate com or info@organicconsumers.
Varieties of dolichos
njahi is highly recommended. and relief gas or flatulence.
No. 121 June, 2015
Preventive measures against maize disease
I would like to know more on
how to grow maize and how to
protect it from MLND.
It is important to prepare land
meant for maize planting early
before the rains. Make sure the
soil is finely ploughed. The right
spacing in highland areas is
usually 75 cm x 25 cm while in
lowland areas, it is 90cm x 30cm.
Plant 2 seeds per hole or 1 seed
alternating with 2 seeds per hole.
Plant early before the begin-
ning of the rains. Reduce the use
of chemical fertilizers but use
organic fertilizers that are now
available in the market.
Up to now no cure has been maize last year, it is advisable harbor insect pests that transfer
found for the control of the to plant a different crop where the disease to your new maize
Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease maize was planted to reduce the crop.
(MLND). But farmers can take a incidence of infection.
Infected green or dry maize
Early weeding is also important number of preventive measures Destroy all volunteer maize stalks can be fed to livestock
to ensure the maize utilizes all to contain the disease. One of plants, weeds or other crops thereby mitigating the maize loss
the nutrients in the soil without these measures is to practise crop in the field where you intend through increased milk produc-
competition from the weeds. rotation; if a field was under to plant maize since they may tion.
continued from page 2
How to control banana Xanathomonas wilt disease
fore, this explains why many
of the leaves and the buds of the
farmers would opt for the easy
male part of the plant, which later
on shrivels (collapses).
Farmers who know the
Control measures: Farmers
dangers posed by chemicals, have
should observe their banana
adopted plant extracts and other
plants for any symptoms of the
biological methods to control
disease and remove the diseased
pests and diseases. These organic
plants in order to stop its spread.
farmers spend less money, have
Cut the infected plants into small
healthier crops and their income
pieces. Removal of the male bud
is also higher because they spend
can reduce chances of infection
less in terms of inputs. Healthier
crops can also withstand diseases
of the entire plant; this is also
How do we overcome banana Tanzania, Kenya and Burundi.
essential to maintain the quality
For those farmers who find it wilt challenge in our farm? (Con-
of the fruit. Do not cover any
Symptoms: The main symptoms
to be time consuming to prepare tinued from TOF May 2015)
part of the banana plant with
of BXW show on the fruit. A
plant extracts to control pests,
topsoil. Disinfect all tools used
bacterial pus comes out of the
some local companies have Ban
ana Xathomonas wilt i
infected banana plant organs. The
in the banana plantation to stop
started making organic pesticides bacterial disease caused by fruit has an internal discoloura
- them from spreading the disease.
some of which are highlighted Xathomonas campestris pv. tion and shows immature ripen
- Practising crop rotation by plant-
Musacearium. It originated from ing. There is also an orange-yel- ing other crops such as maize,
Nimbecidine: This is a pesticide Uganda in 2001 and affected all low discolouration on stem tissue beans, vegetables such as suku-
made from neem oil that can varieties of bananas. Since then including a dark brown tissue mawiki and cabbages can reduce
control a wide range of insect it has spread to Rwanda, DRC, scars. There is gradual yellowing the spread of the disease.
pests and mites and nematodes.
It is safe and does not harm ben-
Thuricide HP: This is a pesticide
made from Bacillus Thurigien-
sis (Bt) that effectively controls
Making animal feeds on the farm
cabbage looper and other pests Several times, we have
by constituting feeds the feeds for the farmers. All
in tomatoes, cabbages, coffee responded to farmers'
at home, farmers the farmer needs is to giv
and citrus fruits. Bt is available requests on the issue
under different brands, so the
have been able to a feed formular and they use to
of feed preparation by
farmer has to enquire which of
cut these cost by up mix the various ingredients for
the Bt brands are available in the providing different
to 50 per cent espe- you.
feed formulae that can
cially where the raw
be used to make feeds
Farmer facing this challenge
Pyegar: This is a pesticide made
materials are cheaply
at home. This is one
can now contact Tarime sup-
from a pyrethrum extract that is
available. Quite a
way our magazine is
pliers on Tel. 0729 099 550
very effective in the control of all
number of farmers
using to ensure farmers
types of pests that attack a wide
are unable to constitute the
increase their earnings from
(city stadium, Nairobi). Farmers
range of crops.
feeds on their own. To deal with
poultry, pig and dairy farming
who require feed formulae can
Phosphite: This is a fungicide
this problem, Tarime Suppliers,
one of the companies selling download them from TOF Nos.102,
that can be used to control a
number of fungal diseases (more Feeds take up to 80 per cent of feed to farmers has started a 111 and 116. Visit our website at
on this product later).
a farmers total production costs; service where they constitute www.organicfarmer.org
No. 121 June, 2015
answers your questions
0717 551 129 / 0738 390 715
TOFRadio is broadcast on Milele FM at 8:45pm on Sunday, and KBC on Thursday at Beehives for sale: We make
8:45pm. Tune in and listen to farmer experiences and expert advice on agribusiness beehives for sale. Interested
and eco-friendly farming methods. On this page, we respond to some of the issues farmers can make orders on any
raised by farmers in their correspondence to the radio program. Send your questions quantity they require. The fol-
and comments via SMS 0715 916 136.
lowing are prices for various
hives: Langstroth Ksh 4,500,
Ensure your chickens lay eggs with strong shell Kenya Top Bar Hive Ksh 3,800,
Stingless bee hives cost Ksh 400
Joyce Wambui Mahui It
and Ksh 1,500 depending on
is quite distressing for farmers
size. Interested farmers can call
when their chickens suddenly
Stephen on 0734 371 557.
start laying eggs with weak
shells which are not strong
Liquid organic fertilizer:
enough for storage and even
Seaweed extract with over 60
sale. Such eggs present a big
nutrients. Ideal for all crops
loss to the farmer who has spent
sukumawiki, wheat, tomatoes,
time and money rearing the
chillies, potatoes, fruit trees,
chickens to make a profit.
Napier grass, tea, coffee, beans
and others. Quantity 1-4 liters.
Nobody is interested in
Contact 0721 96 09 49 or 0734
buying such eggs even at a
020 982. Email: bweru@gmail.
throw away price. The eggs are
not any good either for hatch-
ing to produce the next batch of
Fruit seedlings: We have fruit
chickens. Many poultry farmers
seedlings for sale. Grafted
depend on their chickens to
Apple mango at Ksh 150 per
provide them and their fami-
seedling, grafted Avocado
lies with good quality eggs and
at Ksh120, grapes at Ksh 300,
quality meat and income.
challenge to ensure the chick- eggs. On the other hand, grafted purple passion at Ksh
ens have a balanced diet that adequate calcium contributes 300, tree tomato at Ksh 50,
Eggs a steady source of
includes calcium in their daily greatly to chickens producing pawpaw at Ksh 50, breadfruit at
eggs with thick shells. It is also Ksh 500, tangerines at Ksh150,
Like any other enterprise,
very important for a farmer to peach at Ksh 300, Pomegranate
farmers have to pay their bills, Common in old birds
make sure the chickens are fed a Ksh 150. Call 0714 118 794.
feed and pay school fees for Cases of hens laying eggs with well-balanced diet even at matu- Cypress seedlings for sale: We
their children, and provide for weak shells or no shells at all rity so that they remain healthy have 200,000 cypress seedlings
other family needs. It's impor- are usually higher with the and produce good quality eggs. for sale, price is negotiable. Call
tant for poultry farmers to have older birds in the flock. This
Robert 0705 185 225 Molo sub-
information at their finger tips is because the birds have been Calcium easily available county.
on the best feeding practices for laying eggs for a long time. A As most farmers are limited White dry maize for sale: I
poultry to make them produc- hen loses calcium as it lays eggs. by resources, they do not have want to buy white dry maize,
tive and provide an income.
Calcium is the primary to spend much money to get cash on delivery. Contact:
So, how can a farmer prevent mineral that makes up egg- calcium for their chickens feed. firstname.lastname@example.org
his or her birds from laying eggs
Good sources of calcium are
with weak shells?
shells and when not supplied easily available in the locality of Seedlings: Garlic and sweet
in adequate amounts in their
Farmers can overcome this
bananas in Karatina. Contact
diet, the hens may not have this Limestone and oyster shells 0723 900 051.
basic mineral that it needs to
make the eggshell. The problem can be a very good source of
comes about when whole grains calcium when mixed well with Advice to farmers
or feeds deficient in miner- the chicken feed. Diatomite is We have been receiving many
als and vitamins make up the also a good souce of calcium.
calls and enquiries on items
bulk of the laying hen's diet. For farmers who do not live advertised in this column. We
Thin eggshells are observed near the sea, egg shells and would like to bring to the atten-
when calcium, phosphorus and bones are also a good source tion of buyers and sellers of
vitamin D3 are not provided in of calcium. After using the egg, various items advertised that
diets in adequate amounts.
crush the eggshells into powder they should contact the adver-
and feed your chickens. Dry and tisers directly through tele-
Provide balanced diet
crush the eggshells first, other- phone, emails and facebook
The problem of soft eggshells wise the chickens may get into accounts given and not The
is also more common during the habit of eating their own Organic Farmer magazine. We
periods of hot weather because eggs.
would also like to advise farmers
calcium is conserved and
to be careful not to send money
Give your chickens well-bal- before they have verified the
retained within the hen's body anced feed that contains carbo- quality of any items they intend
and released less efficiently.
hydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, to buy. The magazine will not
Like human beings and other minerals and fresh, clean water, accept any responsibility for any
animals, chickens also need and try to keep them comfort- loss as a result of any transaction
energy sources, protein, fat and able.
between the buyers and sellers of
oils, vitamins, and minerals in After the eggshell quality is items advertised in the maga-
their daily ration. Absence of restored, farmers should strive zine. The symbol denotes the
minerals like calcium in the to maintain this by ensuring the facebook address of the contact
hens continue to get complete advertiser - it is not possible to
daily feed, affects egg forma-
access facebook unless you have
tion. Lack of adequate calcium layer diet supplemented with
Eggs on sale in a market
in feed rations results in weak minerals.
Periodico edito dal Centro Servizi per ilVolontariato - Ferrara Sped. in A.P. Comma 20/c art.2 Legge 662/96 Filiale di Ferrara 4 Un convegno suletteratura e diversità CSV Ferrara - Settore Documentazione Questo numero spe- versità, emarginazione. I e Volontariato', tenutosi il ciale di "Mosaico" generi, le esperienze", il 31 maggio 2003 a Ferra-
Information for Healthcare Professionals NAME OF THE MEDICINAL PRODUCT Haldol-Janssen solution for injection 5 mg/mL QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION 1 mL solution for injection contains 5 mg haloperidol. For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM Solution for injection Clear, colourless solution.