Gene-eden-vir is antiviral: results of a post marketing clinical study

Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 2013, 4, 1-8 Published Online September 2013 ( Gene-Eden-VIR Is Antiviral: Results of a Post Marketing
Clinical Study

Hanan Polansky*, Edan Itzkovitz
The Center for the Biology of Chronic Disease (CBCD), Rochester, USA. Email: *[email protected] Received July 3rd, 2013; revised August 3rd, 2013; accepted August 12th, 2013 Copyright 2013 Hanan Polansky, Edan Itzkovitz. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ABSTRACT
This paper reports the results of a post marketing clinical study that tested the antiviral properties of
Gene-Eden-VIRTM. Specifically, the clinical study tested the effect of Gene-Eden-VIR on the severity, duration, and
frequency of symptoms reported by individuals infected with various viruses. The viruses included the Human Papillo-
mavirus (HPV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). The symptoms included abnormal Pap smear, low and high grade cervical dysplasia, warts,
blisters, cold sores, hives, skin tabs, panic attacks, depression, kidney problems, sleeping problems, liver problems, fe-
ver, fatigue, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, diarrhea, and weight loss. Treatment: A capsule of Gene-Eden-VIR in-
cludes five natural ingredients: 100 mg of quercetin, 150 mg of green tea extract, 50 mg of a cinnamon extract, 25 mg
of a licorice extract, and 100 mcg of selenium. The dosage was 1, 2, 3, or 4 capsules per day. The duration of treatment
was 2 to 54 weeks. Population: The study population consisted of 60 infected individuals, ages 20 to 66. Results: The
participants reported no side effects after taking Gene-Eden-VIR. Seventy three percent of the individuals treated with
Gene-Eden-VIR reported a decrease in their symptoms. Specifically, they reported a decrease in the severity (p = 0.006,
n = 45), duration (p = 0.009, n = 34), and frequency of their symptoms (p < 0.001, n = 31). Following treatment, the
participants also reported an increase in their physical abilities (p < 0.001, n = 47), energy levels (p < 0.001, n = 54),
mental abilities (p < 0.001, n = 44), and general health (p < 0.001, n = 46). The results showed that Gene-Eden-VIR has
a duration effect (p = 0.044, n = 32), that is, those treated for a longer time reported a larger decrease in their symptoms.
The results showed no interviewer bias, no selection bias, and a surprising response shift. The results also showed that
Gene-Eden-VIR has therapeutic consistency under varying manufacturing conditions. Conclusions: This post market-
ing clinical study showed that Gene-Eden-VIR is a safe and effective antiviral treatment. Specifically, the clinical study
showed that Gene-Eden-VIR is a safe and effective treatment against the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Herpes Sim-
plex Virus (HSV), Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). There-
fore, health care practitioners should recommend Gene-Eden-VIR as a safe and effective antiviral treatment against
these viruses.
Keywords: Human Papillomavirus (HPV); Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV); Epstein Barr Virus (EBV); Human
Cytomegalovirus (HCMV); Hepatitis C Virus (HCV); Gene-Eden-VIR 1. Introduction
(HCMV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). The following section describes the standard treat- This paper reports the results of a post marketing clinical study that tested the antiviral properties of Gene-Eden- ments against these viruses and notes their limitations. VIR. Specifically, the clinical study tested the effect of HPV: There are no drugs approved against the HPV Gene-Eden-VIR on the severity, duration, and frequency [1]. Current treatments include procedures, such as cry- of symptoms in individuals infected with the Human otherapy, conization, and the Loop Electrosurgical Exci- Papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Her- sion Procedure (LEEP). These procedures use liquid ni- pes Simplex Virus (HSV), Human Cytomegalovirus trogen, a surgical knife (scalpel), a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, or electrical current to remove the abnormal *Corresponding author. growths caused by the HPV. These growths include cells Copyright 2013 SciRes. PP
Gene-Eden-VIR Is Antiviral: Results of a Post Marketing Clinical Study that harbor the active virus. The procedures do not target most common viruses. To achieve the objective, they cells with the latent virus. Since they do not remove the used Computer Intuition to analyze more than 50,000 pa- latent virus, these procedures only produce a temporary pers. Based on the computer's results, they selected five ingredients: green tea extract, quercetin, licorice extract, EBV: A few antiviral drugs are available that were cinnamon extract, and selenium. shown to inhibit EBV replication in cell culture. These A manual search on these five ingredients found stud- drugs include the acyclic nucleoside analogues aciclovir, ies that supported the computer's results. For instance, ganciclovir, penciclovir, and their respective prodrugs some studies showed that catechins, found in green tea, valaciclovir, valganciclovir and famciclovir, the acyclic are effective against viruses such as Epstein-Barr Virus nucleotide analogues cidofovir and adefovir, and the py- (EBV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Hepatitis Virus B rophosphate analogue foscarnet. However, clinical stud- (HVB), and other viruses [8-11]. Other studies showed ies have shown that these drugs are mostly ineffective in that quercetin inhibits EBV-EA activation in latently in- fected cells [12-14]. Some studies showed that glycyr- HSV: Two types of antiviral treatments against HSV rhizin and glycyrrhizic acid, found in licorice, have an are available: topical and oral. The treatments include pe- antiviral effect [15-18]. A few studies showed that the nciclovir, acyclovir, famciclovir, and valaciclovir. How- active compounds in cinnamon, cinnamaldehyde, terpe- ever, their effectiveness is limited. For instance, a meta- noids, eugenol, and ethyl cinnamate, have a strong anti- analysis of five placebo-controlled and two dosecom- viral effect [19-21]. Finally, some studies reported that parison studies evaluated the effect of aciclovir, fam- selenium also has an antiviral effect [22-24]. ciclovir or valaciclovir on symptoms. The meta-analysis After selecting the five ingredients, the scientists used showed that oral antiviral therapy decreases the duration Computer Intuition again to analyze the thousands of and the associated pain of an outbreak by merely one day papers published on these five ingredients. Table 1 lists
the number of scientific papers published on each ingre- HCMV: Several drugs are approved for the treatment dient according to PubMed as of September 1, 2009 (Ta-
of HCMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. These drugs include ganciclovir, its oral prodrug valgan- Based on the new computer's results, the scientists de- ciclovir, cidofovir, foscavir and fomivirsen. However, the termined the final formula of Gene-Eden-VIR: quercetin use of these drugs in immunocompetent individuals is 100 mg, green tea extract 150 mg, cinnamon extract 50 limited by their toxicity, poor oral bioavailability, modest mg, selenium 100 mcg, and licorice extract 25 mg. Gene- efficacy, and the development of drug resistance [4]. Eden-VIR was introduced in the marketplace at the end HCV: The combination of a pegylated interferon (IFN)-α and ribavirin is the standard treatment for chro- This paper reports the results of a post-marketing clini- nic HCV infections. This combination is effective in cal study that tested the antiviral properties of Gene- about 80% of the individuals infected with the HCV Eden-VIR. Specifically it tested the effect of Gene-Eden- genotype 2 or 3, and in about 40% - 50% in those in- VIR on the severity, duration, and frequency of symp- fected with genotype 1 or 4. Lately, two new drugs were toms reported by individuals infected with the HPV, EBV, approved, telaprevir and boceprevir, with better results. HSV, HCMV, and HCV. However, the combinations of pegylated interferon (IFN)-α and ribavirin and telaprevir or boceprevir are 2. Methods
associated with additional side effects, increased costs, 2.1. Ethics Statement
and more complex treatment strategies [5]. There are also some dietary supplements that claim to An informed consent was obtained from all participants be effective against viruses. However, the law does not consider dietary supplements as drugs, and therefore, Table 1. Scientific papers per ingredient on PubMed.
does not require the FDA to evaluate the effectiveness of Ingredient
Number of Scientific Papers
these supplements [6]. As a result, the sellers of most dietary supplements do not conduct clinical studies to Green Tea Extract test the effectiveness of their products. The scientists, who developed Gene-Eden-VIR, used a unique scientific tool, Computer Intuition, a proprietary Licorice Extract psycholinguistic-based, data-mining program that ana- Cinnamon Extract lyzes scientific text [7]. The scientists' objective was to identify natural ingredients mentioned in the scientific literature that have a strong antiviral effect against the Total 15,298
Copyright 2013 SciRes. PP
Gene-Eden-VIR Is Antiviral: Results of a Post Marketing Clinical Study prior to conducting the phone interviews. performing the interviewers, one company from the US and one from Israel. The interviewers were blinded to the 2.2. Objective and Framework
objective of the study. All interviews were recorded. The instrument was pre-tested on a small sample of We used this post marketing study to test the efficacy, Gene-Eden-VIR users to evaluate both the sensitivity and safety, and optimal use of Gene-Eden-VIR during viral clarity of the questions. infections. Specifically, we tested the effect of Gene- Eden-VIR on the severity, duration, and frequency of 2.5. Population
symptoms reported by individuals infected with the HPV, EBV, HSV, HCMV, and HCV. We randomly selected participants from the Gene-Eden VIR customer database that includes all Gene-Eden-VIR 2.3. Treatment
current and past customers. We used a computerized sys- tem to randomly create a call list of 1000 customers. Out The dosage was 1, 2, 3, or 4 capsules of Gene-Eden-VIR of these customers, 100 agreed to participate. From these per day. The duration of treatment ranged from 2 to 54 participants we excluded customers who were using Gene-Eden-VIR for other purposes, such as treatment for cancer, chronic diseases, hypertension, etc. The final list 2.4. Outcome Measures
of participants consisted of 60 Americans of both sexes, We used a self-developed questionnaire called the Natu- ages 20 to 66, infected with the HPV, EBV, HSV, HCMV, ral Origin Treatment Clinical Questionnaire (NotCiq). and HCV. The diagnosis was done by the participant's The NotCiq questionnaire is a patient reported outcome physician. Each participant reported as having specific (PRO) instrument. The purpose of a PRO instrument is to symptoms (e.g. for HPV participants reported genital capture the patient's experience. Our main endpoint was warts, low and high grade cervical dysplasia, abnormal symptoms associated with viral infections. Meaning, the Pap smear results) and general symptoms (blisters, cold objective of the study was to measure the effect of the sores, hives, skin tabs, panic attacks, depression, kidney treatment with Gene-Eden-VIR on the symptoms of the problems, sleeping problems, liver problems, fever, fa- viral infection as they are reported by the treated partici- tigue, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, diarrhea, and weight loss). Since the objective of the study was to test To develop a reliable and valid questionnaire, we con- the effect of Gene-Eden-VIR on symptoms associated sidered the purpose of study, the research question, the with viral infections, we excluded participants who re- response format, the phrasing of tested items, and the ported no symptoms. That is, we excluded participants statistical tests. At the end, we created a five section who reported a 7 point score on the pre-treatment ques- questionnaire. The first section measured the changes in tion. Such a score indicates that the participant does not general health. A second section centered on the changes suffer from the symptom represented by the question in the severity, duration, and frequency of the symptoms regardless of the treatment the participant actually re- during a viral infection. A third section centered on ceived. This exclusion still preserves the intention to treat changes in physical abilities, a fourth on energy, and a (ITT) principle. fifth on mental abilities. The general health section in- We considered participants who stopped taking Gene- cluded 5 questions. The section explored areas such as Eden-VIR for a month or more before data collection as current disease and the change in general health. The past users. All other participants were considered as pre- symptoms section included 5 questions, two questions on severity, two questions on duration, and one question on the frequency of symptoms. The physical abilities section 2.6. Controls
included 5 questions, the energy section included 5 ques- The Gene-Eden-VIR post marketing study includes a tions, and the mental abilities section included 6 ques- pre-treatment concurrent control and an historical control. tions. NotCiq included both open and closed-ended ques- To create an historical control, we divided the original tions. The answers to the closed-ended questions were on test group into two subgroups, present users and past a scale of 1 to 7, where "1" corresponded to "Poor users. Generally, an historical control is a separate group. health", "Very Severe", "Extremely Interfered", "All the However, since we did not have a separate group of time", "No relief", or "Frequently appeared", and 7 to non-users, we used the past users as a proxy for an his- "Unnoticeable", "Not at All", "Constant Relief", or torical control. "Never Appeared", etc. The study collected the answers to the NotCiq instru- 2.7. Statistical Analysis
ment by phone interviews. We used two independent companies that specialized in outbound call services for We tested the statistical difference between the score of Copyright 2013 SciRes. PP
Gene-Eden-VIR Is Antiviral: Results of a Post Marketing Clinical Study pre-treatment, which is the numeric answer each partici- suggest that some participants do not perceive a decrease pant used to describe his symptoms before the treatment in symptoms associated with viral infections as an im- started, to the score of post-treatment, which is the nu- provement in general health. In their mind, viral symp- meric answer each participant used to describe his sym- toms and general health are somewhat unrelated (Table
ptoms after the treatment was completed. We also calcu- lated the delta (Δ), that is, the difference in scores be- Following treatment with Gene-Eden-VIR, the parti- tween the answer to the pre-treatment and post-treatment cipants also reported an increase in their physical abili- question. Then, we tested the statistical difference be- ties (p < 0.001, n = 47), an increase in their energy levels tween the deltas. These tests were performed in a then- (p < 0.001, n = 54), and an increase in their mental abili- test model for both present and past users. Statistical ties (p = 0.042, n = 44) (Table 3).
analysis was performed using a two-tail t-test assuming To test for a duration effect, we compared the change unequal variances. (Δ) from pre-treatment to post-treatment in participants The research defined the primary endpoint as a statis- who took Gene-Eden-VIR for less then two months and tically significant increase in the score from pre-trea- those who took Gene-Eden-VIR for two months or more. tment to post-treatment on the raw answers and on the The results showed that participants who took Gene- Eden-VIR for the longer period reported a 220% larger
decrease in their symptoms (p = 0.044, n = 32) (Table 4).
3. Results
We could not test for a dose effect since the number of participants who took 1, 3 or 4 capsules per-day was too The participants reported no side effects after taking small for statistical analysis. To test for a possible interviewer bias, we compared Out of the 60 infected participants, 7 reported perfect the answers to the pre-treatment questions collected by general health and no symptoms (that is, a score 7 out of the American and the Israeli call centers. We also com- 7 on the pre-treatment questions on both the general pared the answers to the post-treatment questions be- health question and the symptoms questions), and 7 par- tween the two call centers. In both cases, the difference ticipants reported perfect general health with some between the answers was not statistically significant (p = symptoms. Fifty four percent (25/46) of the individuals 0.30, n = 154, for pre-treatment, and p = 0.36, n = 154, that reported less then perfect health reported an im- for post-treatment, Table 5). This means that although
provement in general health. the centers included different interviewers from different Out of the 60 infected participants, 41 reported having cultures working at different times of day, Americans some symptoms. Seventy three percent (30/41) of the working during the day and Israelis working during the individuals treated with Gene-Eden-VIR reported a de- night, the answers were similar. Hence, the results crease in their symptoms. Specifically, they reported a showed no interviewer bias. Similar results were obtained decrease in the severity of their symptoms (p = 0.006, n = 45), a decrease in the duration of their symptoms (p = Table 3. Pre-treatment vs. post-treatment, physical abilities,
0.009, n = 34), and a decrease in the frequency of their energy level, and mental abilities.
symptoms (p < 0.001, n = 31) (Table 2).
Although 73% of the participants with symptoms re- Question
Pre-T Score Post-T Score p Value
ported a decrease in their symptoms, only 54% reported Physical Abilities an improvement in their general health. These numbers Table 2. Pre-treatment vs. post-treatment symptoms as re-
ported by the participants.
*Statistical analysis was performed using a single score for each participant. The score was equal to the average of all answers in the relevant block of Questions
A5 General Health
Table 4. Duration of treatment.
B1-B2 Severity
Change (Δ) from Duration of Treatment B3-B4 Duration
Less than 2 Months B5 Frequency 31 2.42
2 Months or More *The statistical analysis on the Severity of Symptoms, and on the Duration of Symptoms, was conducted using one score per participant. The score was *Statistical analysis was performed using the change in scores from pre- equal to the average answers of the participant to questions B1 and B2, and treatment to post-treatment reported by present users only. The analysis used B3 and B4, respectively. #N of P is Number of Participants, Pre-T is Pre one score per participant. The score was equal to the average of the answers Treatment, Post-T is Post Treatment. to questions B1 - B5. Copyright 2013 SciRes. PP
Gene-Eden-VIR Is Antiviral: Results of a Post Marketing Clinical Study for the other sections of the questionnaire (physical abili- Table 7. Batch 1 vs. Batch 2.
ties, energy, and mental abilities, data not shown) (Table
Change (Δ) from
Pre-T to Post-T
To test for a possible selection bias, we compared the answers to the pre-treatment questions by the past and present users of Gene-Eden-VIR. We also compared the answers to the post-treatment questions between the two *Note that the data may include up to five answers per participant. groups, and the change (Δ) from pre-treatment to post- treatment. In all three tests, the difference between the als infected with the HPV, EBV, HSV, HCMV, or HCV answers was not significant (p = 0.18, n = 154, for pre- reported a safe decrease in their symptoms following treatment, p = 0.72, n = 154, for post-treatment, and p = treatment with Gene-Eden-VIR. The participants also re- 0.47, n = 154, for the change (Δ), Table 6). This means
ported an increase in their physical abilities, an increase that, statistically, the answers by the present users are the in their energy level, an increase in their mental abilities, same as the answers by the past users, and therefore, and an improvement in their general health. show no selection bias (Table 6).
The results are consistent. We observed a statistically An issue unique to natural products is the concern significant decrease in the severity, duration, and fre- about the therapeutic consistency of marketed products. quency of symptoms. The results also showed a duration See discussion on this issue in the FDA guidelines for effect. Participants treated for two months or more re- botanical New Drug Applications (NDA) [6]. To test the ported a larger decrease in their symptoms compared to therapeutic consistency of Gene-Eden-VIR, we com- those treated for less then two months. pared the two batches used by the participants. The cap- The results are robust. They showed no interviewer sules in these batches were produced at two different bias, no selection bias, and therapeutic consistency of the manufacturing sites, and completed about 10 months Gene-Eden-VIR formula under varying manufacturing apart. The results showed that the answers given by the participants who used the capsules from Batch 1 were the This post marketing clinical study does not include a same as those given by the participants who used the placebo control, that is, it is not a double-blinded study. capsules from Batch 2 (p = 0.988, n = 160, Table 7).
Placebo controlled studies are the gold standard in medi- Hence, the results indicated that, although Gene-Eden- cal research in pre-marketing clinical studies. However, VIR is a natural product, its formula has therapeutic con- except in rare cases, post marketing studies do not use sistency (Table 7).
placebo controls. They use other controls recommended by the FDA. 4. Discussion
The FDA guidance lists five types of controls for both This post marketing clinical study showed that individu- pre marketing and post marketing studies: 1) Placebo Concurrent Control, 2) Pre-treatment Concurrent Control, Table 5. USA vs. Israel call centers.
3) Dose-response Concurrent Control, 4) Active (Positive) Concurrent Control, 5) External Control (Including His- USA Israel
torical Control). The External Control "can be a group of Statistics
patients treated at an earlier time (historical control)" [25]. p = 0.30, n = 154 The Gene-Eden-VIR post marketing study is a change p = 0.36, n = 154 from baseline study that includes a pre-treatment con- *The data may include up to five answers per participant. current control and a proxy for an historical control. The results are not likely to be a placebo effect. The Table 6. Past vs. present users.
current predominant and well-proven theories on the pla- cebo effect suggest that its main mechanisms are condi- Past Present
tioned reflexes and patient expectations [26]. The Gene- Eden-VIR product literature does not mention the possi- bility of a change in symptoms, and specifically, the se- Pre-T 46 3.17 108 2.77 n = 154 verity, duration, and frequency of symptoms. Hence, the Post-T 46 5.28 108 5.16 participants in this study could not have been primed for, or expect the reported effects. This lack of conditioned Change (Δ) 46 2.11 108 2.39 n = 154 reflexes and patient expectations minimizes the possibil- ity of a placebo effect, and supports the possibility of a N of A is Number of Answers. The data may include up to five answers per physiological effect. Copyright 2013 SciRes. PP
Gene-Eden-VIR Is Antiviral: Results of a Post Marketing Clinical Study All participants who started the study completed it; sponse shift" is defined as the difference between the therefore, the study has no follow-up bias. "pre-test" and the "then-test" ratings. Currently, the re- It should be noted that although we tested for some sponse shift is a well documented and extensively re- biases, others are still possible, for instance, the non-re- search phenomenon [29]. According to the literature on "response shifts", participants may alter their internal This study relies on patient reported outcomes (PROs). standards, values, or conceptualization of their quality of Past studies showed that PROs had a significant role in life when experiencing changes in health states. These the development and evaluation of new medicines [27]. response shifts can affect or distort the reported scores According to the FDA, PROs are a valid and valuable and undermine the credibility of the observed medical or source for measuring the efficacy of new drugs. They are psychosocial effects. Many studies reported that after reliable enough to warrant an approval of a label claim participants experience an improvement in their health, a for a new drug. From the years 1997 to 2002, the FDA then-test tends to show a decrease in the initial assess- approved 23 new drugs based on PRO endpoints only. ment of the original level of well being. They include six anti-migraine products (Amerge®, Ax- Since this clinical study uses the "then-test" method, ert®), several anti-epileptics (Gabitril®, Keppra®), and a we tested for a possible response shift by comparing the variety of other therapy classes (Tamiflu®, Relenza®) answers to the pre-treatment question at less then two months and at two months or more. The results showed a The FDA regards this source of data as valid and va- statistically significant increase in the pre-treatment score luable. The scientific community also believes that PROs over time. The results indicated that the participants ex- are valid and useful. Many major journals published perience a response shift, however, in the opposite direc- clinical studies that use patient reported outcomes. The tion from what was expected. This response shift sug- trust of the FDA and the scientific community in PROs gests that the participants do not tend to exaggerate, but should convince the medical community, and specifically, tend to forget how bad their symptoms were before tak- doctors, to consider studies that use PROs when recom- ing Gene-Eden-VIR. The tendency to forget adds support mending medical treatments to their patients. to the statistical significance of the results in this study. A possible limitation of this type of study is the sub- Our research also shows an important and unique de- jective report of symptoms. One might argue that the velopment process that may influence future develop- participants' have evaluated the effect of Gene-Eden-VIR ments in medicine. Gene-Eden-VIR was formulated by on symptoms, which are unrelated to their infection. To analyzing thousands of scientific papers with Computer address this question, we compared the symptoms re- Intuition. The basic premise of the computer program is ported by the participants to the standard signs and that every future event is preceded by hints, and that the symptoms reported in the literature ("Harrison's princi- key to predicting these events is recognizing the signifi- ples of internal medicine", 18th edition). The comparison cance of these hints. clearly showed that the reported symptoms and the major In 1996, the first author of this paper completed a pro- standard symptoms of viral infection as found in the lit- totype of a psycholinguistic-based data-mining program erature overlapped (data not shown). that analyzes scientific text and assigns a rating to all The size of the study group is a major concern in ideas found in the text. The higher the rating, the more it clinical studies. A group that is too small may fail to hints on future events. show a positive effect of the treatment. In addition, a The following is a description of one prospective ap- small group could also misrepresent the diversity in the plication of Computer Intuition. In 1995, Frederiksen population. The standard principle for multivariate be- published a paper entitled: Diagnostic Imaging in Dental havioral research is at least 10 patients at endpoint per Implantology [30]. At the time, Frederiksen was one of dependent measure [28]. This study included one end- the world leading experts on the subject. To test the pre- point dependent measure (the change in symptoms from dictive power of the Computer Intuition analysis, Almog pre-treatment to post-treatment). This study population and Heisler from the University of Rochester devised a included 60 individuals. Hence, the size of the study test. They conducted a Medline search for papers pub- group in this study is adequate. lished between 1980 and 1996 using keywords relevant One might also question the reliability of the partici- to the subject of diagnostics, imaging, and dental im- pants recall period due to the long duration of the period plantology. The search identified 34 papers. The content under investigation (up to 54 weeks). This study used a of these papers was analyzed with Computer Intuition. "then-test" method. This method, also known as the ret- The analysis produced three ideas. Two ideas were rospective pre-test-post-test design method, asks partici- identical to the main conclusions described in Frederik- pants at the post-test period to think back to the pre-test sen's paper. This, by itself, was an impressive achieve- period and retrospectively rate their condition. The "re- ment. By using Computer Intuition, Almog and Heisler Copyright 2013 SciRes. PP
Gene-Eden-VIR Is Antiviral: Results of a Post Marketing Clinical Study duplicated the results of a world leading expert quickly and inexpensively. However, while it took Frederiksen decades to build his expertise, Almog and Heisler ac- REFERENCES
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Appendix iV: LiVer-Toxic MedicATions And Herbs The following information is based on an appendix found in The Hepatitis C Help Book and is reprinted with the permission of the publisher, St. Martin's Griffin. There is a great deal of research still to be done to identify those prescription medications, over-the-counter drugs, herbs and chemicals that are liver toxic. Some substances affect everyone negatively, some are dangerous for people who have

Microsoft word - manoshi evaluation surveys report_final

COMMUNITY HEALTH SOLUTIONS IN BANGLADESH Impact Evaluation Surveys in Dhaka Urban Slums 2007, 2009 and 2011 Scientific Report No: 118 December 2011 COMMUNITY HEALTH SOLUTIONS IN BANGLADESH Impact Evaluation Surveys in Dhaka Urban Slums 2007, 2009 and 2011