Chiaramente, ogni formato ha i propri vantaggi e svantaggi acquista antibiotici online per effettuare un acquisto, non è necessario fornire la prescrizione medica.
Peninsula Health - Community Dental Program
Dental Management of
Presentation based upon DHSV Clinical Practice Guidelines
Presented by Dr Fayed Azouz
Clinical Head Peninsula Health – Community Dental Program
1) To inform the Peninsula Health Community Dental clinical staff on
the Current DHSV Clinical Practice Guidelines for dental care
management of the pregnant woman.
Advise Risks –
Periodontal disease Importance of OH Transfer of streptococcus-mutans and lactobacil us (gram +ve bacteria) from
• Use CPP-ACP products to reduce bacteria.
– GC Tooth Mousse – 3M ESPE Clinpro Tooth Cream (t/paste)
Periodontal disease & effects on fetus Educate Mothers-to-be on OH for their baby
Any concerns regarding the safety of the pregnancy or impact of the proposed
treatment should always be discussed with the responsible lead maternity carer.
Discuss & advise on:
Associations between poor periodontal health & adverse effects on the pregnancy and fetus
• Calcium & Vitamin D
Milk, cheese, dried beans, leafy green vegetables
Cheese has pH neutralising benefits after meals
• Oral Vitamin D supplement if serum levels are low
Use of CCP-ACP products
• GC Tooth Mousse • Recaldent and/or Xylitol Gum
Plaque & calculus debridement
Dental plan during & post-pregnancy
Oral hygiene care advice for infants
Tooth development & eruption timeline
When to first visit dentist
Medical, Dental & Dietary History
Questions regarding the woman's medical history should include:
Any current or previous pregnancy complications
Previous spontaneous complications
Present or past tobacco use
Questions regarding the woman's dental history should include:
Any symptoms of pre-existing oral conditions
Current oral hygiene homecare practice
Previous dental examination and/or treatment
Previous radiographic exposures
Questions regarding the woman's dietary history should include:
Exposure to carbohydrates and acidic foods/beverages related to increased snacking
Quantity consumed per day
Timing of consumption
Frequency of intake
Risks associated with Pregnancy
Pregnant women who are at risk of infective Endocarditis
Primary prophylaxis is with Amoxicillin 2.0g given orally one hour before the procedure.
Penicillin-allergic women can be treated with Clindamycin 600mg orally.
No increased risk of preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), spontaneous miscarriage,
stil births or fetal abnormalities associated with essential dental treatment.
Essential dental treatment is defined as presence of moderate to severe dental caries,
fractured or abscessed teeth.
No association between maternal general dental care during pregnancy and
gestational age, birth weight or neurodevelopment.
Most comfortable and safest time to treat pregnant woman is during the 14th to 20th
weeks of gestation.
Elective dental treatment should be avoided during the 1st trimester.
Elective dental treatment should be avoided in the second half of the 3rd trimester as
premature birth is a risk.
Amalgam restorations are considered safe for pregnant woman and their baby when
Oral manifestations – pregnancy related
Occurs in 5% of pregnancies
Most common after first trimester, grow rapidly and recede after birth.
Observational management, unless bleeds, interferes with mastication or doesn't resolve after birth.
Lesions removed during pregnancy likely recur.
Increased levels of progesterone and oestrogen affect the periodontium
Can result in mobility of teeth, even in absence of periodontal disease
Need to assure these patients that this is temporary mobility and that teeth will not be lost due to this
Ptyalism & Perimylolysis
Ptyalism (excess saliva) – common during early pregnancy, usually accompanies nausea.
Perimylolysis (acid erosion caused by vomiting of gastric contents) - Rinsing with one teaspoon sodium
bicarbonate (baking soda) dissolved in water helps neutralise pH & minimise effect on oral environment.
Caused by hormonal changes, effects 44% pregnancies.
Relief through chewing sugar-free gum or salivary substitutes (GC Dry-mouth Gel, Biotene Gel)
Medications – see therapeutic guidelines
Smoking – need to discuss impact on pregnancy
Drugs & Pregnancy
Nitrous oxide (oxygen anesthesia) – not recommended during pregnancy
Local anesthetics – What should we be using?
Doses of adrenalin used in dental LA are so low that they are unlikely to significantly affect
uterine blood flow.
The benefits of adrenalin at dental concentrations justify their use.
3% Citanest® with Octapressin® can be used within dosage guidelines of 15mL or
(30150mg Prilocaine hydrochloride 3% with felypressin 0.03 IU/mL).
Gross overdose of Prilocaine can cause Methaemoglobinaemia – this has been reported for
doses exceeding 600mg.
Methaemoglobinaemia is the condition that describes abnormally high levels of
methemoglobin in the blood. This is a type of hemoglobin which doesn't bind to oxygen and
thus less oxygen transportation throughout the body can cause tissue hypoxia.
Prilocaine may enter the mothers breast milk, but in small amounts generally no risk to baby.
It is not known whether felypressin is excreted in breast milk.
General patient care
Supine Hypotensive Syndrome
Affects 8% pregnancy's
Can cause hypotension, nausea, dizziness, fainting, loss of consciousness
Treat by rolling pt on left side
Prevention – place rolled towel on pt's back (right side) prior to reclining chair
Max dosage to fetus = 1mSv
2x Bw radiographs = 0.0020.004mSv dosage
Lead apron with thyroid collar is necessary
Increased risk with maxillary occlusal radiographs due to the angle
No need to defer dental radiography during pregnancy on the
grounds of radiation protection, however if treatment is deferred then
radiography should be deferred also.
Radiation dose limit to fetus same as general public at 1mSv.
Nitrous Oxide use:
Gas detection system required to monitor scatter Pregnant staff to avoid this area
A TLD can be arranged (personal monitoring device) from the
radiology department. Please consult your Team Leader to request.
Early Childhood Caries (ECC), previously known as bottle or nursing caries
Nursing or Bottle caries is now identified as a subset of ECC, not the single cause.
ECC = At least one carious lesion in child with full deciduous dentition.
SEVERE ECC = Age Dependent
<36months old = Smooth surface carious lesion affecting max. ants.
DMFT scores relative to child age:
40% of children under 6yo have some dental decay.
60% of these children are untreated.
Short-term consequence of untreated ECC are pain and abscess
Long-term consequence of ECC are:
Disrupted social development
Disrupted academic development
Reduction in general physical health
Cost of Tx & time off work for parent
Stats & Info sourced 27/06/2011: De Silva-Sanigorski et. al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:97
The VicGeneralion study – a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioral
and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods.
Cause: prolonged sucking of dummy, thumb or digit.
Protrusion of maxillary incisors
Narrowing & lengthening of maxilla
Maxillary Anterior Overjet
Posterior Bilateral Cross-bite
Speech, mastication, social, trauma >risk.
WHY? – comfort, unconscious action
Removal of dummy
Substitution with soft toy, blanket etc.
Over the counter ointments (to place on thumb/digit) as deterrent – available from pharmacy.
Fixed orthodontic appliances (palatally fixed) to prevent sucking of thumb/digit.
Education for parent and child.
• Once child is little older & understands consequences of thumb sucking they are more inclined to
reduce or stop this behavior.
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