Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 15 169–179 2001
Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in The Netherlands
The EUROPA Trial: Design, Baseline Demography
and Status of the Substudies
On behalf of the EUROPA Investigators
Abba H. Gomma and Kim M. Fox
Cardiology Department, Royal Brompton Hospital,
the incidence of myocardial infarction [4–6]. The cur-
inhibitors do reduce both mortality and morbidity in pa-
rent generation of large ACE inhibitor/atherosclerosis
tients with left ventricular dysfunction, recent myocardial
studies (HOPE , EUROPA  and PEACE )
infarction and hypertension. However, the long-term effects
include 4–5 years follow up. HOPE results have already
in patients with coronary artery disease have not been es-
been published and showed a favourable effect of ACE
tablished. The EUROPA study is designed to assess the long-
inhibition. This trial studied high-risk patients of vascu-
term (3–4 years) effects of perindopril on the reduction
lar disease who did not necessarily suffer from coronary
of cardiac events in patients with proven stable coronary
artery disease but with no evidence of heart failure.
artery disease. In contrast, EUROPA and PEACE will
Study Design and Methods: EUROPA is a 12236 pa-
demonstrate the long-term effects of ACE inhibition in
tient, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and
patients with proven coronary artery disease, not par-
multicentre trial. EUROPA had an initial run-in period of 4
ticularly at high-risk. This paper examines the prelim-
weeks during which patients received 4 and then 8 mg of
inary baseline and demographic findings of EUROPA
perindopril daily to assess tolerance to maximum dose. This
and also details on its sub-studies. Recruitment was
was followed by a double-blind randomisation to either
completed in February 1999 and in June 1999 for the
perindopril or placebo. Patients were followed-up at 3 and
patients entering the substudies. 12236 patients have
6 months and then 6 monthly until the last patient included
been randomised and the results are expected to be
in the main study completes the 3-year follow-up. EUROPA
reported in 2002.
includes five sub-studies. Each of these sub-studies inves-
tigates the effects of perindopril on a different aspect of
mellitus, inflammation, thrombosis, neurohormonal acti-
The study organization
vation. Patients are characterised genetically to assess
EUROPA is a multicentre European trial, involving
characteristics associated with improved or unfavourable
424 centres in 24 countries (Austria, Belgium,
outcome. The final results of EUROPA will be available in
Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
Key Words. coronary artery disease, diabetes, EUROPA,
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, perindopril
Portugal, Spain, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland,Turkey and the United Kingdom; See Appendix).
The study population
The study recruited men and women aged ≥18 yearswithout clinical evidence of heart failure and with
Coronary artery disease is the most important cause
evidence of coronary artery disease documented by
of death in the western world. Although there has
either previous MI for at least 3 months prior to
been considerable success in relieving the symptoms
the selection visit, percutaneous or surgical coronary
of angina only statins and aspirin have been shown to
revascularisation for at least 6 months before the selec-
tion visit or angiographic evidence of ≥70% narrowing
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
have well-established roles in the reduction of mor-tality and morbidity in patients with heart failure, re-
Address for Correspondence: K.M. Fox, Cardiology Department,
cent myocardial infarction (MI) and hypertension. In
Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP,
recent years, it has been suggested to extend these in-
United Kingdom. Tel.: +44 20 7351 8645; Fax: +44 20 7351 8643.
dications to coronary artery disease, because the drugs
have been shown to be effective in reversing atheroscle-rosis in animal models [1–3] and because in earlier heartfailure studies ACE inhibitors significantly lowered
Revision submitted 20 April 2001; accepted 23 April 2001
Gomma and Fox
of ≥1 major coronary artery. Men were also recruited
Table 1. Exclusion criteria
if they had history of chest pain and a positive exercisetest or regional wall motion abnormalities during strees
Women of child-bearing potential without contraception;Participation in a drug or device trial within the previous 30 days;
echocardiography or nuclear scintigraphy or with tran-
Compliance with the treatment or the visits likely to be
sient perfusion defects during scintigraphy perfusion
imaging. Patients were not scheduled for coronary
Patients who previously did not tolerate ACE inhibitors because
revascularisation procedures at the time of selection
visit and informed consents were obtained from all pa-
A history of alcohol or drug abuse;
tients. Exclusion criteria are reported in Table 1.
Clinical signs of heart failure requiring treatment;Supine hypotension with a systolic blood pressure <
110 mm Hg;Uncontrolled treated hypertension, as defined by a systolic
The study design
blood pressure >
180 mm Hg and/or a diastolic
EUROPA is a large simple study (Fig. 1). The study
blood pressure >
100 mm Hg;
comprises of a first run-in period of two weeks during
Clinically significant obstructive valvular disease;
which patients received perindopril 4 mg/day in addi-
tion to their usual medication, a second run-in period of
Use of ACE inhibitors within one month before the first
two weeks during which patients received perindopril
8 mg/day in addition to their usual medication provided
Use of angiotensin II receptor inhibitors within one month
that the 4 mg/day of perindopril was well tolerated in
prior to the first selection visit;
the first run-in period. Patients 70 years or older started
Renal failure with serum creatinine >
150 mumol/ l;
with 2 mg/day the first week, 4 mg/day the second, and
Bilateral renal artery stenosis;
8 mg/day the last 2 weeks of the run-in period, if well
Serum potassium >
0 mmol/ l;Liver disease: ASAT or ALAT >
3 times the upper normal values;
tolerated. At the end of the run-in period, a double-blind
A history of stroke or cerebral transient ischemic attacks within
treatment period of at least 36 months started during
the preceding 3 months;
which patients receive either perindopril 8 mg/day or
Any other serious disease likely to interfere with the conduct
placebo. Patients will continue in the study until the
last patient included completes the 3-year follow-upperiod.
3, 6 and 12 months and thereafter at 6 monthly interval.
Patients were seen at 2 and 4 weeks during the run-in
Follow-up is scheduled to end in March 2002 at which
period. Following randomisation patients are seen at
time average duration of follow-up will be 3.5 years.
Fig. 1. EUROPA study Design.
The EUROPA Trial
The study end-points
Table 3. Concomitant medications of the randomised patients
objective of EUROPA is to assess theeffect of perindopril on the combined end-point of
No drug treatment
total mortality, non-fatal acute myocardial infarction,
hospital admission for unstable angina pectoris and car-
diac arrest with successful resuscitation and alive after
28 days thereafter.
objectives are to assess the effect of
perindopril in reducing the rate of the following events:
total mortality, cardiac mortality, cardiac mortality and
non fatal acute MI, cardiac mortality, non fatal MI and
unstable angina pectoris (UA), fatal and non fatal MI
Potassium sparing diuretics
and UA, non fatal MI, UA, cardiac arrest with success-
ful resuscitation and alive 28 days thereafter, revascu-
Lipid lowering agents
larisation (CABG or PTCA), heart failure and stroke.
Other drug treatment
The study power and sample size
In calculating the sample size for EUROPA, the follow-
Table 4. Reasons for drop-outs during the screening period
ing assumptions were made: with a primary event rate
Intolerance (including cough)
of 4% per year, in order to detect a relative reduction
of 16% with a power of greater than 90% and a two-
sided type I error rate of 0.05, 750 events are required
in the control group. Assuming an average follow-up
Study event (including angina
of 3 years and 9 months, a total of 10500 patients are
‘Other' or ‘unknown'
Between screening and randomisation, 10.9% of pa-
tients were excluded from the trial. The reasons pro-
At the end of the recruitment period, which was June
vided for drop-outs are shown in Table 4.
1999, 12236 patients had been randomised. Their aver-
The number of patients in whom the study drug has
age age was 61 years (range 24–90); 83% were male.
been withdrawn after randomisation is low indicating
Their histories showed that 62% had suffered a pre-
good tolerance to perindopril. Mostly are for reaching
vious myocardial infarction, 60% documented >
a study end-point but a very small number (2.4%) are
coronary stenosis, 54% previous revascularisation, 15%
for intolerance including cough.
had a history of diabetes mellitus or impaired glu-cose tolerance, 26% hypertension and 63% hyper-
cholesterolaemia as shown in Table 2.
A number of sub-studies have been undertaken. The
The majority, 76%, had no evidence of angina and
purpose of these sub-studies is to develop a better
only 4.4% of the patients were enrolled with coronary
understanding of the actions of perindopril in coro-
artery disease documented solely by a history of chest
nary artery disease. These sub-studies investigate
pain or abnormal stress test. At entry, 91.9% of the
the effects of the drug on neurohormonal activation,
randomised patients were on platelet inhibitors, 62.6%
thrombosis, endothelium, inflammation and coronary
on beta blockers and 47.5% on statins as shown in
anatomy. In view of the known effects of ACE inhibitors
in diabetes, this population has been specifically investi-gated. Finally, the genetic characterisation of the studypopulation will be studied.
Table 2. EUROPA study baseline characteristics
PERTINENT  (PERindopril-Thrombosis, In-
Mean age (range) (years)
flammatioN, Endothelial dysfunction and Neurohor-
monal activation Trial) evaluates the predictive value
Documented coronary artery disease: ≥70%
of several plasma and serum markers associated with
atherosclerosis and the effects of perindopril on their
Previous myocardial infarction (%)
levels. These markers are fibrinogen as a marker for
Previous revascularisation (%)
coagulation, C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker
Diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance (%)
for inflammation, D-dimer for thrombogenesis, von
Willebrand factor (vWf ) for endothelial activation/
coagulation, Cromogranin A (CgA) for neurohormonal
Gomma and Fox
activation and Nitric Oxide synthase (ecNOS) for
PERSUADE (PERindopril SUbstudy in Coronary
endothelial function. In addition, angiotensin convering
Artery Disease and diabEtes)  is a substudy that ex-
enzyme activity is measured.
amines diabetic patients in EUROPA (15% of the study
This substudy has two parts: Part A includes 345
patients and compares the effect of perindopril and
The main efficacy variable in this substudy is to de-
placebo on these plasma markers at baseline and after
termine the effects of perindopril in diabetic popula-
one year of treatment.
tion in terms of the primary and secondary end-points.
Part B which includes 1282 patients, evaluates
The primary end-points are those of the EUROPA
whether the effect of perindopril on CRP and vWf is
study. We will also detect the progression of diabetic
related to its effect on cardiovascular endpoints, both
nephropathy as assessed by albumin:creatinine ratio.
primary and secondary.
PERGENE is a sub-study that will look at the ge-
PERFECT (PERindopril Function of the Endothe-
netic characterisation of all patients in the EUROPA
lium in Coronary artery disease Trial) : Forearm
population. A sample of blood is taken from every
circulation and flow-mediated vasodilatation of the
EUROPA patient which is stored to the end of the
brachial artery reflect endothelial functional changes
study, when the most up-to-date gene polymorphism
similar to those in the coronary arteries of patients with
will be explored.
coronary artery disease. In this sub-study, blood flowin the brachial artery will be measured using B-mode
imaging with Duplex scanning with a 7–10 MHz lineararray transducer. Scanning is performed at rest, during
ACE inhibitors confer unequivocal beneficial effects
and for 5 minutes after four minutes of ischaemia and
in treating patients with all degrees of ischaemic
during and for 10 minutes after cold pressure testing.
heart failure (as demonstrated in CONSENSUS-1,
Consecutive studies are carried out during the run-in
VHeFT-I, VHeFT-II and SOLVD), asymptomatic left
period, at the time of randomisation and at 6, 12, 24,
ventricular dysfunction (SOLVD) and after acute my-
and 36 months thereafter. At baseline and at the end of
ocardial infarction (ISIS-4, SAVE, GISSI-3, AIRE,
the study nitroglycerin is administered sublingually to
SMILE, TRACE) . SOLVD  and SAVE 
study non-endothelial dependent vasodilation. Plasma
trials demonstrated that patients receiving ACE in-
levels of von Willebrand factor are assessed during each
hibitors have less myocardial ischaemic events on long-
term therapy. This delay in the reduction of ischaemic
The primary end-point is the percentage change in
events suggests that ACE inhibitors may have struc-
the flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery
tural effects, affecting the underlying pathophysiol-
between baseline and 36 months and also the percent-
ogy for coronary atherosclerosis, rather than the acute
age change in neurohormonal-mediated vasoconstric-
haemodynamic effects. The possible mechanisms for
tion of the brachial artery.
this observed anti-ischaemic effects of ACE inhibition
A total of 345 patients have been enrolled in this
are discussed below.
PERSPECTIVE (PERindopril'S Prospective Ef-
Structural cardiac and vascular effects
fect on Coronary aTherosclerosis by angiographical and
ACE inhibitors may reduce myocardial ischaemia
IntraVascular ultrasound Evaluation)  aims to in-
through several different mechanisms [14,15]. Firstly,
vestigate the effects of perindopril administration on
ACE inhibitors induce cardioprotective effects, which
the progression and regression of coronary atheroscle-
are related to a reduction in inappropriate cardiac
rosis using qualitative coronary angiography (QCA)
hypertrophy and a decrease in cardiac enlargement.
and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). QCA provides
Under conditions of volume or pressure overload or fol-
reproducible assessment of the coronary arterial di-
lowing myocardial infarction, cardiac ACE expression
mensions with main outcome parameters of mean lu-
increases and enhances local tissue angiotensin II for-
men diameter and minimal lumen diameter whereas
mation. Angiotensin II has growth promoting effects
IVUS main parameters are plaque volume, plaque
and may stimulate cardiac fibrosis, either directly or
area and lumen area. 319 patients have been recruited
through activation of aldosterone . Reduction of
from those within the main study needing angiogra-
cardiac tissue angiotensin II by ACE inhibition may
phy. The primary objective of this sub-study is to com-
counteract cardiac remodelling following long-term
pare the effects of perindopril and placebo on the pro-
overloading of the heart or following an infarct [17,18].
gression and regression of coronary atherosclerosis
This effect is direct and does not result from blood pres-
after 36 months of treatment as measured by QCA.
sure reduction or other indirect effects of the ACE
The secondary objective is to compare the effects of
inhibition . In addition, ACE inhibition leads to
perindopril and placebo on the progression and re-
increased bradykinin production. Bradykinin induces
gression of plaque and lumen changes following a 36-
nitric oxide production and increases prostaglandin
month treatment as measured by IVUS and the devel-
formation which may be involved in bradykinin's anti-
opment of new lesions as detected by using QCA and
proliferative effects. Whereas the anti-remodelling ef-
fect of the ACE inhibitor results in an improvement
The EUROPA Trial
of cardiac function and hemodynamics, the extra
therefore may improve endogenous fibrinolytic func-
spin off, in particular the volume effect, relates to
tion in man, although this needs further confirmation.
a decrease in myocardial oxygen demand, less is-chaemia and an improvement of myocardial energetics.
Neurohormonal effects of ACE inhibition
Secondly, long-term administration of ACE inhibitors
which may add to their anti-ischaemic profile
may result in vasculoprotective effects. Of these, an
In addition to the structural effects on the vasculature
improvement or even normalisation of endothelial
described above, ACE inhibitors may exert functional
dysfunction is probably the most important. In vitro
effects which are more direct, but are likely to become
studies indicate that ACE inhibition improves endothe-
more prominent with time when endothelial function
lial nitric oxide production, which appears related to
its effect on bradykinin formation. In animal models,
Episodes of stress-induced myocardial ischaemia re-
in which endothelial dysfunction is induced, ACE in-
sult in activation of the sympathetic system with an
hibition improves endothelial function, an effect which
increase in circulating levels of norepinephrine and
is counteracted by bradykinin antagonists. In humans
epinephrine, unrelated to the presence or absence of
with hypertension or heart failure and endothelial dys-
angina [30,31]. More severe ischaemia stimulates the
function, the latter improves following ACE inhibitor
circulating renin-angiotensin system . The increase
therapy . In particular, the TREND  study indi-
in these circulating vasoconstricting neurohormones
cated that 6-month treatment with the ACE inhibitor,
results in systemic vasoconstriction, particularly in the
quinapril, significantly improved coronary endothelial
absence of normal endothelium. Thus, a vicious circle
function in normotensive patients with moderate coro-
ensues whereby ischaemia-induced neurohormonal ac-
nary artery disease and without heart failure. Besides
tivation leads to systemic vasoconstriction, an increase
their effect on endothelial function, ACE inhibitors
in after-load and in myocardial oxygen demand, and
have anti-proliferative and, possibly, anti-atherogenic
to coronary vasoconstriction, at least in the coronary
properties [22,23]. The expression of ACE and an-
lesion area, further jeopardising coronary flow. ACE in-
giotensinogen increases following angioplasty in small
hibition limits this neurohormonal activation and vaso-
animal models  and precedes neointima prolifera-
constriction during ischaemia .
tion. ACE inhibition diminishes intimal hyperplasia in
As angiotensin II is a potent direct systemic and
these models, again linked to its effect on bradykinin
coronary vasoconstrictor, we may expect a direct ef-
degradation . Yet, in human coronary angioplasty
fect through a reduction in circulating angiotensin II
trials, 6-month ACE inhibition failed to prevent subse-
following ACE inhibition. Moreover, bradykinin has a
quent restenosis , which may be related to timing of
direct vasodilator effect and suppresses platelet adhe-
onset of treatment or to the fact that the main mecha-
sion and aggregation (via the release of nitric oxide and
nism of restenosis after balloon angioplasty is vascular
remodelling and the drug was mainly directed to pre-
ACE inhibition with enalaprilat has been shown to
vent neo-intimal hyperplasia or due to the fact that the
ameliorate pacing-induced angina , while perindo-
vascular lesion which results from balloon procedures
prilat lessens angina and post-anginal left ventricu-
is so significant that neither repair nor prevention of
lar filling pressure. Perindoprilat also reverses the
stenosis recurrence is to be expected from any pharma-
increase in arterial norepinephrine levels during is-
cological intervention. The latter may also be the reason
chaemia and significantly diminishes net cardiac nore-
for lack of clinical improvement observed in the QUIET
pinephrine release, compared with placebo . As a
trial, in which patients were treated with quinapril
result of this, systemic vasoconstriction is reduced and
or placebo for a period of 3 years after coronary an-
myocardial ischaemia diminishes. It is likely that this
gioplasty . Although there was a trend towards
acute effect of the ACE inhibitor may become more
reduction of events, the combined primary endpoint of
pronounced and more efficient with ongoing treatment
cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, revascularisation
when endothelial function improves. This may explain
procedures and hospitalisation for unstable angina
why the reduction in ischaemic events such as observed
was not significantly reduced ( p
in large clinical trials takes a relatively long time to be-
animal studies suggest that the ACE inhibitor
dosage needed to produce anti-proliferative effect
, ACE inhibitors may reduce myocar-
exceeds that causing changes in blood pressure
dial ischaemia through various mechanisms which
induce inhibition of angiotensin II production, anti-adrenergic properties and bradykinin formation. Asa consequence, ACE inhibitors improve endothelial
function over time. In addition, ACE inhibitors avoid
ACE inhibitors may induce antiplatelet effects through
cardiac remodelling with a reduction in ventricu-
bradykinin. Moreover, they may improve the bal-
lar volume, mass and wall stress, together lead-
ance between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-
ing to a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand
1) and tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), also
and, possibly, an improvement in subendocardial flow.
favouring anti-thrombotic effects . ACE inhibitors
Animal experiments clearly indicate anti-proliferative
Gomma and Fox
and anti-atherogenic properties. In addition, ACE in-
Table 5. EUROPA v HOPE (Demography)
hibitors may have antiplatelet effects (bradykinin) andimprove the balance between plasminogen activator
inhibitor-1 and tissue type plasminogen activator.
Total patients randomised
These properties could lead to plaque stabilisation and
prevent plaque rupture. Finally, ACE inhibitors mod-
ulate ischaemia-induced neurohormonal activation,
Evidence of coronary artery disease (%)
coronary and systemic vasoconstriction. As such
Previous myocardial infarction (%)
they could override coronary vasoconstriction in the
Previous revascularization (%)
lesion area, particularly in unstable angina. These
Peripheral vascular disease
findings and observations gave a stimulus for large
Stroke or transient ischemic attack
controlled trials which examine the long-term effects
Peripheral vascular disease (%)
of ACE inhibitors in patients with stable coronary
artery disease as studied in EUROPA or in patients
Diabetes mellitus (%)
at high risk of cardiovascular events as studied inHOPE.
In the EUROPA trial
, perindopril has been used
plus one other cardiovascular risk factor without evi-
which is a long-acting ACE inhibitor first synthesised
dence of heart failure were randomly assigned to re-
 in the early 1980s and now registered in over
ceive ramipril (10 mg once daily orally) or matching
100 countries worldwide with the hypertension and
placebo. The trial was a two-by-two factorial study
heart failure indications. It is well tolerated even in
evaluating both ramipril and vitamin E. Ramipril
at risk patients such as the elderly  or patients
significantly reduces the rate of deaths, MI, and
with recent ischaemic stroke, in whom it causes no
stroke in a broad range of high-risk patients who are
change in cerebral circulation . Perindopril at the
not known to have a low ejection fraction or heart
initiating dose of 2 mg in heart failure has been demon-
strated in several controlled studies to minimise the
Comparison of the demographics of HOPE with
risk of first dose hypotension [36,37]. The effects of
those of EUROPA illustrates the rather different pa-
perindopril on cardiovascular remodelling are well doc-
tient populations of the two studies. HOPE patients
umented: perindopril improves arterial compliance in
were not required to have coronary artery disease; it
large arteries and restores the structure of small
was enough for them to have diabetes and one clinical
resistance arteries . In addition, perindopril re-
risk factor (smoking, for example). Consequently, the
stores flow-mediated coronary vasodilation in hyper-
proportion of diabetic patients was strikingly higher
tensive patients  and reverses the endothelial dys-
than in EUROPA. Also, there were more patients with
function observed in patients with heart failure .
hypertension, peripheral vascular disease and stroke in
These effects are produced via potentiation of the
bradykinin-mediated release, not only of nitric oxide
In contrast, documentation of coronary artery dis-
but also endothelium-derived hyperpolarisation factor
ease is essential for EUROPA and the ratio of diabetic
. Perindopril has been shown to reduce myocar-
patients in EUROPA represents the true incidence
dial ischaemia relative to placebo treatment in pac-
of diabetes in coronary artery disease population.
ing induced angina, furthermore the increase in ar-
Table 5 shows the demography of the two studies. Two
terial norepinephrine levels is reversed and the net
of the important questions which were raised as a re-
cardiac norepinephrine release is signficantly dimin-
sult of the HOPE trial are: what will be the effect of
ished . In an experimental model of atherosclero-
ACE inhibition in patients who are not at high risk?
sis, perindopril significantly modified the atheroscle-
and the second question is: can the beneficial effects of
rotic process : a reduction in the atherosclerotic
ramipril shown in HOPE be reproduced by other ACE
lesion size, a decrease in lipid-laden macrophages and
inhibitors? These questions and many others will be
less fragmentation of arterial elastic tissue were seen.
answered when EUROPA results are available.
Furthermore, perindopril not only reduced the size ofthe lesions but made them more stable and less likelyto rupture.
Therefore, we have an extensive body of evidence
from both animal and human research that support thehypothesis for the EUROPA trial that perindopril
will improve the clinical outcome in patients with
Pr Bertrand M.
Pr Remme W. J.
stable coronary artery disease. The mechanisms dis-
cussed above are verified in the different EUROPA
Pr Ferrari R.
Pr Simoons M.
In the HOPE trial
, a total of 9297 high-risk pa-
tients who had evidence of vascular disease or diabetes
The EUROPA Trial
Dr Herman A.
Dr Povolny J.
Pr Aldershville J.,
Pr Bassand J.P.
Dr Hradec J.
Ass. Pr Rosolova H.
Dr Hildebrandt P.
Dr Jansky P.
Pr Semrad B.
Dr Jirmar R.
Pr Sochor K.
Dr Spacek R.
Pr Toutouzas P.
Dr Erikssen J.
Dr Krejcova H.
Dr Spinar J.
Dr Kvasnak M.
Dr Stipal R.
Pr Erhardt L.
Pr Kalnins U.
Dr Maratka T.
Dr Stuchlik K.
Dr Marcinek G.
Pr Grybauskas P.
Pr Keltai M.
Dr Moravcova J.
Dr Nedbal P.
Dr Vaclavicek A.
Pr L ¨uscher T.
Dr Peterka K.
Dr Vojtisek P.
Pr Sechtem U.
Pr Nieminen M.
Dr Markenvard J.
Dr Meibom J.
Pr Paulus W.
Dr Norgaard A.
Dr Mulcahy D.
Dr Hildebrandt P.
Dr Scheibel M.
Pr Riecansky I.
Dr Kristensen K.
Dr Madsen J.K.
Pr Ozsaruhan O.
Pr Tavazzi L.
Pr Providencia L.
Pr Teesalu R.
Pr Widimsky P.
Dr Vahulaa V.
Pr Ruzyllo W.
Pr Soler-Soler J.
Dr Itkonen A.
Dr Juvonen J.
Dr Nieminen M.S.
Dr Karmakoski J.
Dr Savola R.
Dr Kilkki E.
Dr Koskela E.
Dr Voipio-Pulkki L.M.
Pr Julian D.
Pr Dargie H.
Dr Kotila M.J.
Pr Murray G.
Pr K ¨ubler W.
Dr Apffel F.
Dr Guillot J.P.
Dr Attali P.
Dr Hanania G.
End Point Validation Committee
Dr Lelguen C.
Pr Duprez D.
Pr Thygesen K.
Pr Bassand J.P.
Dr Berthier Y.
Dr Mansourati J.
Dr Bertrand M.
Dr Dambrine P.
Dr Danchin N.
Pr Quiret J.C.
Dr Decoulx E.
Pr Raynaud P.
Dr Deshayes P.
Dr Rondepierre D.
Dr Fouche R.
Dr Roynard J.L.
Pr Drexel H.
Dr Genest M.
Dr Van Belle E.
Dr Gombotz G.
Dr Stoeckl G.
Dr Godard S.
Dr Veyrat A.
Pr Gaudron P.
Pr Sechtem U.
Pr Duprez D.
Dr Materne P.
Pr Karsch K.R.
Pr Sigel H.A.
Pr Heyndrickx G.H.
Pr Van Mieghem W.
Pr Legrand V.
Pr Rettig-St ¨urmer G.
Pr Riessen R.
Pr Von Schacky C.
Pr Rutsch W.
Dr Winkelmann B.R.
Dr Branny M.
Dr Florian J.
Dr Francek L.
Dr Christakos S.
Pr Geleris P.
Dr Charouzek J.
Pr Cokkinos D.
Dr Georgiadis S.
Dr Drazka J.
Pr Havranek P.
Dr Feggos S.
Pr Gialafos J.
Gomma and Fox
Pr Goudevenos I.
Pr Papazoglou N.
Pr Vincenzi M.
Dr Zavatteri G.
Dr Kardara D.
Dr Skoufas P.
Dr Volterrani M.
Dr Kardaras F.
Pr Stamatelopoulos S.
Dr Karidis C.
Dr Stambola S.
Dr Kelesides C.
Dr Stavridis A.
Dr Gailiss E.
Dr Ozolina M.A.
Dr Kyriakidis M.
Dr Syribeis S.
Dr Gersamija A.
Dr Skards J.
Dr Koliopoulos N.
Pr Vardas P.
Dr Kalnins U.
Pr Kremastinos D.
Dr Vassiliadis I.
Dr Liberi S.
Dr Voudris V.
Pr Manolis A.
Pr Zacharoulis A.
Pr Baubiniene A.
Pr Kirkutis A.
Dr N. Pyrgakis V.
Dr Zobolos S.
Pr Berukstis E.
Pr Marcinkus R.
Dr Papasteriadis E.
Dr Zouras C.
Dr Grigoniene L.
Dr Milvidaite I.
Pr Grybauskas P.
Dr Vasiliauskas D.
Pr Kibarskis A.
Dr Berenyi I.
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