News 14 04 web.pdf

April 2014
FAIRY-RING CHAMPIGNON Marasmius oreades Contents
View from the Chair.2
The cultivation of edible fungi Stains and reagents.3 at Scutchers Acres.9 UK Fungus Day 2014.3 Lake District Foray, 2013.11 North West Fungus Group - April 2014
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PRESIDENT:Professor Bruce Ing, Clwyd Mycological Institute
SECRETARY: Mike Walton
(Typesetting & Printing: Mike Walton)
COMMITTEE Norman Bamforth, Rita Cook, Jeanette Maddy, Tim Rogers,
Peter Smith, John Watt.
View from the Chair
there was a splendid AGM lunch pre-pared this year by Robin Dean. Forti- A brief ‘View' because the main thing fied and cheered most of us then that has happened since the last News- embarked on a brief AGM foray around letter has been the AGM – and you Risley Moss Reserve. There were the should all have received the minutes of usual but always welcome Scarlet Elf- that meeting from Mike Walton cups and a good number of species [emailed to those with email addresses, found (list posted by Tony Carter).
included with this newslettewr for So far this year there have been two those without]. In case you didn't have forays, both well-attended. In March, time to read the minutes, Mike has Mike Valentine led a foray to Spring taken over as Secretary from Carey Wood near Whalley and the list of 77 Saunders who, sadly, had to resign and species found has already been sent to two new people were elected to the the email group and posted on the web Committee – Jeanette Maddy and John site by Tony Carter. A very good spe- Watt. Once again we had to amend the cies total for so early in the year and an constitution in yet another attempt to altogether excellent foray. The second register for Gift Aid but this really is foray of the year (on 13 April) was the our last try! In the absence of our belov- traditional visit to the Sefton coast, this ed President, Bruce Ing, one of our time to the Freshfield end. The total members, Mike Valentine gave a talk species found isn't yet known but the on Fungi of the North West illustrated site was very dry (sand drains so quick- Page No. 2
North West Fungus Group - April 2014
ly) so is likely to be modest. But it was Stains and Reagents
another very enjoyable day so those ofyou who rarely come on forays, I hope To facilitate the procurement of stains, you can manage a few this year.
reagents and immersion oil for You can see news of National Fungus members whilst minimising delivery Day from Jeanette Maddy below and costs, it has been agreed to try to place the foray programme (sent to all and bulk orders for members from time to also available on the website) lists all time. I have been tasked with the other delights in the year ahead.
coordinating this.
There is our annual residential foray to Congo red powder (1 gm) is already Keswick (booking form enclosed), available at £3.54 and I have a supply which is always a highlight of the year of 10 ml brown glass dropper bottles at and there is still space available. Note £1.86. Ideally I will pass these to that two foray dates have been switched people during Sunday Forays but I since the original programme was sent: the Moor Piece foray is now on Sun- onwards. Payment should preferably be day, 21 September, and the Risley made by cheque, made out to Moss beginners' foray is on SATUR- Northwest Fungus Group.
DAY 27 September. This last foray Do let me know of any other chemicals will be followed by a microscope work- that you need, and the urgency with shop IF a sufficient number of people which you require them, and I will try are interested: unless at least 5 people to arrange a co-ordinated order.
want to attend, it isn't worth paying forthe workshop room. So do please let me Finally, thanks to those members who know if you are thinking of attending have already shared their experience the workshop. If you want to brush up with me and provided me with tips.
your microscope skills or are even John Watt
thinking of starting microscopy, this isa great opportunity.
Enjoy the fungal year ahead and I hope
to see you on a foray.
Irene Ridge
UK Fungus Day 2014
Sunday 12 October 2014 is UK Fungus Day. Many events, lectures, sciencedisplays and outreach activities are being planned to run over and around theweekend of 11/12 October to raise the profile of fungi and fungal researchthroughout the UK and Ireland.
Information is available at
Jeanette Maddy - co-ordinator for NWFG
North West Fungus Group - April 2014
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Me Ol' Bam-Boo*
Tony Carter
Tony Carter
I was sowing beetroot seeds in my al- On Saturday 28 September, I led a lotment, using small pieces of bamboo fungal foray for the public at Ainsdale cane to mark the rows. I noticed that Sand Dunes Nature Reserve on behalf one piece was covered with small black of Natural England.
flask shaped pycnidia poking through We found about forty species, mostly the outer surface. (see opposite) the more common varieties such as I took it home for examination but Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric), Paxil- nothing in my literature quite fitted. So lus involutus (Brown Rollrim), Lactar- I consulted Peter Wilberforce who ex- ius tabidus (Birch Milkcap) and pressed interest as fungi on bamboo, in Pholiota squarrosa (Shaggy Scalycap). the UK, are not common. I sent it to These are species a foray leader hopes him for further research.
for when assisting a group of novices.
Peter reports - The nearest match I can However, one specimen, found by the find is Astrosphaeriella stellata (Pat.) gate leading into the paddock, was new Sacc. This agrees with my findings of to me. Pure white and woolly, it was large, asymmetric spores, strongly con- densely covered in a powdery sub- stricted and 1-septate, and with some stance that came off easily when han- spores showing a slender gelatinous dled. (See page 7) I identified it to the coating. (see opposite) Known only group as a probable Cystoderma (Pow- from Bamboo recorded (1981) from dercap), which seemed logical at the India and the Far East. The taxon was first published as Amphisphaeria stel- Later microscopic observation and fur- lata Pat. (1913 in Bull. Soc. de la My- ther research showed that it was a Dap- cologique de France). There is a full perling, Cystolepiota pulverulenta. I description in Hawsworth's paper in had never seen one before. It is the first Lin Soc 1981.
record for Ainsdale and VC59. Ains- Peter decided that this was a specimen dale rarely fails to surprise.
that should be looked at further, so he According to the British Checklist, this sent it to Kew. It was examined by species is normally found in southern Brian Spooner, who confirmed Astro- counties such as Oxfordshire, Somerset and Devon. Is this another species This is a first for the United Kingdom.
moving north with a warming climate? I checked the National Database and itis not mentioned there.
I cannot believe that it is a rarity but Idoubt that many people foray amongstbamboo canes in their gardens.
(*Chitty Chitty Bang Bang) Page No. 4
North West Fungus Group - April 2014

Photo courtesy of Peter Wilberforce North West Fungus Group - April 2014
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Page No. 6
North West Fungus Group - April 2014

Photograph courtesy of Peter Ross.
Hand courtesy of Tony Carter Shitake (left) and Oyster Mushrooms (right) - see page 10 North West Fungus Group - April 2014
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Keswick Weekend - Pages 11 & 12 Page No. 8
North West Fungus Group - April 2014
The cultivation of edi-
Clitocybe rivulosa; Russula queletii;Ramaria abietina; Chlorophyllum rha- ble woodland fungi at
codes; and on one occasion a group of Limacella guttata and also of Agaricussilvicola.
John Watt
From the supplier, AnnforFungi in In- A few years before my retirement, as a verurie, I selected Pleurotus ostreatus; woodland owner in Lancashire, I was Pleurotus pulmonaria; Lentinula edo- informed by the Council's tree officer des (Shiitake), and Hericium erina- about a workshop on the cultivation of ceous (Lion's Mane) as suitable for woodland fungi which I attended with broadleaved log cultivation. The fun- great interest and thereafter acquired gus comes in the form of either dowels books by Paul Stamets, one of which is or 'spawn' which one innoculates into called Mycelium Running: How mush- the drilled holes with a 'jaberator' - as it rooms can help save the world; a pro- has been jokingly called. For the logs, I vocative title, and rightly so.
had felled a mixture of Grey Alder;Grey Willow; Turkey Oak; Silver Lime However it was only after my retire- and Common Ash in January 2012, and ment when I had formed a Friends of then cut them into 1 m lengths by 10-20 Scutchers Acres volunteers group and cm diameter. They were labelled care- had built up links with the local youth fully and stacked off the ground on group of the Lancs Wildlife Trust and pallets pre-treated with wood-preserva- local schoolchildren, that I embarked tive. (See page 6) Eight weeks later upon a serious attempt to grow some these were ready for drilling, inoculat- mushrooms on logs. I was also given a ing and sealing with hot cheese-wax grant towards this by the West Lancs and so several sessions were coordinat- CVS as a Community Food Growing ed between groups of volunteers, the local children from the wildlife Trust The information given at the initial in- and the school (see pages 6 & 7). It duction had indicated that my chosen proved to be great fun for the children - site near the Eller Brook River within even though many kids don't like to eat an acre of Picea abies should be ideal, mushrooms - and it was a good oppor- sheltered from direct sun and wind.
tunity to be the advocate for the place This parcel of 'non-native' coniferous for fungi in our world. I had to disap- woodland, within a mosaic of broad- point that the fungal logs would take at leaved woodland and grassland is, in least 18 months to bear fruit. This being itself, a wonderful place for mycorrhiz- the case, we undertook a second series al fungi especially late in the year. I of inoculations again this spring, using have observed the regular appearance Pedunculate Oak and Turkey Oak, there of Lepista flaccida; Rhodocolly- bringing the tally to over 70 logs in bia butyracea; Clitocybe nebularis; North West Fungus Group - April 2014
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Fairly soon after the first series of in- esting to see if they out compete the noculations, we suffered a very dry spring and I became quite concerned The logs, if still with viable edible fun- about the drying out of the logs so that gal mycelia, should continue to pro- I bought a Protimeter moisture meter, duce fruiting bodies for some years, and found indeed that the moisture con- and so I do not for the moment plan tent was dropping to the 20% levels in further inoculations this coming spring.
some cases, especially in Ash, which Furthermore, because I can only look for this reason, like sycamore, is actual- after them on a low maintenance regi- ly not a suitable species for log cultiva- men, i.e. without regular control of tion. I then bought a double diaphragm moisture, I need to evaluate the overall manual water pump for irrigating logs potential success of such a project and and filling water butts even though I how easily it could become a communi- don't have time to do this very often.
ty food project. I am wondering if the After some months, it was possible to logs would in fact be better stored on see signs of the mycelial run from the the ground, to ensure better moisture whitish appearance at the cut ends of most of the logs and a few oyster mush- The logs are evident to walkers in the rooms sprouted in autumn 2012, after woods, and for the most part have not only 8 months. (See page 7) This au- been interfered with, except on the one tumn, following the long dry spell in occasion some adventuresome children summer, we shocked logs into fruiting built a log cabin with many of the logs; by soaking some and delivering a sharp I left this for some days but in due hammer blow to the ends of other logs, course my volunteers and I reorganised as is the traditional Japanese method.
them back onto their pallets and put up However, the 10% of logs which did sprout fungi this autumn appeared tohave done so spontaneously without Mushrooms such as shiitake, quite specific shock treatment. However, the apart from their nutritional value most number of fruiting bodies per logs was especially for vitamin D, are said to at most about 5-6 i.e. not the amount possess many health-giving properties the commercial producer would wish.
with dozens of scientific papers on their So far, we have had a mixture of some antiviral, antibacterial and immunos- shiitake (see page 7) and oyster mush- timulant properties. Lentinan is an ap- rooms and the Forest School children proved anti-cancer drug in Japan.
were able to cut these from the logs and The mushrooms were described in Ja- take some back to school for cooking pan in AD199 and they have been cul- and I have also dried some. Annoying- tivated in the Far East for one thousand ly, many of the oak logs cut this year years. In the time of the Sung Dynasty have sprouted extensive growths of there is the first written account of Bulgaria inquinans and it will be inter- growing them in logs in Longquan Page No. 10
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province, and striking the logs to bear Lake District Foray
fruit. Even today, 95% of farmers inthis region of China practise its cultiva- tion. In comparison, we in the westhave been far behind.
Robin Cowley
Shiitake are generally saprophytic and The Lake District foray always turns up their preferred hosts are Castanopsis a good collection and this autumn the cuspidata, Pasania and Quercus and fungi did themselves proud. But there Asian Fagus species. Despite their abil- were four very special things that made ity to grow in other broadleaved logs this year's foray unusual: a profusion of and their widespread cultivation, it is honey fungus, some tremendously interesting that the fungus does not ap- good picture shows, wild mushrooms pear to have spread in the wild beyond on the menu and massages.
its traditional geographical region. Is Saturday was a gorgeous warm, dry this just a matter of time? Keep a look and sunny day and even Sunday was out for it may turn up anywhere, espe- less wet than predicted, so there was cially in Scutchers Acres now! plenty of encouragement from nature togo and see what we could find.
The two best sites, not for the first time, were Blencathra and Great Wood. To We have one article in reserve so I Irene's delight both yielded over a hun- would encourage anyone thinking of dred different species, with a colourful writing an one to do so in order that we range of waxcaps from the Blencathra can bring the next newsletter out in fields. This was fortunate because the good time. Many thanks to all those fields below Latrigg were noticeably members who have contributed articles lacking in what is usually a diverse for this issue and to Mike Walton for display; plenty of Hygrocybe virginea typesetting and organising the printing and a few H. conica but little if any- and posting of the Newsletter.
thing else. The eager explorers returned Articles need not be long or technical with baskets full of treasures, but also and can be submitted to me by email.
tales of a surprisingly large amount of Alternatively please send hard copy, honey fungus on the loose.
ideally in a form that can be electronically The National Trust's Aira Force site scanned (i.e. black print or type) or, if beside Ullswater again had a splendid this is not possible, hand-written in clearand legible writing. Pictures of fungi ring of Amanita muscaria in its car parkto accompany articles are very welcome - at least until late on Saturday, bypreferably sent as separate attachments. which time it was reported that some children had been allowed to do what Paul F Hamlyn
children like to do with fungi. DoddsWood also turned up an interesting North West Fungus Group - April 2014
Page No. 11
range of Boletes, Amanitas, Lactarius mas and Lactarius and the usual funny and Russulas to name only the ones I little brown things that aren't interest- could recognise on the table. This was ing enough to identify (oops, did I say far better than the previous year when that?). Oh, and lots more honey fungus.
it was extremely wet and slippery and There was also a very handy coffee yielded nothing much. And there was shop at the bottom on the way back to quite a bit of honey fungus there.
the road, but the intrepid adventurers Lots of wonderful things turned up, were too soggy to chance that.
although possibly not so many rarities Back at the hostel there was a choice of as have turned up in previous years. I the games room laboratory for the dead was delighted to see a specimen of the keen with their microscopes, or the white hedgehog fungus (Hydnum luxury of a cup of tea up in the lounge repandum) captured to complement the for the fungused-out. We had some more usual orange (rufescens) variety delightful photographic presentations that we know where to find, a parasitic with unusual birds and fungi and things bolete (Pseudoboletus parasiticus), (I won't say who from as Steve might some huge Lactarius and delicate angel feel embarrassed). Our catering team wings (Pleurocybella porrigens).
did us proud again, with amazingly There were also exciting exploratory wonderful food, the best apples I've visits to Moss Wood, highly recom- ever eaten and a dazzling array of farm- mended the previous year by a local, made cheeses. Just to prove how ad- Thornthwaite and Borrowdale.
venturous they were the catering teamseized upon the opportunity to cook Moss Wood, beside Bassenthwaite, and sample the text-book cep and a was a dead loss - apart from rather a lot decent handful of chanterelles liberated of honey fungus. Thornthwaite, west from Borrowdale. This bravery was so from Keswick, yielded nothing much encouraging that it led to them prepar- either, although much of the more ing and serving just enough Boletus promising parts were fenced off so not badius for everyone to sample with our explored. Borrowdale, however, was a last evening meal. Utterly delicious.
revelation. A very beautiful site (even Undoubtedly this should become a tra- in the Sunday drizzle) with a lovely dition for Lake District forays.
climb up from the Bowder Stone carpark then back down and up and As should the intriguing group event around and about and down with lots of that followed our last meal - which fungus on the way. The highlights were involved lots of massage (courtesy of some frogs, a bank of bright yellow Enid Braddock). It almost got me rath- chanterelles, solitary fly agarics, sever- al ceps (including an utterly perfectly And there it was; Keswick 2013, anoth- formed specimen straight out of the er memorable event.
textbook that was hiding under some I'll bet you're sorry you missed it now! bracken), plenty of Russulas, Entolo- Page No. 12
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Firts draft citizen budgets a4 size

REPUBLIC OF THE GAMBIA MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND ECONOMIC AFFAIRS (MOFEA) BUDGET OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE GAMBIA 2014 CITIZENS EDITION Republic of The Gambia Citizens Budget Manual Table of Contents List of Abbreviations or Acronyms Statement by the Honorable Minister Section I: Introduction What Government wants to achieve from publishing the 2014 Citizens Budget