2-wc herbs.pptx

Beneficial Use of
Winston Craig, PhD, RD
Professor of Nutrition
Andrews University
Herb and Spices
Herbs (leaves)
basil, cilantro, dill,
oregano, parsley,
sage, thyme

Spices (aromatic parts
of plants)
pepper, cumin, garlic,
cloves, caraway, ginger,
cinnamon, turmeric, cardamom

Growth of Botanical Market
People are interested today in a more
natural lifestyle. Herbal
remedies are viewed as
gentle working treatments
with few, if any, side

Herb Use is Common
Patients and physicians
often lack accurate
information about the
safety and efficacy of
herbal remedies.
Garlic, cinnamon

Use of Herbal Teas
•  Herb teas are not panaceas
•  Be alert to their toxicities
•  Avoid unlabeled bulk teas
•  Purchase only prepackaged
teas with safe ingredients
•  Pregnant women and young children
use caution
•  Drink at most 1-2 cups per day

A herbal product
•  Has zero calories
•  300 times sweeter than sucrose.
•  No bitter aftertaste
•  A new isolation process for
rebaudioside A (RebA)
•  The glycosides are heat and acid stable
•  The taste has a slower onset and longer duration
than sucrose
•  Truvia (Coca cola) and PureVia (Pepsi) contain
> 95% rebaudioside A.

Has a negligible effect on blood
Is attractive as a sweetener for the
management of diabetes and
metabolic syndrome, and for use in
carbohydrate-controlled diets.
WHO found no evidence that the sweet compounds
in stevia, stevioside and rebaudioside A,
have any
carcinogenic activity. In Dec 2008 rebaudioside was
approved by FDA for use as a food additive.

Digestive Aids
(post-operative nausea and vomiting)
prevents motion sickness
(equal potency to dramamine; has less
side effects and greater tolerance)


treatment of IBS, indigestion,
bloating from gas


for GI spasms,
indigestion, gas

The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs, 2003

Digestive Aids

Slippery elm

soothes irritated
gastrointestinal tract
for duodenal & peptic ulcers
approved by German commission E

Contains flavonoids (chalcones) and triterpenoid saponins
(glycyrrhizic acid). After 3 mo, licorice gave same result as
antacid with fewer relapses with chronic duodenal ulcer. After
2 yrs same effect on gastric ulcer as cimetidine.

Irish Med J 1985;78:153-6

Gut 1985;26:599-602
Migraine Headache Relief
Feverfew is used to decrease the severity and
frequency (but not duration) of migraines.
Significant reduction in nausea and vomiting.

Sesquiterpene lactones inhibit
pro-inflammatory eicosanoids,
and release of serotonin.

Gentle Sedation
Passion flower

Lemon balm
Valeriana officinalis is used as a sleep aid and mild sedative
to treat anxiety, insomnia, sleep disorders, restlessness,
tenseness, and nervous excitation. It's approved by German
Commission E.
Has CNS depressant activity. 30 studies involving
over 5,200 participants showed positive calming
effects without morning sleepiness. Contains many
valerenic acid, a sesquiterpenoid, and other active
compounds. Effective singly or as a mixture.
The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs, 2003

St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum)
Analysis of 29 trials involving 5,489 patients.
a)  were superior to placebo in patients with major

b)  were similarly effective as standard
c)  had fewer side effects than standard

Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2008 Oct 8;(4):CD000448
Herbal Diuretics
These promote blood flow in kidneys.
Most contain flavonoids and/or terpenoids.

Juniper berries
Bearberry (uva ursi)
Stinging nettle leaves

Some diuretic activity from horsetail, buchu,
dandelion, hibiscus.

Hibiscus sabdariffa
Hibiscus gives a tea fruity, tart taste and red color. It is rich
in antioxidants such as anthocyanins, other flavonoids, and
phenolic acids.
3 cups a day of hibiscus tea (for 6 weeks) lowered high BP
in pre-hypertensives and mildly
hypertensive adults (aged 30 to 70)
about as effective as some medications
do.Their initial systolic BP was 120 to
150 mmHg and diastolic BP was
95 mmHg or less.

Hibiscus Extract Lowers BP
Participants with the highest initial BP readings had the
most significant reductions. Results for the 30 people with
initial systolic BP (129 mmHg or above) appear below:

Hibiscus tea
Systolic BP
-13.2 mmHg
Diastolic BP
Mean Arterial
Ginkgo biloba, EGb 761
Leaves of the maidenhair tree, rich in flavonoids and
terpene lactones, used for peripheral arterial disease,
memory deficit, poor concentration, confusion,
36 trials were studied, but most (earlier trials) were small
and of short duration (< 3 mo).
Results from more recent trials showed
inconsistent results for cognition, mood,
depression with no difference from

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(1):CD003120 Ginkgo biloba, EGb 761
Patients with Alzheimer's disease (925 patients/ 9 trials)
showed no consistent pattern of any benefit associated
with Ginkgo. The clinically significant benefit of Ginkgo
for people with dementia/cognitive
impairment is inconsistent and

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(1):CD003120
Echinacea – 3 species
For treatment of colds, flu, and acute URTIs. Impacts
severity and/or duration of such. German Commission
E recommends for no longer than 8 weeks. Aerial parts
and roots of E. purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia.
18 of 21 clinical studies including
3508 participants demonstrated
positive effects on URTIs etc.
Treatment is most beneficial if
started as soon as possible after
onset of symptoms. The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs, 2003

Hydrastis canadensis is one of the top
herbal supplements sold in natural health
food stores in USA. It is often combined
with Echinacea
for URT infections
associated with colds and flu.
There are no clinical trials or scientific
data to document the effective use of
goldenseal for this purpose.

•  has traditionally been used to relieve cough, colds,
catarrh, and rhinitis, although clinical trials do not support
such uses
•  modulates immune function. It increases phagocytosis,
natural killer cell activity, antibody production, and
lymphocyte counts
•  has antibacterial activity (against H. pylori,
Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Clostridium
antifungal activity (against Candida
Action attributed to thiosulfinates.

The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs, 2003
Curcumin Helps Prevent Diabetes
240 subjects with pre-diabetes took 1.5 g curcumin a day for 9
months. Progression to T2DM and changes in beta cell function
and insulin resistance measured.

Placebo Curcumin
to Type 2

Chuengsamarn et al. Diabetes Care 2012;35:2121-7
Curcumin Helps Prevent Diabetes
240 subjects with pre-diabetes took 1.5 g curcumin a day for 9
months. Progression to T2DM and changes in beta cell function
and insulin resistance measured.

Placebo Curcumin
to Type 2

Chuengsamarn et al. Diabetes Care 2012;35:2121-7
Cinnamon Extract Improve Blood Glucose
Control in Chinese With T2DM

cinnamon extract cinnamon extract
Fasting blood
-1.01 mmol/L
-1.62 mmol/L
Chinese with type 2 diabetes, taking gliclazide (a
sulfonylurea), with elevated levels of HbA1c and

fasting blood glucose. Given cinnamon extract or
placebo for 90 days. Lipid levels were unchanged.

Nutr Res 2012;32 (6): 408-12 Effect of Cinnamon on Blood Glucose in
Normal Weight and Obese Adults

Area under the curve at 120 min was 23.6% lower for
cereal with cinnamon (p=0.008)

Magistrelli, Chezem. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112:1806-9
Effect of Compound GII on Fasting BG and
GTT in Moderately Diabetic Rabbits

33% drop seen in HbA1c after 4 weeks with GII
purified from fenugreek (T. foenum graecum
Ind J Clin Biochem 2012;27:21-7
Bitter melon (karela) stimulates insulin

Bitter melon is a popular medicinal plant used
worldwide for diabetes treatment. It is also widely
used as food.
The plant lowers blood glucose via promoting
insulin secretion through
the action of triterpene
glycosides (saponins)
found in the fruits. It's used
regularly in Okinawa.

Prickly Pear Cactus (Nopal) Lower
Blood Sugar Levels

The pads (nopales) and fruit (tuna) of prickly pear
are commonly used in Mexico and Peru for the
treatment of diabetes. Commonly used species
include Opuntia engelmannii, O. ficus-indica, O.
are high in mucilage
(soluble fiber) and are useful
for lowering blood glucose
and LDL cholesterol levels.

Phytother Res
Nutr Res
Help For the Prostate
Treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH):

Saw palmetto
Stinging nettle root (Urtica sp)
Pygeum africanum
Pumpkin seeds

The discriminate use of herbs and
spices to season food has real
therapeutic value.
The therapeutic use of concentrated
extracts of culinary herbs and
spices should be monitored by a
healthcare practitioner.

Source: http://healthministries.com/sites/healthministries.com/files/presentations/pdf/2-WC%20Herbs.pdf


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