Information governance exercise

Yorkshire Centre for Health Informatics HL7 Summer School Capturing clinical requirements:
Owen Johnson, Senior Fellow, YCHI, Leeds
University

Design Process
Capture clinical
Delegate
Capturing Clinical Requirements A UML Design Process Learning Objectives • To introduce a light-weight, agile approach to UML design linking scenarios/ storyboard, semantic modelling, use cases, object oriented analysis, component design and interaction diagrams. • To overview the science of requirements representation and how to apply it to healthcare • To appreciate the art of requirements capture • To review some common tools for working with clinicians. • To get some practical experience applying these techniques to a case study. • To reflect on the process of requirements capture.



Source: Business Case for the phased implementation of an e-Prescribing solution from University Hospital of South
Manchester

An agile approach to design Model the
Model the
"As is" process
"Will be" process
Process Improvement
To what extent are you as a designer looking to improve clinical processes? • making current care pathways faster and safer • enabling radical improvements in how healthcare is delivered An agile (and creative) approach to design 2. The Creative Step
Rethink the model 1. Analysis
3. Design
Study and understand Generate "candidate" the current solution to develop a "logical" design solutions 4. Choose
"Will be"
solution
5. Create prototypes of the Future solution, implement and review

Techniques Storyboard/ User Story/ Scenario After examining Kari Kidd on the GHH Paediatric Ward, Dr Aaron Attend decides to prescribe some topical betamethasone (VTM) 0.1% (strength) for application to a patch of eczema on her wrists (route of administration) twice a day. This order is entered into the order entry system. When visiting the ward to review the prescription the pharmacist, Susan Script, reviews this new prescription and realises it is incomplete, as it is not fully specified. Following hospital policy from the dermatologists, she amends the prescription to include a reference to ‘ointment', so that it now reads betamethasone ointment 0.1% (VMP) topically to wrists (route of administration) bd. The nurse in charge sends this amended prescription to pharmacy for supply, which can be filled as it is fully specified. The Pharmacy Department sends up a 30g tube of betamethasone 0.1% ointment manufactured by Futuna Ltd, (AMPP), fully labelled for Kari Kidd, with the dosage instructions etc. Source: UKCPRS Programme – Dictionary of Medicines and Devices – Use Cases register. Online at See also Hinchley (2007), pg 21 Techniques Semantic Modelling Take a scenario, any scenario, and examine it word by word Verbs = actions/ business processes Nouns (and Noun Phrases)= Entities in the problem domain After examining Kari Kidd on the GHH Paediatric Ward, Dr Aaron Attend decides to prescribe some topical betamethasone Medical Practitioner
Ward :Ward
: Medication
Dr Aaron Attend: Kari Kidd :Patient
Exercise 1 Semantic Modelling from a Storyboard As individuals Work through the e-prescribing storyboard identifying the interesting verbs and noun phrases. As a group 2) Create Sticky Note classes for all the nouns and noun phrases Use Yellow Sticky Notes to represent People or Autonomous Systems Use Green Sticky Notes to represent any other entity Tip 1 – the aim is to identify Classes (you can derive/ guess these from instance names, e.g. Kara Kidd is a Patient). Don't worry about instance names just write the name of the class on the Sticky note. Tip 2 – if you come across adjectives that relate to a Class it can suggest an Attribute of a Class, if your UML is good enough you can write an appropriate attribute name on the Class Sticky. 3) Arrange the Sticky Notes on a flipchart sheet and, thinking about the likely real world relationships, rearrange the Stickies to create a partial Concept Class diagram for the problem domain. 4) Create Sticky Note Use Cases for each interesting verb Use Pink Sticky Notes to represent the use case Tip 3 – Make sure your use case has an active verb and a noun, doing something to something. 5) On a second flipchart sheet, use the Pink Sticky Notes to create a Use Case Diagram if you know how. Identify at least one Actor for each Use Case. Tip 4 – To test that your use cases are sound, think about who triggers it and what value it creates for the actor that triggers it. Exercise Debrief How hard is this technique When might this technique be appropriate Who generates the scenarios When would you stop How much technical UML knowledge to you need How does this fit with HL7 models


Source: Hinchley (2007), page 42. Reproduced without the permission of the author.
Partial solution Use Case Diagram prescribed Prescription Item
Medication


OO Design methods are similar but different to HL7. Source: Hinchley (2007), page 43. Reproduced without the permission of the author.


A UML-based approach 1) Model Business Processes with Use Cases 5) Model System requirements with 2) Create Concept-level Class 4) Make component 6) Create Design-level responsibilities for Component 3) Model Business Processes with Activity 7) Model use case realisations with Interaction Diagrams Use Case Modelling A Use Case diagram is a simple model of either a business process or a system requirement. The principles behind use cases are based on systems theory, any software
component, system, business unit or organisation can be seen as a system which
interacts with people or other systems outside its boundary.
Use Case modelling is based on carefully understanding systems theory.
Use Cases as transactions of value to an actor Use Case Transactions
At the end of a (successful) use
case the actor should have
received something of value to
them.

Transaction
A series of actions and interactions
which result in an exchange of
items of value, such as information, goods, services and Use Cases – a Class of transactions
between actor and system
Use Cases are technically a class of transaction between actor and system.
They represent the set of all possible scenarios. The Use Case Diagram is therefore a
type of (concept level) class diagram, it shows actor classes, use case classes and the
relationships between them.
Make an Appointment The set of scenarios for the above use case might include: Owen:Patient rings reception for an appointment at 3.30 on Tuesday 7th December Carol:Patient pops in to make an appointment "any time today" Simon:Patient agrees with his GP to see her appointment "same time next week" Sue:Patient makes appointments at 2.15 on 8th December; 9th January and 4th March Beryl makes an appointment for her mum Gladys:Patient at 4pm on 9th December Owen:Patient rings to cancel appointment for Tuesday 7th December as he realises he's running a course that day, he makes an appointment for 3.40pm on Tuesday 14th instead. Samantha:Patient uses the Internet to book an appointment online for Monday 13th December. Colin:Patient emails the surgery for an appointment any time Wednesday and they email him back a time of 4.20 which he confirms is fine. Each scenario is an instance of the use case performed by an instance of an actor. There are an infinite number of possible scenarios for a use case but they are all essentially following a similar pattern. Use Case Description As text Basic Flow is the main flow described in the Use Case Description.
Make an Appointment This use case begins when Patient decides they want to see a Doctor. They contact the Reception staff and ask for details of when their preferred Doctor is free. They may discuss a number of appointment slots that are free before they decide on one that is most convenient for them. They choose an appointment slot and the Reception staff record the patient's name on the appointment
record and confirm the details back to the Patient.
At the end, the actor is Happy  - they get measurable value (Reward > Effort).
Alternate Flows are other variations (alternatives) that still lead to a successful
completion of the use case. The actor is still happy  - they still gets measurable
value (Reward > Effort).
Exception Flows are variations that lead to an unsuccessful use case - the user
fails to complete the use case transaction. The actor is NOT Happy  - they get no
measurable value and have wasted their time (Effort > Reward).
Primary Actor: (Actor that initiates Use Case) Other Actors: Value Proposal to Actor(s) (the goal of the Use Case from the Actor's perspective) Basic Course of Events: This use case begins when … (The Normal Flow) Alternative Paths: (Other paths through the use case Alternative Paths which result in a successful outcome – typically variations to the basic course of events, determined by the actor and their needs). Exception Paths: (Other paths through the use case which result in an unsuccessful outcome – typically when something goes wrong) Post-conditions: Related Business Rules: Related Non-Functional requirements – Usability, Performance, Security: (Any non-functional requirements that are specific to this Use Case rather than the system as a whole) Project: Author: Date: Use Case Description as Activity Diagram Order Entry
Pharmacy
Decide to Prescribe Enter Medication Receive Order from Order to Pharmacy Making Implementation Choices What systems will be used? Where will they be located? How will they be connected? What responsibilities should each system have? How will the systems work together to help realise the use cases?




Order Entry
Pharmacy
Source: PharmacyExport Module. A brief demonstration of a Pharmacy Export module for OpenMRS. this Module integrates
OpenMRS and the iDart Pharmacy System. http://blip.tv/openmrs/pharmacyexport-module-1822546
Use Case Description as Sequence Diagram Order Entry
Pharmacy
Pharmacist
Enter Medication Order Pharmacist
Options for Integration A) Different systems in different organisations B) Different systems from different vendors on different servers HL7 (or something lighter) Options for Integration C) Different systems from same vendor Options for Integration C) Different modules from same vendor on same server Enterprise database D) BUT… No organisation is an island. A UML-based approach 1) Model Business Processes with Use Cases 5) Model System requirements with 2) Create Concept-level Class 4) Make component 6) Create Design-level responsibilities for Component 3) Model Business Processes with Activity 7) Model use case realisations with Interaction Diagrams The Agile Manifesto Capturing Clinical Requirements A UML Design Process Learning Objectives • To introduce a light-weight, agile approach to UML design linking scenarios/ storyboard, semantic modelling, use cases, object oriented analysis, component design and interaction diagrams. • To overview the science of requirements representation and how to apply it to healthcare • To appreciate the art of requirements capture • To review some common tools for working with clinicians. • To get some practical experience applying these techniques to a case study. • To reflect on the process of requirements capture. Yorkshire Centre for Health Informatics Leeds Institute of Health Sciences Faculty of Medicine and Health Charles Thackrah Building 101 Clarendon Road Leeds, United Kingdom LS2 9LJ Tel. +44 (0) 113 343 4961 www.ychi.leeds.ac.uk

Source: http://www.hl7.org.uk/doc_store/Summer%20School/Day1Session4.pdf

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