Chiaramente, ogni formato ha i propri vantaggi e svantaggi comprare amoxil senza ricetta per effettuare un acquisto, non è necessario fornire la prescrizione medica.

Icap7000.virtualstudio.tv

Thermo Scientific
iCAP 7000 Series ICP-OES
The new Thermo Scientific™ iCAP™ 7000 Series ICP-OES provides the lowest cost multi-element analysis for measuring trace elements in a diverse sample range, combining advanced performance with high productivity and ease of use. The instrument provides your environmental, pharmaceutical, industrial or food safety facility with the lowest cost of analysis per sample, producing consistently reliable data, whilst ensuring compliance to global regulations and standards. The iCAP 7000 Series ICP-OES comprises Thermo Scientific iCAP 7600
three models to cover all user needs and budgets, from high thru-put routine to the Designed for the most demanding analysis most demanding analytical environments. chal enges, with highest thru-put, sensitivity Thermo Scientific iCAP 7200
and detection limits; the iCAP 7600 ICP-OES incorporates an integrated sample loop, delivering the sample to the plasma in the A powerful, easy to use instrument for users most efficient method to drive increased who are new to the ICP-OES technique, productivity. Maximized scalability and suited to low thru-put analysis requirements. advanced accessory connectivity to support Offers simplicity, with no compromise on Thermo Scientific iCAP 7400
The innovative hardware of the iCAP 7000 series ICP-OES, driven by intuitive Thermo Scientific™ Qtegra™ Intelligent Scientific Provides the advanced performance required Data Solution™ platform software, simplifies for a range of analysis and regulatory and minimises the user interface with compliance parameters, through broad the instrument, enhancing efficiency and capacity, high sensitivity and low detection assuring correct operation, even for new comers to the ICP-OES technique.
A comprehensive range of compatible accessories are available to maximize laboratory productivity.
• An alternative bore uptake probe is The iCAP 7000 Series ICP-OES is available. The standard 0.5 mm bore ful y compatible with a wide range of probe may be replaced by a 0.8 mm probe autosampling devices that enhance to reduce blockage risk when sampling solutions that contain particulate matter.
Whether the number of samples to be run is • Intel igent software control of autosampler 50 or 500, operator time is used relatively sequencing speeds up analysis times inefficiently if samples are presented and guarantees simplicity of use and the manually to the instrument. With intel igent automation, staff may concentrate on other important operations, such as sample Part number
A range of ful y compatible autosamplers from CETAC provide alternatives for laboratories with various sample loads. CETAC ASX1400 Stirring Autosampler - for Oils and Soils Digests The ASX-260 autosampler offers a 180 CETAC APS1650 Automated Prep Station - Oils Dilutor sample capacity for low-moderate sample CETAC Autosamplers Spares and Consumables throughput; the ASX-520 autosampler accommodates up to 360 samples for CETAC 0.5 mm ID Carbon Fiber Probe moderate-high sample through-put; CETAC 0.8 mm ID for Carbon Fiber Probe and the XLR-8 autosampler enables 21 Position Rack (50 mL Tubes) the unattended analysis of up to 720 24 Position Rack (30 mL Tubes) samples, for laboratories looking to push 40 Position Rack (20 mL Tubes) the boundaries of unattended analysis. All CETAC autosamplers offer a range of rack 60 Position Rack (14 mL Tubes) configurations, including 8 mL, 14 mL, 90 Position Rack (8 mL Tubes) 20 mL, 30 mL and 50 mL capacity tubes 50 mL Polypropylene Tubes (Pack of 500) (also used for standards) and have a calibration standards/quality 30 mL Polypropylene Tubes (Pack of 500) control solution column, al owing the use of 20 mL Polypropylene Tubes (Pack of 500) up to 10 additional 50 mL tubes.
14 mL Polypropylene Tubes (Pack of 1000) For samples which may contain small 8 mL Polypropylene Tubes (Pack of 1000) suspended particulates such as ‘wear metals' applications the ASX-1400 Sample Probe (0.8 mm) autosampler incorporates automated liquid Sample Probe (0.5 mm) stirring to ensure sample homogeneity. Drain Pump Tubing and Connector Kit The compatible autosamplers have a number Stirrer for ASX-1400 of common features designed to make them Stirring Motor for ASX-1400 the most convenient tool for your lab: Stirring Kit for Drip Cup Assembly ASX-1400 • Corrosion resistant sampling mechanism and autosampler construction ensure reliable operation over the long-term. Samples only contact inert PTFE and PEEK materials.
• Peristaltic pump wash station minimizes • A dedicated built-in rack taking up to 10 standards utilizes the full sample rack capacity.
• A range of sample racks and sample cup sizes cater for the widest spread of requirements. Larger volume tubes permit more elements to be measured without user intervention.
Figure 2. Autosampler Sample Introduction Kits
such as plastics and for petrol itself. The are typically obtained during the analysis ICP-OES instrumentation relies on the IsoMist temperature programmable spray of geological samples, soils, sediments, sample introduction system for precise, chamber option provides the optimum ceramics, bricks and cement, together with accurate sample delivery. The iCAP 7000 configuration for volatile organic solvent some types of high temperature al oys. Series ICP-OES sample introduction kits analysis by reducing the plasma solvent load.
Components in contact with the solutions offer a wide choice of pre-configured kits (the spray chamber and the torch center HF – The HF resistant sample handling
optimized for a range of sample matrices, to tube) are made from resistant fluoro-polymer kit is for sample solutions containing ensure optimum performance. and alumina ceramic materials, respectively.
un-complexed hydrofluoric acid. These Al sample-introduction kits are ‘plug Note: Peristaltic pump tubing must be ordered in addition to the sample introduction kits and play', self-aligning systems, ensuring maximum convenience for routine Part number
maintenance. The semi-demountable torch module simply clips into place, while EMT Radial Organic Kit automatically making gas-tight connections and ful y interlocking with the system. It is EMT Radial Volatile Organic Kit possible to remove the center tube whilst the EMT Radial High Solids Kit torch is still in situ which dramatical y reduces EMT Radial Aqueous Kit down time during maintenance and cleaning. EMT Radial HF Kit The aqueous sample introduction kit is supplied as standard with all iCAP 7000 EMT Duo Organic Kit Series ICP-OES instruments. Optional kits EMT Duo Volatile Organic Kit for organics, volatile organics, HF-based and high solids solutions are available to fit radial EMT Duo High Solids Kit and duo view systems. EMT Duo Aqueous Kit Aqueous (Standard) – For aqueous
sample solutions containing relatively low
Sample Introduction Spares and Consumables
acid content (except for hydrofluoric acid (HF)) or up to 3% m/v dissolved solids. The concentric glass nebulizer (within this EMT 1.0 mm Center Tube kit) is not suitable for solutions containing EMT 1.5 mm Center Tube large suspended particles due to the risk of blockage. This kit is shipped as standard EMT 2.0 mm Centre Tube with all instruments. EMT 2.0 mm Ceramic Center Tube High Solids – For the purposes of ICP-OES
EMT Torch Holder Assembly Spares analysis, high solids is defined as up to EMT Center Tube Holder Assembly Spares 20% m/v solutions, especial y samples Radial Spray Chamber Adaptor such as sea waters, brines and ground Duo Spray Chamber Adaptor waters, geochemical samples and fusion Cyclonic Spray Chamber mixtures. Used in conjunction with the argon humidifier, the kit al ows extended Organic (baffled) Spray Chamber analysis times without the drift and blockage Radial Spray Chamber HF problems often associated with such high Duo Spray Chamber HF Organic – The organics sample handling
Concentric Nebulizer kit is recommended for sample solutions Aerosalt Nebulizer containing relatively non-volatile organic V Groove Nebulizer solvents, such as xylene, toluene, white spirit and kerosene. These solvents are most Mira Mist Nebulizer likely to be used for lubricating oils analysis, Nebulizer/Spray Chamber Connector Kit including additive compounds in virgin oil and Sample Introduction Spares Kit wear metals in used oil. Pump Sample Tube Aqueous (Pack of 6, for iCAP 7200 ICP-OES) Volatile Organic – The volatile organics
Pump Drain Tube Aqueous (Pack of 6, for iCAP 7200 ICP-OES) sample handling kit is the recommended Pump Sample Tube Organics (Solvent Flex) (Pack of 6, for iCAP 7200 ICP-OES) option for more volatile organic solvents, Pump Drain Tube Organics (Solvent Flex) (Pack of 6, for iCAP 7200 ICP-OES) such as ketones, alcohols and aldehydes. Mini Pump Sample Tubing – Aqueous (for iCAP 7400/7600 ICP-OES) The use of a cooled spray chamber al ows for the successful introduction and analysis of Mini Pump Drain Tubing – Aqueous (for iCAP 7400/7600 ICP-OES) these sample types. These are often found in Mini Pump Sample Tubing – Organics (for iCAP 7400/7600 ICP-OES) petrochemical analysis, both for by-products Mini Pump Drain Tubing – Organics (for iCAP 7400/7600 ICP-OES) The intermediate tube is made from alumina The majority of ICP-OES torches are made which again has excel ent properties for from quartz. When quartz ICP-OES torches chemical and temperature resistance and are heated (by the plasma) they can undergo has been proven as a material for ICP a process known as devitrification (i.e. torches as it is commonly used for centre become less glass like). This is commonly observed in torches when the region of the The ceramic D-torch provides equivalent torch that contains the plasma becomes analytical performance to the standard translucent and then opaque; flaking of the EMT torch but has the added advantage of internal surface of the torch can also occur. resistance to devitrification and premature This process occurs when the transition failures with specific sample matrices, temperature of the quartz (573 °C) is including organics and high dissolved solids reached and the covalent bonds of the quartz samples such as fusions. The expected life are broken and reformed incorporating time of the ceramic D-Torch is greater than impurities. These impurities are introduced to that of a quartz EMT torch. With the matrices the quartz from the plasma and are typical y mentioned, the ceramic D-torch is a cost elements with a valency of less than 4 such effective solution to reduce some of the as sodium, potassium, calcium and lithium. traditional consumable costs associated The process of devitrification can decrease the expected lifespan of the ICP torch and is commonly seen when samples analyzed Note: the standard range of EMT centre tubes for contain the above mentioned elements at the iCAP 7000 Series ICP-OES can also be used with the D-Torch.
high concentrations (greater than 1000 mg/L). Typical sample types may include those prepared as lithium metaborate Part number
fusions, sea waters and brines. Radial Ceramic D Torch Kit To overcome the issue of devitrification a Duo Ceramic D Torch Kit ceramic torch can be used in place of a Base and Inner Tube for Radial and Duo D Torch quartz torch. The Ceramic D-Torch is such Ceramic Outer Tube for Duo D Torch a torch that can be used with the iCAP 7000 Series ICP-OES Ceramic Outer Tube for Radial D Torch Quartz Outer Tube for Duo D Torch The geometry of the radial and duo Ceramic Quartz Outer Tube for Radial D Torch D-Torch is identical to that of the radial/duo Enhanced Matrix Tolerance (EMT) torch, Optic Fiber for Duo D Torch consisting of three concentric paral el tubes; the outer tube, the intermediate or auxiliary tube and the centre or injector tube. The key differences between the EMT torch and the Ceramic D-Torch are the materials used for the outer tube and the intermediate tube and that the Ceramic D-Torch is ful y demountable where as the EMT torch is semi-demountable (the outer and the intermediate tube are fused). The outer tube of the Ceramic D-Torch is made from a ceramic material derived from silicon nitride. This material is durable and resistant to chemical attack. These properties are maintained at high temperatures. Figure 3. Ceramic Torch Part number
The temperature of the sample introduction system, and more specifical y the spray IsoMist Radial Kit chamber, can have dramatic effects on sensitivity, plasma and analytical stability. Twister Spray Chamber for IsoMist Radial Kit A sample introduction system at a constant Twister Spray Chamber for IsoMist Duo Kit temperature will enhance the analytical stability of an ICP-OES as the spray chamber Unifit Right Angle Connector for IsoMist Radial and Duo Kits (Pack of 3) is isolated from any temperature fluctuations within the laboratory, whilst temperature extremes (cooling or heating) can be used to optimize specific analyses.
Cooled spray chambers are commonly used for the analysis of volatile solvents. By cooling a solvent the vapor pressure is lowered, thereby reducing the amount of solvent reaching the plasma and enabling greater plasma stability. This also has the advantage of decreasing the background signal produced by matrix-based emissions. Conversely, high temperature spray chambers are used for the analysis of low volume samples, where low uptake rates are typical y used. Low sample uptake rate can reduce sensitivity; by heating the spray chamber, more sample aerosol is transported to the plasma thereby increasing sensitivity.
Figure 4. IsoMist The IsoMist is a solid state Peltier temperature-controlled spray chamber which integrates seamlessly with the Thermo Scientific iCAP 7000 Series ICP-OES with dedicated models for both radial and duo instruments. The IsoMist control is managed by a standalone, one screen, user-friendly software package. When coupled to the iCAP 7000 Series ICP-OES, the IsoMist fits within the introduction area of the instrument and does not use valuable lab space. Part number
The use of an Ultrasonic Nebulizer (USN) in conjunction with an ICP-OES has long been CETAC U-5000AT Ultrasonic Nebulizer (220/240V) accepted as a simple and cost effective CETAC U-5000AT Ultrasonic Nebulizer (110/120V) way to increase sensitivity and decrease CETAC U-5000AT Ultrasonic Nebulizer (220/240V) Australia Only detection limits. Conventional pneumatic nebulizers are general y only 2 to 3% efficient under normal operating conditions. The CETAC U5000AT+ Ultrasonic Nebulizer converts more of the liquid sample into a usable aerosol, with an efficiency of 10 to 15%. The CETAC USN couples to the iCAP 7000 Series ICP-OES using the nebulizer push fit connectors for the USN gas flow and coupling the sample flow directly to the torch. This al ows for changeover from the standard sample introduction kit to the USN, in seconds.
The use of the CETAC U5000AT+ USN is a simple and efficient way to gain an average 12 fold improvement in sensitivity over a full range of elements. Figure 5. Nebulizer Hydride Generation Accessory
Part number
The analysis of Arsenic, Bismuth, Antimony, Selenium and Mercury in environmental, Internal Standards/Basic Hydride Generator Kit biological and food samples is common Integrated Hydride Generation System place, and is driven by regulations which Replacement Tubing Kit Integrated Hydride Generation System require lower limits of detection year upon Consumable Parts For Integrated Hydride Generation Kit year to ensure that contamination by toxic substances is kept to a minimum. The analytical performance required for these elements is often difficult to achieve using a standard sample introduction setup. The analytical performance of these elements can be enhanced by the use of a hydride generation sample introduction system.
The iCAP 7600 ICP-OES spectrometer has a dedicated continuous flow hydride generation accessory which is a combined reaction chamber and GLS. The continuous flow of samples and reagents has a self-cleaning effect upon the system, improving sample throughput. The efficient design of the GLS provides greatly improved sensitivity for the hydride-forming elements. The accessory utilizes the four channel peristaltic pump with separate channels Figure 6. Hydride Generation introducing acid, reducing agent and sample and the fourth to remove waste from the system. The samples and reagents are mixed and a carrier gas (in this case argon) is introduced into the GLS. The solution then passes in to a chamber packed with glass beads to provide a large surface area for the separation to take place. The excess liquid is pumped to waste and the gaseous hydride is transported to the plasma via a transfer line.
With the simple addition of the hydride generation accessory, the lower working range of the iCAP 7000 series can be extended to sub-ppb levels for the hydride-forming elements. Thermo Electron Manufacturing Ltd (Cambridge) is ISO Certified.
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Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and its subsidiaries. Specifications, terms and pricing are subject to change. Not all products are available in all countries.
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REGLAMENTO DE GRADUACIONES, CONFERIMIENTO DE TÍTULOS Y DIPLOMAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD POLITÉCNICA TERRITORIAL DEL ESTADO LARA ANDRÉS ELOY BLANCO ELABORADO POR: Unidad de Organización y Métodos Secretaría General REVISADO POR: Consultoría Jurídica BARQUISIMETO, JULIO 2015