E-Resource May 2014
PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATION USE DURING PREGNANCY AND BREASTFEEDING
Psychotropic medication use during pregnancy may have adverse effects,
hypoglycemia, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, polyhydramnios, and
however, there is a growing body of evidence that some medications may
premature delivery.9,10,11,12 Proper hydration can reduce the risk of lithium
be acceptable for use during pregnancy. As with any medication, risks and
toxicity and regular lithium level monitoring should be performed. Prenatal
benefits must be considered for each individual. This resource provides
exposure to valproate (Depakote) is associated with an increased risk of
useful information and reviews existing research on risks and benefits of
neural tube defects, craniofacial, limb and cardiovascular issues.13,14,15,16
psychotropic medication use during pregnancy.
Other mood stabilizers should be considered, but if Depakote is taken
during pregnancy, a dose of less than 1,000 mg/day should be taken in
The presence of psychiatric disorders during pregnancy is not uncommon;
divided doses. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) exposure during pregnancy is
approximately 500,000 pregnancies each year involve women with an
associated with facial dysmorphism and fingernail hypoplasia and should
emerging or already present psychiatric illness and an estimated 30% of
only be used during pregnancy if there are no other options.17,18 Vitamin K
women take some form of psychotropic medication while pregnant.1
should be taken by women who are treated with both Depakote and
Mental illness, especially untreated, may lead to poor health outcomes
Tegretol to promote proper development of the infant's head and face.
during and after pregnancy for both the baby and mother, including
Typical antipsychotics and some atypical appear to be relatively safe for
inadequate prenatal care, poor nutrition, alcohol/tobacco use, and deficits
use during pregnancy, although both are associated with a slightly
in mother-infant bonding; thus, it is important to consider whether
increased risk of birth defects. Psychotherapy, regular exercise and stress
patients with mental illness can be safely treated during pregnancy. While
management are other non-pharmaceutical options to manage symptoms
all psychotropic medications cross the placenta, are present in the amniotic
of BPD and should be first line intervention in the treatment plan.
fluid and can enter into breast milk, not all produce teratogenic effects.
Considering what stage of pregnancy psychotropic medications are taken is
The course of anxiety disorders during pregnancy is not well known,
helpful in predicting teratogenicity; most risk occurs during the period of
however, relapse is common during pregnancy and postpartum if
embryogenesis (weeks 3 - 8 of pregnancy). If medication use is necessary
medication is discontinued. Anxiety and stress during pregnancy is
during pregnancy, a single medication at a higher dose is recommended
associated with poor outcomes including spontaneous abortions, preterm
over the use of multiple medications and changing medications is not
delivery and delivery complications including prolonged labor, precipitate
recommended as it increases the level of exposure to the fetus.
labor, and fetal distress.
Use of BZD during pregnancy is discouraged due to a possible association
Up to 70% of women experience symptoms of depression while pregnant.
between BZD use and oral cleft development in infants.19 Further, neonatal
Screening with the PHQ-9 is an appropriate method and useful tool to
toxicity and withdrawal symptoms are probable with maternal use of BZD
detect depression early in pregnancy. Depression occurring before
just before delivery.20 Use of Buspirone (Buspar) which is pregnancy safe is
conception often appears during pregnancy or reappears as postpartum
an appropriate alternative medication option. Cognitive behavioral therapy
depression. Untreated depression is associated with premature birth, low
should be considered as an alternate treatment option
birthweight, postnatal complications, poor maternal weight gain, smoking,
and drug/alcohol use during pregnancy.2
Schizophrenia affects approximately 1-2% of women and onset commonly
Medications such as tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin
occurs during childbearing years. Schizophrenia is associated with negative
reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (Prozac) have been shown to be
pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and small
relatively safe for use during pregnancy; neither teratogenic effects nor
for gestational age fetuses.
behavioral teratogenicity have been reported.3, 4, 5 Use of SSRI paroxetine (Paxil) early in pregnancy is associated with birth defects, including heart
Treatment of schizophrenia with typical antipsychotics poses minimal risk
defects, craniosynostosis and omphalocele. SSRI use later in pregnancy
of teratogenicity. Specifically, use of haloperidol (Haldol) is preferred
may lead to transient infant withdrawal symptoms after birth. Limited data
during pregnancy as extensive data suggests it is not associated with any
on use of novel agents, such as venlafaxine (Effexor), nefazodone
congenital malformations with first trimester exposure.21 Low dosage of
(Serzone), or bupropion (Wellbutrin) during pregnancy do not suggest an
these medications is preferred to reduce the risk of extrapyramidal side
increased risk of fetal anomalies or adverse events. The use of monoamine
effects as medications used to treat these symptoms are associated with
oxidase inhibitors is not recommended during pregnancy.6 Alternate
increased risk of oral clefts.19 Atypical antipsychotics have not been studied
treatment approaches for depression during pregnancy include structured
as extensively, so use of these agents can not be recommended during
pregnancy or breastfeeding with the exception of Latuda which is considered safe for pregnancy.
Bipolar Disorder (BPD)
Pregnant and not currently on medication for depression
BPD onset in women commonly occurs in the teens or early 20s. Though the course of BPD during pregnancy is not well known, the postpartum
Psychotherapy may be beneficial in women who prefer to avoid
relapse rate of BPD among untreated women is up to 50% but treatment
initiation prior to delivery may reduce the risk of relapse.7 Treatment
For women who prefer taking medication, risks and benefits of treatment
should be provided in consultation with a psychiatrist and consider both
choices should be evaluated and discussed, including factors such as stage
patient history of mood disorder symptoms and treatment risks.
of gestation, symptoms, history of depression, and other conditions and
Many mood stabilizers used to treat BPD are known teratogens.8 Lithium is
circumstances (e.g., a smoker, difficulty gaining weight).
associated with a small increase in congenital cardiac malformations; first
All pregnant women
trimester exposure is associated with risk of Ebstein's anomaly and
Regardless of circumstances, a woman with suicidal or psychotic symptoms
exposure later in gestation is associated with cardiac arrhythmia,
should immediately see a psychiatrist for treatment.
Pregnancy Risk Lactation Risk
Benzodiazepines for Insomnia
Medications for Side Effects
N/A No t Available
y Risk Categories22
Co ntrolled studies sho w no risk
No evidence of risk in humans
Ris k cannot be ruled o ut
Po sitive evidence of ri sk
Contraindicated in pregnancy
Lactation Risk Categories23
References 1. Doering PL, Stewart RB. The extent and character of drug consumption during pregnancy. JAMA 1978;239:843– 6. 2. Zuckerman B, Amaro H, Bauchner H, Cabral H. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy: relationship to poor health behaviors. Am J
Obstet Gynecol 1989;160:1107–11.
3. Wisner KL, Gelenberg AJ, Leonard H, Zarin D, Frank E. Pharmacologic treatment of depression during pregnancy. JAMA 1999;282:1264
4. Chambers CD, Johnson KA, Dick LM, Felix RJ, Jones KL. Birth outcomes in pregnant women taking fluoxetine. N Engl J Med
5. Ericson A, Kallen B, Wiholm B. Delivery outcome after the use of antidepressants in early pregnancy. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55:503
6. Cohen LS, Rosenbaum JF. Psychotropic drug use during pregnancy: weighing the risks. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59(suppl 2):18-28. 7. Nonacs R, Cohen LS. Postpartum mood disorders: diagnosis and treatment guidelines. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59(suppl 2):34-40. 8. Viguera AC, Cohen LS. The course and management of bipolar disorder during pregnancy. Psychopharmacol Bull 1998;34:339-46. 9. Wilson N, Forfar JC, Godman MJ. Atrial flutter in the newborn resulting from maternal lithium ingestion. Arch Dis Child 1983;58:538 –
10. Mizrahi EM, Hobbs JF, Goldsmith DI. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in transplacental lithium intoxication. J Pediatr 1979;94:493–5. 11. Karlsson K, Lindstedt G, Lundberg PA, Selstam U. Transplacental lithium poisoning: reversible inhibition of fetal thyroid [letter]. Lancet
12. Llewellyn A, Stowe ZN, Strader JR Jr. The use of lithium and management of women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and lacta-
tion. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59(suppl 6):57– 64;discussion 65.
13. Jager-Roman E, Deichl A, Jakob S, Hartmann AM, Koch S, Rating D, et al. Fetal growth, major malformations, and minor anomalies in
infants born to women receiving valproic acid. J Pediatr 1986;108:997–1004.
14. Paulson GW, Paulson RB. Teratogenic effects of anticonvulsants. Arch Neurol 1981;38:140 –3. 15. Rodriguez-Pinilla E, Arroyo I, Fondevilla J, Garcia MJ, Martinez-Frias ML. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid during pregnancy and limb
deficiencies: a case-control study. Am J Med Genet 2000;90:376–81.
16. Dalens B, Raynaud EJ, Gaulme J. Teratogenicity of valproic acid. J Pediatr 1980:97:332–3. 17. Moore SJ, Turnpenny P, Quinn A, Glover S, Lloyd DJ, Montgomery T, et al. A clinical study of 57 children with fetal anticonvulsant syn-
dromes. J Med Genet 2000;37:489 –97.
18. Jones KL, Lacro RV, Johnson KA, Adams J. Pattern of malformations in the children of women treated with carbamazepine during preg-
nancy. N Engl J Med 1989; 320:1661– 6.
19. Saxen I. Cleft palate and maternal diphenhydramine intake [letter]. Lancet 1974;1:407– 8. 20. Haram K. "Floppy infant syndrome" and maternal diazepam. Lancet 1977;2:612–3. 21. Trixler M, Tenyi T. Antipsychotic use in pregnancy. What are the best treatment options? Drug Saf 1997;16:403-10. 22. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation. 7th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. 23. Hale TW. Medications in Mother's Milk. Amaraillo (TX): Pharmasoft Publishing, 2004.
PATIENT EDUCATION MATERIAL
Medications and Pregnancy About this topic
Taking drugs while you are pregnant can harm your baby. Only take drugs that your doctor gives you. Talk to your doctor first
before taking any other drugs.
Taking certain drugs can cause:
Problems with how your baby grows
Harm to your womb which may put your baby's life at risk
Loss of pregnancy before the baby is born (miscarriage)
Early delivery (premature birth)
Pregnant women are not involved in studies for drugs. So, we do not know very much about what taking drugs may do to your
baby. You need to be very careful before taking any drugs. Talk with your doctor about the good and bad things before taking
any drug. This will help you decide what to do.
Drugs may affect your baby based on:
When you take the drug during your pregnancy (the stage of your baby's growth)
How much of the drug you take
If the drug you are taking is mixed with other drugs
If you have a health problem
Taking drugs during pregnancy:
Never take any drug unless your doctor says it is OK. This includes prescription, over-the-counter (like cough or
cold) drugs, and herbals (like St. John's wort). Always check with your doctor before taking any kind of drugs.
Take prenatal vitamins and supplements that have folic acid. Do not take normal vitamins. Talk with your doctor
about the right vitamins and supplements to take.
Get a flu shot if you are pregnant during flu season. This is safe for your baby.
If you are taking drugs for a health problem, check with your doctor to make sure the drugs are safe for your baby.
Your doctor will find drugs that are safe for you and your baby.
If you took drugs before you knew you were pregnant, tell your doctor right away.
Instead of taking drugs:
Treat hard stools by eating foods high in fiber like whole-grain breads and cereals, beans, peas, apples, berries,
Stay away from foods and smells that may cause an upset stomach.
Rest and drink lots of fluids to help with colds.
Where can I learn more?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Women's Health Matters
This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. This is only a brief summary of
general information. It does NOT include all information about conditions, illnesses, injuries, tests, procedures, treatments, therapies, discharge instructions or
life-style choices that may apply to you. You must talk with your health care provider for complete information about your health and treatment options. This
information should not be used to decide whether or not to accept your health care provider's advice, instructions or recommendations. Only your health care
provider has the knowledge and training to provide advice that is right for you.
Teil 4 - Meinungen Kopfschmerz - Realität kontra "geltende Meinungen" Vorliegende Informationen zu Kopfschmerzen durch chemisch/toxische und andere Auslöser sowie meine erfahrungsbedingt zustande gekommenen Ansichten im Vergleich zu den "geltenden Meinungen", die im Normalfall bei der Beurteilung und Behandlung häufig auftretender Kopfschmerzanfälle maßgebend sind.
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