Chiaramente, ogni formato ha i propri vantaggi e svantaggi comprare keflex senza ricetta per effettuare un acquisto, non è necessario fornire la prescrizione medica.

Krcmery vladimir




Antibiotic resistance in
antibiotic free environment


Antibiotic resistance in the absence of
An association between antibiotic use and the development of clinical
resisitance has been clearly documented in several cases

 Use of macrolides and resistance in S. pyogenes Use of penicillins and resistance S. pneumoniae Use of floroquinolones and resistance in Enterobacteriacea and P. aeruginosa Use of third-generation cephalosporins and resistance in Enterobacteriacea Use of carbapenems and resistance in P. aeruginosa Use of linezolid and resistance in E. faecium Reversal of antibiotic resisitance following antibiotic-restriction
policies has been documented in some cases

 Decrease of macrolide resistance in S. pyogenes after restriction in Finland Decrease of penicillins resisitance in S. pneumoniae after restriction in Hungary, Iceland, France Pallecchi et al. Anti. Infect. Ther. 6(5):725-732 (2008)


Antibiotic resistance in the absence
of antimicrobial use
 High rates of acquired antibiotic resistance have been detected among commensal bacteria isolated from humans and wild animals not subjected to significant antibiotic exposure and living in remote areas of the planet  This observations underscore the mechanisms involved in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance  Better understanding of this mechanisms is crucial to improve strategies for antibioti-resistance control


Evidence for acquired under conditions of low
or minimal antibiotic exposure
 The only available bacterial collection predating the antibiotic era is the Murray collection, including clinical isolates of Enterobacteriacae from widely separated areas  collected during during 1917-1954  In these isolates the presence of acquired resistance traits was found to be negligible  This observation strongly emphasized the role of antibiotic use in promoting dissemination of acquired resistance among pathogenic bacteria Hughes and Datta, Nature 302:725-726 (1983)


Studies on antibiotic resistance in commensal
bacteria from humans living in remote settings
 The first studies was conducted in the 1960s in an isolated community of Kalahari bushmen in South Africa, which was free of drugs and had been in contact with other humans for a period of approximately 10 years  In that community fecal carriage of enteric bacteria with acquired resistance traits was found to be low overall, and was limited to ampicillin resistance in E. coli Mare IJ, Nature 220:1046-1047 (1968)


Summary of studies on acquired resistance in
commensal enteric bacteria from remote human
populations with low or minimal antibiotic exposure
Approximate
Hughes et al. Mare et al. Wakson et al.
Grenet et al. Bartoloni et al. Sladeckova et al.  Nepalese village with very low access to allopathic medicines  Investigation on the fecal carriege of antibiotic-resistant lactose-fermenting enterobacteria from healthy individuals  Resistance: amoxicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, much lower quinolones Walson et al. J.Infect. Dis. 184:1163-1169 (2001) Three traditional communities of Wayampis Amerindians, where exchanges with the exterior were limited and antibiotic consumption was moderate overall Resistance pattern similar to that found in Nepal Three individuals from this community were found to carry commensal E.coli resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins due producing of the TEM-52 extended spectrum ß –lactamase (ESBL) Resistant bacteria could be introduced into the community from antibiotic-exposed settings (e.g., through villagers that had been previously hospitalized) Grenet et al. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:1150-1153 (2004) Bolivian Chaco region
To date, most remote human communities investigated for carriage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are two Amerindian communities located in the Bolivian Chaco region and the Peruvian Alto Amazonas district High rates of fecal carriage of E.coli resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol were detected in both communities No resistance was observed for quinolones Molecular characterization of resistant isolates from this area revealed a considerable variety of acquired resistance genes, entirely alike those encountered in resistant isolates from antibiotic-exposed settings in the same geographical areas Bartoloni et al. J. Infect. Dis. 189:1291-1294 (2004)  We tested 182 HIV negative patients from Mapuordit in South Sudan  105 isolates – most frequently were Enterobacteriaceae, S. aureus, Moraxella catharralis, H. influezae,S. pyogenes  All 105 isolates were 100% sensitive to all antibiotics Sladeckova et al. Journal of infection, 53 (4):291-292 (2005)  We carried Cambodian children before of treatment with HAART  High colonization with MR-GNB (e.g. ceftazidime-resistant) Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae in children who were antibiotic and HAART-naive  Colonization GPB - S. pyogenes Shahum, Krcmery et al. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherpy, 60 (1):194-197 Reason for spread of MDR bacteria
from SE Asia
 Not developing countries, any move , many height level hospitals  Overproduction of generic  Exposition fake antibiotics with less antibiotic (low doses promote resistance)  Huge concentrated poplulation (Indonesia, India, China) on a squere of SE Asia – 10 % OF WS  Diarrheic regions whit Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism
in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular,
biological, and epidemiological study
 Identification of 44 isolates with NDM-1 in Chennai, 26 in Haryana, 37 in the UK, and 73 in other sites in India and Pakistan  NDM-1 was mostly found among Escherichia coli (36) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (111), which were highly resistant to all antibiotics except to tigecycline and colistin  Most isolates carried the NDM-1 gene on plasmids: those from UK and Chennai were readily transferable whereas those from Haryanawere not conjugative. Many of the UK NDM-1 positive patients had traveled to India or Pakistan within the past year, or had links with these countries. Kumarasamy et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases,10 (9):597 – 602 (2010) Carbapenem resistance in E. coli from Australia due to metallo-beta-lactamase
NDM-1

 Emergence of MBL NDM-1 in Australia after its recent identification in India and UK, in an E. coli isolate accumulating emerging broad-spectrum resistance determinants, including the ESBL CTX-M-15 and two 16S RNA methylases Poirel et al., ICAAC, 2010 Dissemination of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae in India
 A new metallo-ß-lactamase, NDM-1 was identified in a K. pneumoniae (KPN) from a Swedish patient of Indian origin  SENTRY program (2006-2007) – occurence and characterization of NDM-1- producing strains from India  15 (1%; 6 E. coli, 6 KPN and 3 E. cloaceae) isolates from New Delhi (2 sites), Mumbai and Pune carried blaNDM-1  All isolates were resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, and susceptibility only to tigecycline and polymyxin B (two isolates were resistant) Deshpande et al. , ICAAC, 2010 Recognition of NDM-1 AMONG Enterobacteriaceae in the United states
 This is the first report of bla NDM in the United states and of metallo-beta – lactamase carriage among Enterobacteriacae in the US  These isolates are resistant to nearly all available therapeutic agents Limbago et al., ICAAC, 2010  Antimicrobial resistance and Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing clinical isolates from urinary tract infections in Rwanda, East-Africa  The findings of the present study reveal a significant icrase of resistance to various groups of antimicrobial drugs and prevalence of ESBL producers is first described among UTI pathogens Muvunyi, ICAAC, 2010  Emergence of metallo-ß-lactamase NDM-1 PRODUCING Klebsiella pneumoniae in Kenya  Emergence of MBL NDM-1 in Africa, after the recent identification of NDM-1 producers in India and UK  Worringly the K. pneumoniae isolates studied here accumulated many threatening mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics Poirel et al., ICAAC, 2010  The characteristic of mettallo-ß-lactamase producing E. coli isolates in Canada from a patient with recent travel to India  This is the firs report of E.coli ST101 with NDM-1 metalo- carbapenemase and Ctx-M15 ESBL from Canada Peirano, ICAAC, 2010 Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in post-acute
care facilities (PACF) IN Israel: A national intervention

 There is a major burden of CRKP carriage in PACF Ben-David et al., ICAAC, 2010 Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae including NDM-1 metallo-ß-
lactamase producers are predominant paththogens of HCAIs in an
Indian teaching hospital

 Carbapenems were in little use but selection pressure exerted by other classes was sufficient to select carbapenemsmase due to co-selection suggesting role of single plasmid carrying multiple resistnace genes Sarma Male et al., ICAAC, 2010 How to reduce the spread of resistance?
How to reduce the spread of resistance ?
Hospital antibiotic policy
How to reduce the spread of resistance ?
Internal cooperation and meetings
How to reduce the spread of resistance?
Improving health care infrastructure
Burundi Celebrity ATB-R free Environment
In Sub-Sahara Africa and Latin America ATB-R in remote settings is minimal In South and SE Asia multiresistant strains are emergence and they spread all over the world from e.g. Taiwan, Hong Kong, India (e.g. PVDM-1, PRP, ERY-R S. pyogenes) Selective pressure generated by the use of antibiotics in clinical, veterinary, husbandry and agricultural practices is considered the major factor responsible for the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria since the beginning of the antibiotic era Acquired resistance traits can also be found in bacteria isolates from humans not subjected to significant antibiotic exposure and living in remote areas of the planet Thanks for your attention!

Source: http://www.krankenhaus-hygiene.at/images/vortrag_krcmery.pdf

Fuji_email blast_f-melt_feb16.2011.indd

F-MELT series, Issue2, February 2011 Formulating Taste Masked and High Quality ODT of Poorly Water Soluble Drugs In this paper, we present case studies with taste masking technology and application of wet granulation technologies to develop ODTs of Loratadine, a water insoluble drug, and Famotidine, a slightly water

defibwarehouse.co.uk

Philips SMART Biphasic therapy Application note Philips SMART Biphasic therapy Since Philips introduced the first biphasic waveform for an external defibrillator in 1996, biphasic therapy has gained acceptance and is now recognized as the standard of care. However, the various defibrillator manufacturers recommend a wide range of energy (joules) dosages. This is because defibrillator manufacturers have created distinct biphasic waveform "formulations." So each manufacturer recommends energy doses appropriate for their shock formulation. While energy (joules) remains entrenched in defibrillator vocabulary as a descriptor of shock strength, current (amperes) has been shown to be a better predictor. For meaningful shock strength comparisons of biphasic waveforms, it's necessary to look beyond energy levels and compare the current delivered to the patient.