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Fernando de Souza Costa and Ricardo Vieira Preliminary Analysis of Hybrid
Fernando de Souza Costa
Rockets for Launching Nanosats into
fernando@lcp.inpe.br 12630-000 Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil This work determines the preliminary mass distribution of hybrid rockets using 98% H2O2 and solid paraffin mixed with aluminum as propellants. An iterative process is used to calculate the rocket performance characteristics and to determine the inert mass fraction Ricardo Vieira
from given initial conditions. It is considered a mission to place a 20 kg payload into a 300 km circular equatorial orbit by air launched and ground launched hybrid rockets using rvieira@lcp.inpe.br three stages. The results indicate total initial masses of about 7800 kg for a ground launched hybrid rocket and 4700 kg for an air launched hybrid rocket. Keywords: hybrid rocket, paraffin, H2O2, nanosats, low Earth orbit (LEO)
12630-000 Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a well-known oxidizer and has been used for decades in rockets, gas generators, helicopter rotors and rocket belts (Davis Jr. and Keefe, 1956; Wernimont et al., 1Hybrid rocket technology is known for more than 50 years; 1999). It was used, for example, as an oxidizer in the British rocket however, only in the 1960's its safety characteristics motivated a Black Knight. Heister et al. (1998) cite some advantages of using significant research. Nowadays, the need for green propellants hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer: high density, easy of handling, non-(propellants with low toxicity and low pollutant characteristics), the toxicity and mono-propellant characteristics. Turbo-pumps and requirements of safe operation and storability, low cost missions, pressurization systems can utilize the energy released during and the interest for launching small payloads and nanosats into LEO peroxide decomposition and its products in order to simplify the made hybrid rockets more attractive. tank pressurization systems. Walter (1954) describes the Hybrid propulsion systems employ propellants in different decomposition and detonation characteristics of peroxide and phases, being the most usual hybrid systems with a solid fuel and a mentions that peroxide at concentrations lower than 82% is not liquid oxidizer. Since they use only one liquid propelllant, they detonable and that pressure does not affect the peroxide require only one liquid line and a relatively simple injection system, decomposition velocity. Williams et al. (2004) state that HTP (High as compared to liquid bipropellant systems which require two Test Peroxide), a high concentration peroxide, above 84% in water, separate liquid lines and a complex injection plate in order to collide is similar to nitroglycerin in terms of shock sensitivity and explodes and mix the fuel and oxidizer jets. The control of the oxidizer flow with the same strength as the same quantity of TNT rate in hybrid systems allows several starts and an accurate control (Trinitrotoluene). Ventura et al. (2007) present supporting evidence, of the thrust level. analysis, historical technical data, recent test data, prior and current The safe operation of hybrid propulsion systems is related to the experience, modern and literature test data which can be used to separation of fuel and oxidizer, differently from solid systems which make informed decisions on peroxide applications. They also report mix fuel and oxidizer in the grain. Another important safety that changes in the propellant manufacturing process may have characteristic is the independence of the regression rate with respect significantly improved peroxide properties in the last decades. to the chamber pressure, making hybrid systems safer than solid The objective of this work is to make a preliminary analysis of systems if pressure peaks do occur. mass distribution of hybrid propulsion systems and to compare the The main disadvantage of hybrid rockets is the low thrust level performance of air launched and ground launched hybrid rockets. attainable, due to the relatively low regression rates of conventional The propellants are an aqueous solution of 98% H2O2, in mass, solid fuels, making necessary the use of a large number of ports, i.e., burning with solid paraffin mixed with 10% aluminum, in mass. The flow passages through the grain. Some methods to increase the effects of mixture ratios, thrust/weight ratios and chamber pressures regression rate are known, such as i) insert screens or mechanical are analyzed. Three stage rockets are considered for placing a 20 kg devices in the ports to increase the turbulence level; ii) use of nanosat into a low Earth circular equatorial orbit at 300 km.
metallic additives; iii) use of oxidizers mixed within the solid fuel;
iv) increase of the surface rugosity adding small solid particles. Nomenclature
However, these solutions have also undesirable characteristics such as increase in weight and complexity, non-stop burning and nozzle = area, m2 erosion by solid particles. = experimental constant, (mm/s)(m2s/kg)n Recently, it was developed in Stanford University and in the CF = thrust coefficient, dimensionless Ames-NASA Research Center, both in the USA, a new paraffin- = mass fraction, dimensionless based fuel whose regression rate is approximately three times higher = safety factor, dimensionless than conventional hybrid fuels (Karabeyoglu et al., 2003a,b, 2004). = diameter, m Promising results were obtained by several researchers (Brown and F = thrust, N Lydon, 2005; Karabeyoglu et al., 2004; Santos et al., 2005; go = gravity acceleration at sea level, m/s2 McCormick et al., 2005; Authors, 2006; Authors, 2007) using Go = mass flow rate of oxidant per unit area, kg/s/m2 paraffin with different oxidizers – liquid oxygen (LOX), gaseous Isp = specific impulse, s oxygen (GOX), nitrous oxide (N2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). = length, m = mass, kg m& = mass flow rate, kg/s Paper accepted October, 2010. Technical Editor: Eduardo Belo.
= experimental constant, dimensionless 502 / Vol. XXXII, No. 4, October-December 2010
Preliminary Analysis of Hybrid Rockets for Launching Nanosats Into LEO OF = oxidizer/fuel mass ratio, dimensionless In this work, hybrid rockets with three stages are studied, = pressure, Pa assuming a uniform distribution of characteristic velocities among rp = blowdown ratio, dimensionless stages. Sutton (1992) shows that, for simplified cases and = gas constant, J/kg/K disregarding trajectory effects, a uniform distribution of r& = regression rate, mm/s characteristic velocities is an optimum solution. = time or thickness, s Initially, in order to determine the rocket mass distribution, it is temperature, required to estimate the inert mass fraction of all stages. The inert Ve = exit velocity of combustion products, m/s mass is the total initial mass minus the propellant and the payload = volume, m3 masses. The inert mass fraction, finert,j, of the j-stage (j = 1, 2 or 3) is W = weight, kg Greek Symbols
Δ
inert, j inert, j ( prop,j inert,j ) V = characteristic velocity, m/s ΔP = pressure loss, Pa = nozzle expansion ratio, dimensionless where mprop,j is the propellant mass and minert,j is the inert mass of the θ = convergence semi-angle, degrees or radians ρ = density, kg/m3 Tables 1 and 2 show data presented by Isakowitz et al. (1999), σ = yielding tensile, Pa concerning the mass distribution, in kg, of rocket engines using solid and liquid propellants, respectively. Tables 1 and 2 show the Subscripts
inert fractions of the solid propellant engines, finert,s, and the inert fractions of the liquid propellant engines, finert,l. The complete rocket relative to burning inert mass, including the engine inert mass, rocket casing, relative to chamber electronics, control, valves, and other components for all stages will cat relative to catalytic bed be estimated later with aid of Eq. (38). con relative to convergent section Humble and Altman (1995) showed that the propellant mass of div relative to divergent section the j-stage, for constant specific impulse and constant gravity, can relative to exit or exhaustion be calculated by: ext relative to external relative to fuel or final j Isp j go V j Isp j go prop, j pay, j ( inert, j ) ( ) ( inert,j relative to grain He relative to Helium relative to initial where mpay,j is the payload mass, Ispj is the specific impulse, go is int relative to internal the gravity acceleration at sea level, and ΔVj is the characteristic ins relative to insulation velocity of the j-stage. relative to stage The specific impulse can be related to the exit velocity of relative to liquid propellant combustion products, Ve,j = goIspj, and is obtained from the NASA relative to oxidizer CEA 2004 code written by McBride and Gordon (1994, 1996), and pay relative to payload available in the internet (CEA, 2007). The CEA 2004 code adopts the Gibbs free energy minimization method and solves the mass, energy and atom conservation equations with a generalized Newton The Mass Distribution of Hybrid Rockets
method to calculate the equilibrium conditions of the reactive flow The optimization of a propulsion system to perform a given in the rocket chamber and along the nozzle. Alternatively, frozen mission is a complex task, since there are several coupled variables flow conditions can also be considered along the nozzle. which depend on time and on rocket trajectory. The mass The payload mass of a given stage is the total initial mass of all distribution analysis will also depend on the component level upper stages, and the payload mass of the last stage is the nanosat considered, i.e, a more detailed mass distribution analysis would mass. The inert mass is calculated in terms of the assumed inert consider the masses of each small part in the rocket, including fraction: electronics and control system components, screws, nuts, etc. To place a satellite into a specified orbit around Earth, the inert, j inert, j prop, j ( inert,j ) launching vehicle must attain a characteristic velocity, ΔV, to overcome the Earth gravitational field, the air drag, to make and the total initial mass, mT,j, is calculated by maneuvers and to attain a prescribed orbital velocity. Humble et al. (1995) used historical data of several launching T , j inert, j prop, j pay, j vehicles and presented typical ΔV values between 8800 and 9300 m/s, as required to place satellites into a low Earth orbit. In this work it was The F/W ratio relates to the thrust, F, and the weight, W, of a adopted a conservative ΔV = 9300 m/s for ground launched rockets rocket, and is generally expressed in g-number. This ratio and a ΔV = 8700 m/s for air launched vehicles, based on data from the (acceleration) is limited to a range. It can not be high in order to American air launched rocket Pegasus. avoid damages to the equipment, or not to harm an eventual crew. Usually, a rocket must have several stages to transport a payload Obviously, it cannot be smaller than unit, but should be small fraction, i.e., the ratio of payload and total initial mass, above 1% enough to optimize the performance, especially in the first stage, into an orbit around Earth. The increase in payload fraction with a which has to overcome a significant air drag. The thrust to obtain a larger number of stages is significant up to 3 or 4 stages, but above 4 specified j-stage thrust/weight ratio, (F/W)j, is obtained from stages, the propulsion system complexity grows considerably, with consequent reduction in reliability and no significant increase on F = F W m g . (5) payload fraction. T , j J. of the Braz. Soc. of Mech. Sci. & Eng.
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Fernando de Souza Costa and Ricardo Vieira Table 1. Mass distribution of solid propellant engines (masses in kg).
Engine Propellant Nozzle Ignition Miscellaneous Inert GEM 11767 312 372 242 7.9 291 1224.9 50 3024 75.6 133.4 342.9 0.898 0.102 38 770.7 21.9 39.4 Source: Isakowitz et al. (1999). Table 2. Mass distribution of liquid propellant engines (masses in kg).
f,j is the fuel density and ρo,j is the hydrogen peroxide density, which varies with temperature, pressure and peroxide Engine Propellant fprop,l finert,l concentration. In the next sections the subscript j will be Fuel Chamber and Nozzle
The chamber mass depends on the paraffin grain geometry. The initial port diameter of the fuel grain, Dint,g(0), is calculated by RL10B-2 16820 2457 AJ10-118K 6004 950 0.86 = ( m& πG 11D58M 14600 2720 where Go(0) is the initial mass flow rate of oxidant per unit area in the fuel chamber, assumed as 250 kg/m2/s for peroxide fed by a Source: Isakowitz et al. (1999). vortical injector, to avoid blowout. The regression rate of hybrid fuels (Humble and Altman, 1995) is adjusted experimentally by The total mass flow rate of propellants, m& , is related to the prop, j thrust and to the specific impulse by = aG (t) (13) Isp g . (6) where t is time and a and n are experimental constants. Equation prop, j (13) is derived assuming a turbulent reactive-diffusive boundary layer adjacent to the fuel grain, differently from a solid propellant The fuel mass flow rate, m& , limits the thrust levels, due to the f , j rocket. For a constant oxidizer mass flow rate, m& , the oxidizer flow relatively low regression rates of hybrid fuels. It is related to the rate per unit area, G total mass consumption rate of propellants and to the OF o, and the regression rate, r& , decrease with time, since the fuel port area increases during the burning period. (oxidizer/fuel) mass ratio, by the relation: Assuming a single circular port, integrating Eq. (13) from t = 0 to t = t 1 + OF . (7) b, yields the fuel grain external diameter, Dext,g: f , j prop, j m& π t + D + The oxidizer mass flow rate, m& , is calculated by o , j and the grain length, Lg, is given by m& = m& 1 + OF = m& o, j prop, j prop, j f , j L = 4V ⎡⎣ (D D (0) ⎤ The burning time, tb,j, is obtained from The fuel chamber internal diameter is Dint,c = Dext,g + 2tins, where b, j prop, j prop, j tins = 0.003 m is assumed as the insulation thickness, a minimum value for support and molding of the grain. The fuel chamber The fuel and oxidizer volumes, Vf,j and Vo,j, are calculated, external diameter is D + 2t , where t w,c is the chamber respectively, by wall thickness, given by ρ , with m = m 1 + OF (10) o, j prop, j o, j o, j o, j = 1+ f P D s ) c 1 + OF (11) f , j prop, j f , j f , j f , j c is the chamber pressure, σc is the yielding tensile of the chamber material and f s is a safety factor for the chamber wall stress, assumed as 100%. 504 / Vol. XXXII, No. 4, October-December 2010
Preliminary Analysis of Hybrid Rockets for Launching Nanosats Into LEO The fuel chamber comprises the catalytic bed, injection plate, wall thickness and the mass of the spherical oxidizer tank are, fuel grain section, pre-combustion section, post-combustion section and nozzle convergent. The catalytic bed decomposes the hydrogen peroxide, by an exothermic reaction which generates H2O and O2 at = 0.25 1+ f P D s ) o high temperatures, to ignite and burn the fuel grain. The pre- combustion, post-combustion and catalytic bed (including injection m = (1+ f ) ρ (π 6 D plate) lengths are assumed as Lpre = 0.5Dint,c, Lpos = 0.7Dint,c and Lcat = 0.5Dint,c, respectively, which are estimated to allow oxidizer atomization, complete burning and full catalytic decomposition. The where σtk,o is the yielding tensile of the tank material, ftk = length of the nozzle convergent section is mweld+sup/mtk ≈ 0.2 is a tank mass fraction used for welding and support, and D is the external diameter of the = 0.5(D D ) tanθ A cylindrical tank with two hemispherical domes is used in the where θcon = 45o is the convergence semi-angle. Thus, the fuel first stage. The total length, Ltko, wall thickness, tw,tko, and mass, mtko, chamber length of a stage is of the cylindrical tank are, respectively: L = L + L + L + L + L L = D and its mass is, approximately, = 0.5 1+ f P D s ) o m ≅ 0.25(1+ f πρ ⎡L D ex t,c m = (1+ f ) ρ (π 6 ⎡D t (DD ) tanθ ⎤ c,tko ⎦ (27) where ρc is the fuel chamber wall density and fcat = mcat/mc ≈ 0.2 is a mass fraction corresponding to the catalytic bed. = 4(V +V − (π 6 D is the length of ) 3int,tko ) ( 2 The throat area is calculated from A = F C P , where C the cylindrical section of the oxidizer tank. the thrust coefficient, obtained from NASA CEA 2004 code, for a given nozzle expansion rate, ε, and chamber pressure, Pc. Therefore, the nozzle exit area is A = ε A and the throat diameter is Pressurizing System
D = ( A π )1/2 The oxidizer is pressurized by a gas generator using H2O2 at 70 % in mass decomposed at a catalytic bed. The pressurizer mass is Considering a conical nozzle, the nozzle divergent length and mass are approximated, respectively, by V + V R T (28) pres ( u L = 0.5 D D where fpres ≈ 0.05 is a pressurizer mass fraction (pressurizer mass in the lines / pressurizer mass in the tank) for filling the feeding m = 0.5ρ t π (D + D )((D D ) 4 + L (21) lines and Rpres is the gas constant of the decomposed pressurizer. The liquid pressurizer (70% H2O2) is assumed at constant pressure Ppres = 1.2Po, to overcome pressure losses in the valves and avoid where θdiv is the divergence semi-angle, De is the nozzle exit flow instabilities, with density ρpres and volume Vpres = mprespres. diameter and t = 0.5t is the average nozzle wall thickness. The internal diameter, the wall thickness, with fs = 1, and the mass of the spherical pressurizer tank are, respectively: Oxidizer Tank
Spherical oxidizer tanks are used in the second and third stages, with internal diameter, Dint,tko, given by = ( (V +V ) π )1 3 (1+ f )(π 6 D int,tkpres ) where Vu ≈ 0.05Vo is the initial ullage of the oxidizer tank to allow A small helium tank with a blowdown ratio r space for the pressurizer gas and thermal expansion of the liquid p = PHe,i/PHe,f = 5 is used to pressurize the liquid 70% H 2O2. The final pressure at the helium tank is assumed P The oxidizer pressure in the tank is P He,f = 1.2 Ppres, to overcome pressure losses o = Pc + ΔPo, where Pc is in the valves, and the initial helium volume, assuming an isothermal the combustion pressure and ΔPo ≈ 0.2Pc MPa is the total pressure expansion process, is V (r − 1) , which is equal to the loss in lines, injection and valves. The pressure loss is mainly due to injection and it is relatively large to avoid flow instabilities. The helium tank volume, VtkHe. J. of the Braz. Soc. of Mech. Sci. & Eng.
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Fernando de Souza Costa and Ricardo Vieira 1st stage
H2O2 70% catalytic bed valve paraffin nozzle 3rd stage
2nd stage
He valves paraffin He catalytic beds H2O2 70% catalytic beds Figure 1. Three stage hybrid rocket configuration scheme.
Then, the mass of helium is = ρ L (π 4 D int,case ) m = 1.2r P V R T (32) Therefore, the total inert mass of a stage is, approximately, and the internal diameter, wall thickness and mass of a spherical ≅ 1.1 m + m + m + m helium tank are, respectively, + m + m which also includes a 10 % increase corresponding to the masses of = 0.25(1+ f )P D the control system, telemetry, valves, feeding lines, stage coupling and other devices. Figure 1 shows a scheme of a typical hybrid (1+ f )(π 6 D rocket configuration. int,tkHe ) is the external diameter and ρ Results and Comments
the material density of the helium tank. Table 3 shows the initial conditions and Table 4 shows the mechanical properties of materials used for the mass distribution analysis. Titanium was used in all tanks, stainless steel was used in Stage Case
the chambers and nozzles, and carbon fiber was used in the cases The total stage case length is, approximately, and fairing. Ground and air-launched hybrid rockets with three stages were compared in order to place a 20 kg payload into a low ≅ 1.1 L + L + D Earth circular orbit at 300 km height. ( c tko ext,tkHe ext,tkpres div ) Propellants are 98% H2O2 and C20H42 paraffin mixed with 10% aluminum in mass. Aluminum increases the specific impulse and which includes, as a first estimate, depending on available reduces the optimum OF ratio. The paraffin regression rate equipments and technology, a 10% increase corresponding to constants were based on Brown and Lydon (2005) data which spacing for control system, telemetry, valves, feeding lines, stage obtained a = 0.0344 (mm/s)(m2s/kg)n and n = 0.9593 (non- coupling and other devices. dimensional) for paraffin burning with 84% hydrogen peroxide. The In the third stage it is included a fairing, assumed as cylinder regression rate was multiplied by 0.98/0.84, for the richer peroxide with 0.8 m height and 0.6 m diameter, to carry a nanosatellite with a solution used, since the reaction rate in the turbulent reactive- volume of, approximately, 0.4 × 0.4 × 0.4 m3. The internal diameter diffusive boundary layer is proportional to the oxidizer mass of the stage case, Dint,case, is assumed equal to the external diameter of the oxidizer tank plus 0.04 m for tank support rings, which are Figure 2 shows the theoretical specific impulse and the thrust used to increase stiffness, connection with the rocket case and allow coefficient obtained with the NASA CEA 2004 code, assuming P electric wiring and cabling passage. The external diameter of the 30 atm, equilibrium flow and adapted nozzles. It is verified that stage case, Dext,case, depends on material compression strength and chamber pressures have no significant effects on Isp and that the on the applied compression force due to the rocket acceleration: maximum Isp values are obtained with OF ≈ 6.5. Assuming Pc = 2.5 MPa, OF = 6.5, F/W = 2.5, CF efficiencies of + 4m g (1+ F W πσ ⎤ 93% and initial fint,case inert = 0.2 in all stages, the masses and sizes of the main components and stages were calculated. A new inert fraction was calculated for each stage and compared to the previous one. If int,case is the case internal diameter and σc is the compression strength of the case material. The compression strength of the case the difference was less than 0.01% the calculation was stopped, if was assumed to be equal to its yielding strength. Nevertheless, a not a new iteration was made. In general, 6 iterations were enough minimum thickness of 2 mm was considered for all stages, for for convergence. Table 5 shows the final mass distributions and manufacturing purposes. The stage case mass is calculated by additional data of air and ground launched hybrid rockets to perform the assigned mission, using three stages. 506 / Vol. XXXII, No. 4, October-December 2010
Preliminary Analysis of Hybrid Rockets for Launching Nanosats Into LEO Table 3. Initial conditions for 3-stage hybrid rockets.
Ground launched
Air launched
ΔVtotal (m/s) 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd ΔV (m/s) 3100 3100 3100 2900 2900 2900 Expansion rate (ε) 10 40 60 10 40 60 F (-)
257 290 297 257 290 297 Table 4. Materials and mechanical properties.
Fuel chamber/nozzle A e /A t Figure 2. Specific impulse, Isp, and thrust coefficient, CF, versus expansion
E = bulk modulus; σ = tensile yield strength. rate, ε, for 98% H2O2 burning with paraffin 90% C20H42 and10% Al, at Pc = 30
Source: www.matweb.com atm, assuming equilibrium composition and adapted nozzles.
Figures 3 and 4 compare the effects of OF mass ratio on stage mass and on inert fraction, respectively, for ground and air launched rockets. Figures 5 and 6 show the effects of the F/W ratio and chamber pressure, respectively, on mass and inert fraction of air launched rockets. Figures 7 and 8 show the effects of the F/W ratio and chamber pressure, respectively, on length and diameter of air launched rockets. It can be seen in Table 5 that the masses and sizes of air- launched rockets are significantly smaller, about 60% of the masses and 82% of the sizes of ground launched rockets. The payload fraction and total lengths of ground and air launched rockets are about 0.26% and 18 m, and 0.43% and 14.7 m, respectively. Figures 3 and 4 depict that the minimum total mass is found with OF = 6.5, corresponding to the maximum Isp, whereas the inert fractions are lower with OF = 7. Inert fractions for first stages are below 20%, whereas third stages present inert fractions above 25%. The large inert fractions and low payload ratios obtained using the preliminary mass distribution model can be explained by the conservative Figure 3. Effects of OF mass ratio on stage mass of ground launched (GL)
parameters adopted. Lower F/W ratios and lower chamber pressures
and air launched (AL) hybrid rocket stages, with Pc = 2.5 MPa and F/W = 2.5.
yield smaller sizes and masses for all stages. First stage tanks could have larger diameters in order to reduce the total lengths. Using more advanced materials would also allow to obtain lower masses and sizes. It is seen that the inert fraction is strongly affected by the oxidant pressures, especially in the first stages, whereas variations on F/W and OF in the ranges considered do not show significant effects on inert fractions and sizes, for all stages. The 10% mass increase adopted in Eq. (38), considered for control system, telemetry, wiring, etc., may be reduced in a second mass distribution analysis, depending on a deeper knowledge of the available technology. As a consequence the payload fraction could be correspondingly increased. It should be noted that the mass distribution of existing systems showed in Tables 1 and 2 refer only to the solid and liquid engines and do not include additional masses, such as fairing, rocket casing, connections, rings, control devices, etc., for the entire rocket and stages which were considered to generate the data in Table 5. Figure 4. Effects of OF mass ratio on inert fraction of ground launched
(GL) and air launched (AL) hybrid rocket stages, with Pc = 2.5 MPa and
F/W = 2.5.

J. of the Braz. Soc. of Mech. Sci. & Eng.
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October-December 2010, Vol. XXXII, No. 4 / 507
Fernando de Souza Costa and Ricardo Vieira Table 5. Preliminary mass distribution and other data for hybrid rockets.
Ground Launched
Air Launched
Item Unit 1st
kg 7812.676 1048.527 179.351 4690.856 763.526 150.016 kg 1048.527 179.351 20.000 763.526 150.016 20.000 mT – mpay kg 6764.149 869.176 159.351 3927.330 613.510 130.016 kg 4792.319 603.136 101.778 2779.250 422.989 81.935 kg 737.280 92.790 15.658 427.577 65.075 12.605 kg 1234.550 173.249 41.950 720.504 125.447 35.475 kg 460.129 52.573 8.816 259.244 36.778 7.119 kg 29.514 7.474 1.049 14.677 4.838 0.818 kg 318.923 27.101 4.573 184.581 19.006 3.682 kg 6.760 0.851 0.144 3.921 0.597 0.116 kg 117.558 14.795 2.497 68.176 10.376 2.010 kg 0.677 0.085 0.014 0.392 0.060 0.012 kg 8.644 1.088 0.184 5.013 0.763 0.148 kg 134.99 48.046 19.878 93.211 37.767 17.579 m 10.35 4.414 3.195 8.563 3.885 2.221 m 1.188 0.992 0.568 0.992 0.886 0.531 s 72.747 77.009 77.857 70.266 74.167 74.941 N 191538 25706 4398 115002 18719 3678 0.1825 0.1993 0.2630 0.1835 0.2045 0.2729 F /W Figure 5. Effects of F/W ratio on stage mass and inert fraction of air
Figure 6. Effects of chamber pressure on stage mass and inert fraction of
launched hybrid rockets, with Pc = 2.5 MPa and OF = 6.5.
air launched hybrid rockets, with OF = 6.5 and F/W = 2.5.
508 / Vol. XXXII, No. 4, October-December 2010
Preliminary Analysis of Hybrid Rockets for Launching Nanosats Into LEO The authors acknowledge FAPESP (São Paulo State Foundation for Science Support) for financial support to this research through grant 2007/03623-8. References
Brown, T. R., Lydon, M. C., 2005, "Testing of Paraffin-Based Hybrid Rocket Fuel Using Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidizer", AIAA Region 5 Student Conference, Wichita, USA. CEA - Chemical Equilibrium with Applications, 2004, Glenn Research Center, NASA, Cleveland, OH, USA, http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/CEAWeb/ceaHome.htm, access in October Davis Jr, N. S., Keefe, J. H., 1956, "Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide as a Propellant", Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, v.48, n.4, pp. 745-748. F /W Gouvêa, L. H., Vieira, R., Costa, F. S., 2006, "H2O2/Paraffin Hybrid Rockets for Launching Nanosats into LEO". Proceedings of the 11th Figure 7. Effects of F/W ratio on stage length and diameter of air launched
Brazilian Congress of Thermal Sciences and Engineering, CD-ROM, Ed. hybrid rockets, with Pc = 2.5 MPa and OF = 6.5.
ABCM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Gouvêa, L. H., 2007, "Análise de Desempenho de um Motor Híbrido Utilizando Parafina e Peróxido de Hidrogênio como Propelentes", Master Dissertation, INPE, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil. Heister, S. D., Wernimont, E. J., Rusek, J. J., 1998, "High Test Peroxide Hybrid Rocket Research", Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Workshop, Surrey, England. Humble, R. W., Altman, D., 1995, "Space Propulsion Analysis and Design", Ed. M. A. Hollander, 748 p. Isakowitz, S. J., Hopkins Jr, J. P., Hopkins, J. B., 1999, "International Reference Guide to Space Lauch Systems", Washington, D.C., American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 549 p. Karabeyoglu, A., Zilliac, G., Castellucci, P, Urbanczyk, P., Stevens, J., Inalhan, G., Cantwell, B, J., 2003a, "Development of High-Burning-Rate Hybrid-Rocket-Fuel Flight Demonstrators, 39th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Huntsville, AL, USA. Karabeyoglu, A., Zilliac, G., Cantwell, B.J., Dezilwa, S., Castellucci, P., 2003b, "Scale-up Tests of High Regression Rate Liquefying Hybrid Rocket Fuels", American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Nevada, USA. P c (atm) Karabeyoglu, A., Zilliac, G., Cantwell, B. J., Dezilwa, S., Castellucci, P., 2004, "Scale-up Tests of High Regression Rate Paraffin-Based Hybrid Figure 8. Effects of chamber pressure on stage length and diameter of air
Rocket Fuels", Journal of Propulsion and Power, v.20, n.6, p. 1037-1045. launched hybrid rockets, with OF = 6.5 and F/W = 2.5.
McBride, B.J., Gordon, S., Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications I. Analysis, NASA RP 1311-P1, Cleveland, OH, USA, 1994. Conclusions
McBride, B.J., Gordon, S., Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications II. User's A preliminary analysis of the mass distribution of hybrid Manual and Program Description, NASA RP 1311-P2, Cleveland, OH, USA, propulsion systems was described. Paraffin with 10% aluminum and 98% hydrogen peroxide were used as propellants. Three stage air Mccormick, A., Hultgren, E., Lichtman, M., Smith, J., Sneed, R., Azimi, S., 2005, "Design, Optimization, and Launch of a 3" Diameter launched hybrid rockets and ground launched hybrid rockets were N2O/Aluminized Rocket", AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion compared for placing a 20 kg nanosat into a low Earth circular Conference and Exhibit, 41, Tucson, Arizona. equatorial orbit at 300 km. An iterative process based on the inert Santos, L. M. C., Almeida, L. A. R, Veras, C. A. G., 2005, "Design and mass fraction was used to obtain the mass distributions and the Flight Test of a Paraffin Based Hybrid Rocket", Proceedings of the 18th performance characteristics. The results have indicated that the total International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, CD-ROM, ABCM, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. initial mass is about 7800 kg for a ground launched hybrid rocket Sutton, G. P., 1992, "Rocket Propulsion Elements - An Introduction to and 4700 kg for an air launched hybrid rocket. Such a low mass in the Engineering of Rockets", Wiley, New York, 636 p. the case of air launched rockets would permit the use of relatively Ventura, M. C., Wernimont, E., Heister, S., Yuan, S., "Rocket Grade light airplanes for placing nanosats into orbit, with great flexibility Hydrogen Peroxide (RGHP) for use in Propulsion and Power Devices - on launching schedule and launching sites at the equator line. It is Historical Discussion of Hazards", Paper AIAA 2007-5468, 43rd verified that the hybrid rockets are comparatively longer than solid AIAA/ASME/ SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Cincinnati, OH, 8 - 11 July 2007. propellant rockets for the same payload, and the inert fractions Walter, H., 1954, "Experience With the Application of Hydrogen increase up to 50% for upper stages compared to first stages. Future Peroxide for Production of Power", Jet Propulsion, v.24, pp. 166-171. work will provide the rough material required and a cost analysis. Wernimont, E., Ventura, M., Garboden, G., Mullens, P., 1999, Past and The results obtained here can be used as an input for more detailed Present Uses Of Rocket Grade Hydrogen Peroxide, International Hydrogen performance analysis, considering all small components, more Peroxide Propulsion Conference, West Lafayette, USA. efficient materials, less conservative parameters, and the variations Wiliams, G., Macklin, F., Sarigul-Klijn, M., Sarigul-Klijn, N., Benson, J., 2004, "Almost There: Responsive Space", Paper Number RS2-2004- on specific impulse, thrust, ambient pressure and drag coefficient A024, Responsive Space Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA. along specific trajectories. J. of the Braz. Soc. of Mech. Sci. & Eng.
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Clinical dermatology • Original article Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for nonhealing vasculitic ulcers S. Efrati,*† J. Bergan,* G. Fishlev,* M. Tishler,‡ A. Golik† and N. Gall* *The Institute of Hyperbaric Medicine and Wound Care Clinic, †Department of Medicine A, and Department of Medicine B, ‡Assaf Harofeh Medical Center,Zerifin, Israel (affiliated to Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel)