Chiaramente, ogni formato ha i propri vantaggi e svantaggi acquista antibiotici online per effettuare un acquisto, non è necessario fornire la prescrizione medica.

Ps/edd fax cover sheet

Properties of Selected High Explosives Robert Weinheimer This paper was presented at the 27th International Pyrotechnics Seminar, 16 – 21 July 2000 in Grand Junction,CO., and is an update on the PEP-I Wall Chart that was presented at the Eighteenth International PyrotechnicsSeminar, July 1992, at Breckenridge, CO. The descriptive text has not changed. The Wall Chart has beencorrected and updated with chemical symbols of the explosives. An Appendix of Engineering Tools has beenadded.
There is a need in the pyrotechnic, explosive, and propellant engineering and scientific community to compilethe energetic material property and characteristic data for a single point reference. The objective of this paper isto fulfill that need for the properties and characteristics of selected high explosives of interest to the defense andaerospace industry. The information is collected from published literature and compiled for easy access in datasheet and wall chart format. Members of the engineering and scientific community of all disciplines are invitedfor input to the development of the knowledge base that is represented. Equally important to presenting thedata is to identify the source as reference, which is listed at the end of this paper. This paper is updatedperiodically to include recent changes.
Explosives referenced in MIL-STD-1316 are discussed together with common secondary explosives: All the 'Compositions', and PBXN-6, and CYCLOTOL are RDX based; PBXN-5, and OCTOL is HMX based;XTX-8003 is PETN based; The 'TOLs' (CYCLOTOL and OCTOL) contain TNT as a second ingredient.
TETRYL is no longer manufactured and is being phased out as a MIL-STD-1316 explosive. DATB and TATBare explosives with limited published literature found to be available.
Explosive properties and characteristics of interest are discussed: Chemical Composition Thermal Stability Heat of Combustion Critical Temperature Heat of Formation Heat of Products of Detonation Shock Sensitivity Threshold Laser Initiation Threshold Detonation Pressure Velocity Of Detonation Impact sensitivity Temperature of Detonation Friction Sensitivity Explosive Specification RESULT
This paper supports the first of the proposed Wall Chart series "International Pyrotechnics Society Properties of
Selected High Explosives: "PEP-I" (42). The IPS "PEP-I" Wall Chart was presented at the poster session of this
seminar.
CONCLUSION (disclaimer)
Although much work has been done to identify the properties and characteristics of PEP, the author has found
many ambiguities in the technical literature which do not satisfy scientific inquiry. It is hoped that with the
help of the PEP community there will be enough interest to fill the gaps in the scientific discipline. The
literature referenced at the end of this document also includes literature not quoted in this paper but is of interest
for further inquiry.
INTRODUCTION
To be classified as an explosive, a material must.
1. Satisfy basic conditions with respect to its rate of chemical reaction.
2. The reaction must not take place until a suitable initiation stimulus is applied.
3. The reaction must be violent; there must be complete or nearly complete conversion into gaseous 4. The reaction must be exothermic.
5. The reaction must be self-sustaining without requirement for an external oxygen source or energy, such as heat, except that necessary to initiate the reaction.
The pressure produced by an explosion is due to the gases evolved and is dependent on their volume andtemperature. The work potential of an explosive depends primarily upon the quantity of heat given off in thereaction.
Classes of Explosives
According to their chemical reaction rate and resulting output characteristics, explosives are classified as low
explosives and high explosives. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the two classes, and within each
class there may be explosives of considerably different performance, since they are grouped only according to
reaction rate. Low explosives, which deflagrate (burn) rather than detonate and propagate at velocities 1,000
meters per second(m/s) and less, include the propellants, pyrotechnics and initiating or primer explosives.
Examples are nitrocellulose, double base powder, smokeless powder, black powder, cordite and the metal-
oxidizer mixtures.
Explosives which detonate and propagate at velocities greater than 1000 m/s, are high explosives and includethe secondary explosives RDX, HMX, HNS, DIPAM, TETRYL, DATB, TATB, PETN, TNT, most of theircompositions, and the primary explosives lead azide and lead styphnate. This paper will not discuss theprimary explosives.
DEFINITIONS
It is necessary for comprehension of further discussion to define terms as they apply in this document.
Properties
Properties of explosives reported herein are measurable physical attributes typical of a single crystal of an
explosive material. Chemical Composition, Density, Crystal Hardness, Auto Ignition Temperature, Critical
Temperature, Melt Point, Decomposition Temperature, Gas Volume, Temperature of Detonation, Vacuum
Stability, Hygroscopicity, Heat of Combustion, Heat of Reaction, Heat of Formation, Heat of Products of
Detonation are categorized as properties of an explosive. The term properties shall mean to include explosive
characteristics in this manuscript.
Characteristics
The characteristic of an explosive is an attribute measured as a performance value after or during the chemical
reaction. Detonation Velocity, Detonation Pressure, Velocity of Detonation Formulae, Shock Sensitivity, Laser
Initiation Sensitivity, TNT Equivalency, Brisance, Impact and Friction are categorized as characteristics.
Explosives (36)
Compositions or mixtures of materials, which are capable of undergoing exothermic chemical reaction at
extremely, fast rates to produce gaseous and/or solid reaction products at high pressure and temperature.
High Explosives (36)
High explosives are those in which the chemical reaction, which has been initiated by heat or shock, will
propagate at detonation velocities. The result simulates an instantaneous release of the products of explosion.
This is termed detonation, or high-order explosion, to differentiate it from low-order explosions, such as the
rapid combustion of pyrotechnics and propellants. The products of combustion of high explosives produce
extremely high temperatures (e.g. RDX 3600°K (8)), large quantities of gas and some solids. High explosives
can be controlled to deflagrate and as such can be used as propellants.
Detonation (20)
If the propagation velocity of the reaction wave is greater than the velocity of sound in the unreacted material,
the wave is said to be a detonation wave and its velocity of propagation is called detonation velocity.
The mechanism of detonation is not definitely known, although various hypotheses have been advanced to
account for the phenomenon. It is generally agreed that the energy responsible for the extremely rapid
decomposition is propagated through an explosive in the form of a mechanical or shock wave, somewhat similar
to a sound wave. The wave may be initiated by mechanical or thermal shock sufficient to cause hydrodynamic
compression of the first increment or layer of the charge. The energy liberated reinforces the applied shock so
that a self-sustaining shock wave is transmitted at high velocity throughout the explosive preceding the reaction
zone. Thus, high explosives are characterized essentially by their rapid rate of decomposition when initiated,
and by the resultant high rate of energy release.
The speed of the detonation wave, or the velocity of detonation, varies considerably in the various explosives,and may vary in a given explosive under different conditions. For example, under similar conditions ofconfinement, trinitrotoluene (TNT) and nitroglycerin detonate at rates of 6,800 and 8,400 meters per second,respectively. The degree of confinement will affect these rates somewhat, but not to the same extent as in thelow explosives.
Low Explosives (36)
There are two categories of low explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants. Both have chemical reactions, which
deflagrate.
Deflagration (36)
If the propagation velocity is less than the velocity of sound in the unreacted material, the reaction is said to be a
deflagration and its velocity of propagation is referred to as burn rate.
Pyrotechnics (36)
A pyrotechnic is a mixture of ingredients of fuel and oxidant (e.g. BKNO3) producing a chemical reaction
occurring at a burn rate typically less than 1000 meters per sec (m/s). The reaction does not reach sonic
velocities in the unreacted material; therefore, does not produce a detonation. However, under very specific
conditions; some pyrotechnics can be made to detonate. The products of combustion primarily produce very
hot burning solid particles leaving considerable solid residue behind. There is very little gas generated by
pyrotechnics. Pyrotechnics are generally used to produce heat and color in the form of light and smoke.
Propellants (36)
A propellant can be a compound or a mixture of a pyrotechnic material and high explosive (e.g. Ammonium
Perchlorate and HMX) producing a chemical reaction (burn rate) typically less than 1000 m/s, and in rocket
propellants often measured in centimeters per second. The reaction does not reach sonic velocities in the
unreacted material therefore, does not produce a detonation. Propellants are designed for controlled burning
rates producing large quantities of gas at elevated temperature and pressure. However, under very specific
conditions, propellants can be made to detonate.
PROPERTIES & CHARACTERISTICS
Density (36)
Density is the mass per unit volume expressed in units of grams per cubic centimeter. Density is the explosive
property that is used to predict velocity of detonation (VOD). The VOD varies in direct proportion to density
for most explosives. Density values also affect sensitivity of a given explosive; an explosive is more sensitive
in the unconsolidated state.
Theoretical Maximum Density (TMD) — TMD is mass per unit volume of a single crystal of the explosive.
TMD is sometimes referred to as the ‘Crystal Density'.
Bulk Density — The bulk density of an explosive is the mass per unit of volume as manufactured, whichincludes voids. A sample specimen consists of an explosive loosely poured into a graduated cylinder. Thecylinder is filled with the specimen sample by gravity feed to the 100-ml level. The cylinder is then tapped onthe side a fixed number of times (typically 5 times) to eliminate particle-bridging creating large voids. Thisvalue is useful in determining burn rate of the bulk material during certain manufacturing processes.
Loaded Density — The loaded density value is the mass per unit volume relative to the loaded end item.
Loading density is expressed in units of grams per cubic centimeter at pounds per square inch. Loaded densityis the design parameter that is used to predict the velocity of detonation (VOD). As the loading density of anexplosive increases, the VOD also increases up to about 98% TMD. At loaded density above 98% TMD, thereis a condition which will cause the initiation threshold to drastically increase; this is referred to as "DeadPressing".
Cast Density (36) — The ability of an explosive to be melt-poured into its container is known as casting. Thecast density of an explosive is measured after the explosive has cooled to a solid at ambient conditions. Acasting explosive has a low melt temperature such as TNT, a binary explosive (Cyclotol, RDX/TNT), or amixture of an explosive held in suspension by a melt carrier (Composition A-3, RDX/Wax). Casting isperformed under vacuum when reduction of voids is a concern.
Crystal Hardness (30) — Mohs' Hardness Scale — Mohs' Hardness Scale is mainly applied to nonmetallicelements and minerals. It is the standard used to determine the relative hardness of an explosive. In thishardness scale there are ten degrees or steps, each designated by a mineral, the difference in hardness of thedifferent steps being determined by the fact that any member in the series will scratch any of the precedingmembers.
This scale is as follows:M. talc; 2. Gypsum; 3. Calcite; 4. Fluorspar; 5. Apatite; 6. Orthoclase; 7. Quartz; 8. Topaz; 9. Sapphire or corundum; 10. Diamond.
These minerals, arbitrarily selected as standards, are successively harder from talc, the softest of all minerals, todiamond, the hardest. This scale, which is now universally used for non-metallic minerals, is, however, notapplied to metals.
Autoignition Temperature (36) — The Autoignition Temperature of an explosive is the temperature at which amaterial will react when the specimen begins to liberate heat due to self-heating. This is accomplished byplacing a sample in an automatically controlled environment. Temperature is increased at a controlled rate untilthe sample material begins to liberate heat. When self-heating occurs, no additional oven temperature isallowed to enter the sample. The reported value is usually less than the value reported for decompositiontemperature. The autoignition temperature is a critical value when comparing various explosives. The valuesreported may vary as a function of the type of oven used, or control method of the oven. The rate of heatapplied by the oven should be less than 0.1° C per minute when self-heating occurs. Autoignition temperaturemay be determined by calculation from decomposition temperature results obtained by a Differential ScanningCalorimeter (DSC) or a Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA).
Critical Temperature (10, 20, 32) — The critical temperature using the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories (LASL)method is based on a time-to-explosion test. The explosive sample is pressed into a blasting cap shell andcovered with a skirted plug. The sample is then dropped into a preheated liquid metal bath, and the time toexplosion is measured as the time to the sound created by rupture of the shell or unseating of the plug. Thecritical temperature may be defined as the minimum temperature at which a specimen of a specified size, shape,and boundary constraint can be heated without undergoing thermal runaway or explosion. Lawrence LivermoreNational Laboratory (LLNL) defines critical temperature as the temperature at which a high explosive of a givenconfiguration self heats to explosion.
Melt Point (36) — The Melt Point of an explosive is the temperature at which a phase transition occurs fromsolid to liquid. The structure changes from an ordered crystalline array of molecules and atoms to a lessordered configuration. To achieve this phase-change, a certain amount of heat must be added which goesentirely into changing the phase without raising the temperature.
Explosives, which do not melt, are suspended as in ‘compositions' with a wax or other compatible melt carrierfor casting.
Decomposition Temperature (36) — Decomposition temperature is the temperature at which exothermic andendothermic reactions occur in an explosive when it is heated. The test measures the temperature differencebetween the explosive and a thermally inert reference material as both are heated at a constant rate of increase intemperature. A DSC or DTA detects exothermic or endothermic changes that occur in the explosive while it isbeing heated. These changes may be related to dehydration, decomposition, crystalline transition, melting,boiling, vaporization, polymerization, oxidation or reduction. The temperature at which the maximumdifferential between the sample and the reference temperature occurs before self-heating is the reporteddecomposition temperature value.
Gas Volume (20) — Gas volume of a specimen sample is obtained in a manner similar to heat of combustion,except that the reaction takes place in one atmosphere of air in the standard calorimeter bomb rather than inoxygen or an inert atmosphere. The sample is ignited and temperature and pressure measurements areobtained; the gas volume of the noncompressible gases is calculated by standard means, and the results aregiven in milliliter per gram (ml/g). The transducer will also provide a rate of change from which specificpressure time values are obtained. These results, such as peak pressure and pressure rate of rise, are reported asoutput characteristics.
The amount of gas liberated (gas volume) is significant in determining other characteristics of a given explosive.
Generally, pyrotechnic mixtures are not as gaseous as propellants or explosives. However, those mixtures,which have liberated quantities of, gas greater than 50 ml/g have a tendency to have a TNT equivalency ofgreater than 10%. Gas volume determination is quite useful in the determining the power of an explosive fordesign considerations.
Detonation Pressure (20) — Detonation pressure of an explosive is that pressure, expressed in kilobars (kbars), atthe detonation front of the chemical reaction zone. The detonation pressure of a particular explosive is afunction of its density.
Velocity of Detonation Formulae (20) — The formulae for measuring VOD in general is accurately representedby constants characteristic of an explosive. The constants are determined from empirical testing. Someexplosives have a critical radius, which is included in the calculation.
Velocity Of Detonation (10, 20) — Velocity of Detonation (VOD) can be determined in any of several ways: thechoice of a method probably depends more on the availability of equipment and well tested procedures than onany inherent advantage of a given method.
Chronographic Method — The chronographic method is widely used. This method depends on the closingof switches either by the conduction of hot gases between two electrodes or by the forcing together of twoelectrodes by the pressure induced by the detonation. Precision of the measurements depends on thenumber of switches or pins that is used on the charge and on the precision of the equipment.
Electronic Method — Another method, which is also entirely electronic, depends on embedding a resistancewire in the explosive. A constant current is maintained in the resistance wire and the return path, which maybe a nearby embedded copper wire, a wire or foil on the surface of the charge, or a metal case if the charge isconfined. The voltage across the resistance wire is recorded on an oscilloscope. This voltage decreases asthe detonation moves along the wire and effectively shortens the wire. This method gives, in effect, theinstantaneous position of the detonation front so that the slope of the trace on the record from theoscilloscope is proportional to the detonation velocity. A closely related technique uses a resistance wire,which is wound on an insulated wire or other conducting core.
These methods are not recommended for pressed charges. The precision of either version of the resistancetechnique depends on the quality of the charges, the precision of making the probes, and the precision of theelectronics. For smaller diameter charges, the probes and wires may perturb the detonation front so that atrue value of the detonation velocity cannot be obtained .
Optical Method — A commonly used optical method makes use of the streak or smear camera to record theinstantaneous position of the detonation front. Because the record gives the instantaneous location of thedetonation front, the slope of the streak is proportional to the velocity. Simple data reduction techniquescan be used for the application discussed here. The traces are straight so that after digitizing, the data isfitted with a linear relation, the coefficient of the time being the velocity of the detonation. This methodcan be made to give precise results if sufficient care is taken in preparing the charges and in arranging theexperiment.
Temperature of Detonation (10, 36) — Temperature of Detonation is the temperature of the reaction during theChapman-Jouguet condition (detonation). The temperature is determined by measurement of relative lightintensity at two different wavelengths. However, luminosity is dependent on the fourth power of temperatureand a small variation in experimental conditions can cause a substantial change in luminosity and indicatedtemperature.
STABILITY TESTS
Stability tests determine if a hazardous material will remain safe and retain its properties during some specified
period of storage. Stability tests may be distinguished from other tests by: (l) the manner in which the stimulus
is applied, (2) the rate it is applied, (3) the non-destructive nature of the test, and (4) the objective of the
expected results. Usually, in stability testing the stimulus is applied for a longer duration and when heat is
applied, the temperatures are below ignition levels of the suspect materials. In some cases there are no stimuli
applied; instead long term storage is observed under a certain set of conditions. The expected results are not
initiation, but rather changes in weight, volume of gases liberated, discoloration, evolution of oxides, and its
ability to function properly after prolonged storage conditions.
Stability tests, in general, are designed to be applicable to one type of material (either: pyrotechnics, explosives,or propellants) and are not always suitable for all classes.
Because stability testing is time-consuming, it is often desirable to subject the material to conditions, which aremore severe than those normally encountered during prolonged periods of storage. Specifically, twoenvironmental factors can influence the stability of a given explosive: (l) humidity and (2) temperature. Thelatter receives the most attention in determining the stability of a material. In practice, the specimen material issubjected to a higher temperature than those normally encountered, and ultimately the material is tested to verifythat it functions as intended at the completion of the elevated temperature study.
Vacuum Stability (20)Vacuum Stability Test — A temperature of 100° or 120°C generally is employed for 40 or 48 hours on asample of dried explosive. The system is evacuated until the pressure is reduced to about five millimeters ofmercury. If an excessive amount of gas (11 + milliliters/gram) is not evolved in less time, heating is continuedfor 40 or 48 hours. The vacuum stability test yields reproducible values; and, when an explosive is subjected tothis test at two or more temperatures, a rather complete picture of its chemical stability is obtainable. In somecases, tests at two or more temperatures are required to bring out significant differences in stability betweenexplosives, but a test at 100°C is sufficient to establish the order of stability of an explosive. The vacuumstability test has been found suitable for determining the reactivity of explosives with each other ornonexplosive materials. This is accomplished by making a vacuum stability test of the explosive anddetermining if the gas liberated is significantly greater than the sum of the volumes liberated by the twomaterials when tested separately. When used for this purpose, the test generally is made at 100°C.
Hygroscopicity (7, 20, 36)Hygroscopicity is the determination of the amount of moisture that a given sample material will absorb in agiven period under varying conditions. The sample, if solid, is prepared by sieving through a 50-mesh screenand onto a 100-mesh screen.
The values obtained under this test method are usually reported at 95% and 50% relative humidity values. Theability of a sample to absorb moisture does not necessarily negate its use in an end item. The addition of binderand waterproofing agents may be used to improve performance in this area. Sealing of the end item for storagewill also reduce the amount of moisture that a given explosive can absorb. The values obtained in thehygroscopicity tests are usually obtained on bulk mixtures. This value would be highly significant formanufacturing processes where temperature and humidity conditions can be maintained during blending andfilling operations. A temperature change (greater than 10° C) would not necessarily have any effect on a sealedend item if proper environmental conditioning occurred during manufacturing. Geometric parameters need tobe considered when loading into an end item for long-term storage and ultimate use.
Values of less than 2% weight increase at 50% relative humidity are considered relatively good; whereas, anyvalue greater than 2% would be fair. Values in excess of 10% weight increase at 90% relative humidity aregenerally considered to be poor.
Thermal Stability (20)Samples are subjected to elevated temperatures to permit the observance of characteristic tendencies to detonate,ignite, decompose, or to undergo a change in configuration under adverse storage conditions. The sample isplaced in an explosion-proof oven maintained at a predetermined temperature for a period of time (typically 48hours). The temperature of the oven and of the explosive is continuously monitored throughout the test period.
Observations recorded include whether the test specimen exploded, ignited, and/or underwent a change inconfiguration, such as a weight loss or change in color.
The results from this test aid in the determination of the overall classification of a bulk material. A 1% to 2%moisture loss is not considered a significant change in weight or configuration.
Heat of Combustion (20)The heat of combustion is the gross heat in terms of calories per gram or kilocalories per mole of the explosive.
The gross heat of combustion is measured by igniting samples of an explosive in an oxygen-filled (5atmospheres) standard calorimeter bomb submerged in water, and then recording the rise in water temperature.
The heat of combustion of a pyrotechnic mixture gives an indication of heat liberation potential and explosivepower potential.
Heat of Reaction (20)The gross heat of reaction in terms of calories per gram is determined in a similar manner to the gross heat ofcombustion, except that the 1 to 2 g sample of explosive is burned in an inert atmosphere (nitrogen) in the samestandard bomb calorimeter. Heat of reaction may be calculated using enthalpy data when the reaction productsare known or assumed.
Heat of Formation(20)The Heat of Formation refers to the enthalpy of the reaction. The sign convention is such that the heat offormation is negative when the reaction is exothermic and positive when the reaction is endothermic. The unitsare measured in kilocalories per mole.
Heat Of Products of Detonation (10)The Heat of Products of Detonation is the energy release at the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) condition, and refers tothe change in enthalpy and is always a negative value. Experimental values vary with density and confinement.
The effective energy developed by an explosive is always less than the assumed thermodynamic energy. Thereported values are expressed in both the liquid (L) and gas (G) test condition.
Shock Sensitivity Threshold (36)Many high explosives are not readily detonated by direct application of heat or by mechanical blow, but requirea shock produced by chemical reaction of the explosive itself. These are called secondary high explosives.
Shock Initiation — To shock initiate an explosive, it is necessary to send a shock into the explosive by theapplication of mechanical force. The initiation of the explosive is a function both of the intensity of the forceand rate of application to a unit of area. Initiation of an explosive by shock is expressed in terms of shocksensitivity at a 50% threshold. A sensitive explosive may withstand a very great force applied slowly over alarge surface area as in a press, but detonate violently when the same force is applied suddenly or to a muchsmaller surface area. Violent detonation may also occur with a suddenly applied force, such as a sharp hammerblow.
Shock initiation is measured in force per unit area (pressure) with the kilobar as the base unit and it is assumed,for practicality, that the force is applied instantaneously. Duration of force applied is also a parameter but oftenis omitted in the literature.
Flyer Plate (33) — Impact pressure on unreacted explosives is determined by a flyer plate device used to providean input stimulus. The flyer plate is driven by a capacitor electrical discharge into a metal bridge foil which,when vaporized by the high current, creates tremendous pressure against a Kapton sheet supported by a barrel.
The Kapton sheet shears at the barrel's sharp inside diameter edges creating a disc (flyer plate). The flyer plateis accelerated down the barrel to impact the test explosive. The flyer velocity determines the impact pressureamplitude. The flyer thickness determines the duration of the impact pulse. When the flyer shock impedanceis less than that of the explosive, the pulse is rectangular. Flyer velocity is predetermined through calibration ofvoltage to the capacitor(s), measuring the flyer velocity at capacitor discharge using LASER interferometryreflection off the surface of the accelerating flyer plate. Flyer velocity is not measured during actual tests.
Gap Tests — The gap test is used to measure the sensitivity of an explosive material to shock. The test resultsare reported as the thickness of an inert spacer material that has a 50 percent probability of allowing detonationwhen placed between the test explosive and a standard detonating charge. In general, the larger the spacer gap,the more shock-sensitive is the explosive under test. The values, however, depend on test size and geometryand on the sample (the particular lot, its method of preparation, its density, and percent voids). Gap test results,therefore, are only approximate indications of relative shock sensitivity. Tests have been developed covering awide range of sensitivities for solid and liquid explosives at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), NavalSurface Weapons Center (NSWC), Mason & Hanger-Silas Mason Co. Inc., Pantex Plant (PX), and StanfordResearch Institute (SRI). There are many gap test geometries to be considered when making an explosiveevaluation. Validity of this test as a measure of degree of hazard associated with an explosive is questionable.
LASER Initiation Threshold (36)LASER Initiation Threshold is produced by collimating and then focusing light waves and is a function of theamplitude of the wavelength of the light applied to a unit area. Laser initiation is measured in units of energyper unit area per time. EXAMPLE: Joules per square centimeter per second (J/cm2/sec). The LASERcollimated beam frequency and area of incidence on the explosive for a particular experimental test is veryimportant but is not always reported in the literature.
TNT Equivalency (High Explosive Equivalency) (7)The TNT Equivalency determines the ratio of the amount of energy released in a detonation reaction of a sampleexplosive material to the amount of energy released by TNT under the same conditions. Following areinstruments for TNT comparative determinations of the performance of different explosives.
Trauzel TNT Equivalency (6) — Ten grams of the explosive sample is placed into a soft lead block (200-mmdiameter by 200 mm long) borehole (25mm diameter by 125 mm deep). The remaining volume is filled withquartz sand of standard grain size. The explosive is detonated and the increased volume of the borehole ismeasured with water. The original volume (61 cc) is deducted from the result, recorded and is compared to aTNT (sample of the same weight) volume. Similar tests have been performed in foamed plastic.
Ballistic Mortar TNT Equivalency (6) — A heavy, short-barreled mortar is suspended on a ten-foot pendulumrod. A ten-gram explosive sample is placed in the mortar cavity, a snugly fitting solid steel projectile isinserted over the explosive, the explosive is detonated and the length of arc swing of the mortar is measured.
The base standard is a recoil measurement taken of the mortar arc swing that is produced when 10 grams ofTNT drives the projectile out the muzzle. Samples of test explosives are subjected to the same test and theresults are recorded as the relative percent of the TNT arc swing standard.
Pendulum TNT Equivalency (36) — A weight is suspended on a pendulum, an explosive sample propels aprojectile to impact the weight causing the pendulum to swing in an arc. The kinetic energy of the projectile isthen calculated from the potential energy of the projectile plus the arc length of the weight at the top of the arcswing. This method is often used in measuring output of explosive devices such as thrusters, piston actuators,etc.) Brisance (7)The term brisance refers to that quality or property of a high explosive evidenced by its capacity, upondetonation, to shatter any medium confining it. Brisance is the destructive fragmentation effect of an explosivedetonation on its immediate vicinity. This property is different from that of the strength of an explosive;brisance depends greatly upon the rapidity of the reaction (density, VOD, specific energy); whereas, explosivestrength depends upon the quantity of gas evolved and the heat given off.
Sand Test — A practical method of measuring brisance is the sand crush test, in which a measured sample ofexplosive is detonated in sand (of 30 mesh grain size), and the shattering effect on the grains of sand isevaluated by sieving after for change in the sand grain size.
The sand test is also used to determine TNT equivalency.
Dent Test — The depth of dent (deformation) from the explosion of an explosive sample is measured in a steel(or other base standard material) block. This test is a comparative test to create a standard criterion fordetonating devices. The explosive is normally loaded in its end item configuration such as detonator caps,explosive end tips, linear shaped charge, etc.
The dent test is also used to determine TNT equivalency.
Gurney Constant (39) — The Gurney constant, the square root of 2E, is used to predict the average velocity offragments produced by the detonation of explosives in contact with metals. The value of this constant may varyas much as 20% for a given explosive. The Gurney method to determine fragment velocities is based on thethermochemistry of the explosive. Gurney described E as an energy term, which was that portion of thechemical energy of the explosive that contributed to the kinetic energy of the fragment. This energy term maybe more accurately correlated with the internal energy of formation than with the maximum energy available.
Fragment Velocity (40) — Average fragment velocities are predicted using the Gurney Constant. Values aregiven in meters per second at the explosive density.
SENSITIVITY TESTS
Sensitivity tests determine the minimum susceptibility of a given material to react to an externally applied
energy. Sensitivity tests are abstract in view of the fact that they do not necessarily apply to output energies or
application. In each case, the test is designed for a given set of externally applied energy sources to the system.
The reaction may be a rapid output and the analysis may be qualitative or quantitative. Sensitivity tests do not
stand alone in establishing safety criteria and parameters; rather, they determine at what energy levels a given
material will react.
Impact Sensitivity (5)Impact sensitivity determines the minimum energy at which a falling weight will cause a sample explosivematerial under total confinement to react violently.
There are four devices used to measure impact sensitivity, (l) Bureau of Explosive Apparatus (BoE), (2) Bureauof Mines Apparatus (BoM), (3) Picatinny Arsenal Apparatus (PA), and (4) the Explosive Research LaboratoryApparatus (ERL).
Supplementary Note:The following discussion is relevant to the BoM and PA. Sensitivity to impact is expressed as the minimumheight of fall of a given weight required to cause at least one explosion in 10 trials, or the minimum height offall of a given weight to cause explosions in 50 percent of the trials. In such tests. The explosive is sieved so asto pass through a No. 50 United States Standard (USS) sieve and be retained on a No. 100 USS sieve. Incarrying out the PA test, a steel die cup is filled with the explosive, covered with a brass cover, surmounted witha steel vented plug, placed in a positioned anvil, and subjected to the impact of a weight falling from apredetermined height. The minimum height, in inches, or centimeters, required for explosion is found afterrepeated trials. In making the test with the BoM apparatus, 0.02 gram of the sample is spread uniformly on ahard steel block, over a circular area one centimeter in diameter. A hard steel tip of that diameter, imbedded ina steel plunger, is lowered so as to rest on the explosive and turned gently so as to ensure uniform distributionand compression of the explosive. The plunger then is subjected to the impact of a weight falling from apredetermined height. When the minimum height required for explosion is found after repeated trials, this isexpressed in centimeters. The PA apparatus can be used for testing explosives having a very wide range ofsensitivity, but the BoM apparatus cannot cause the explosion of the most insensitive explosives and can beused only for testing explosives no less sensitive than TNT. The PA apparatus can be used for testing solid orliquid explosives. The test with the BoM apparatus can be modified so as to be applicable to liquid explosives.
This is accomplished by using 0.007 to 0.002 gram (one drop) of the explosive absorbed in a disk of dry filterpaper 9.5 millimeters in diameter.
Bureau of Explosives (BoE)(5)A series of twenty tests is performed to determine the sensitivity of the sample material to mechanical shock(impact). A 10-mg sample is placed in the test cup. A 2kg test weight is dropped from a height, of 25.4-cm (10in.) striking the sample.
The results of the 20 tests per sample, 10 at 9. 5 cm (3 3/4 in) drop height and 10 at 25. 4 cm (10 in) drop height,are reported as the number of trials exhibiting a reaction (decomposition, deflagration, detonation) and noreaction.
Bureau of Mines (BoM) (5)A 20-mg sample is placed between two flat, parallel hardened (C63 ±2) steel surfaces. The 2kg weight is raisedto the desired height and allowed to fall upon the sample. The impact value is the minimum height at which atleast one of 10 trials results in an explosion.
Picatinny Arsenal (PA) (5)A sample material is passed through a No. 50 USS sieve and retained on a No. 100 USS sieve. Ten previouslyweighed die cups are filled with the sample specimen and the excess is removed with a wooden or plasticspatula. The die cups are then reweighed and the average weight of the material in each cup recorded. A brasscover is placed over each loaded die cup and pressed down by means of a small arbor press so that the cover isin contact with the top rim of the die cup. The loaded die cup is placed in the anvil. A 1 or 2kg hammer isallowed to fall upon the sample. The up-down staircase method is used to determine the minimum height atwhich impact of the falling weight causes the sample material to explode in one of 10 trials.
Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) (5, 20)The ERL impact test consists of a free-falling weight, (2.5 or 5 kg) tooling to hold the explosive sample. Thesample to be tested is dried, usually under vacuum, and loaded into a dimple in the center of a sheet of garnetpaper for testing with Tool Type 12 (Tool Type 12B is without the garnet paper). The ERL apparatus is used asa baseline design for the impact test apparatus conducted at the Government National Laboratories (LASL,LLNL).
Supplementary Note:It should be noted that there are varied results between the four impact apparatus. This is primarily due to themajor differences in the way that the experiments are conducted and reported. In the BoM and BoE apparatus,10-mg samples are used, and the sample is placed between parallel flat plates. The value recorded in the BoMapparatus is the minimum drop height at which a reaction occurred; whereas, in the BoE device, the results attwo specified drop heights are reported. In the PA apparatus, the sample material varies as a function ofdensity, and the amount of material required to fill the vented or unvented cup (which can vary from 8 to 20mg). In the ERL apparatus, the striker and anvil surfaces are roughened by sand blasting. Then, the explosiveis placed on the roughened surface of the anvil. Depending on the bulk density, the sample weight varies from30 to 40 mg. Explosives that are normally received in granular form, such as PETN, RDX, and the PBXmolding powders are tested as received. Cast explosives are ground, and the test sample is a 50/50 mixture ofmaterial that passes through a No. 16 USS sieve but is retained on a No. 30 USS sieve and that which passesthrough a No. 30 USS sieve but is retained on a No. 50 USS sieve.
The reported value in all of the impact test methods discussed is the 50% point for a given reaction occurrence.
When these factors are taken into consideration, then the results are somewhat similar.
It should also be pointed out that there are almost as many different types of impact apparatus as there are testagencies, and the results from such devices may be significantly different.
Friction Sensitivity (36)The friction pendulum test determines whether or not a given material is susceptible to initiation by a specifiedfrictional force. The Picatinny apparatus uses a 20-kilogram shoe with an interchangeable face of steel or hardfiber attached to a pendulum. The shoe is permitted to fall from a height of one meter and sweep back andforth across a grooved steel friction anvil. The results are reported as explodes, crackles, or no effect.
Steel & Fiber Shoe (36) — A test consists of ten trials with the steel shoe, except when complete explosion orburning occurs in any trial. If explosion or burning occurs, the trials with the steel shoe are discontinued. Tentrials are made with the fiber-faced shoe only when complete explosion or burning occurs with the steel shoe, oras prescribed in the test directive. If the explosive passes the test with the steel shoe, no further trials areconducted. An explosive is regarded as passing the friction pendulum test if, in ten trials with the hardfiber-faced shoe, there is no more than an almost inaudible local crackling, regardless of its behavior when subjectedto the action of the steel shoe.
This test is a "go-no-go" type test whereby a gross value is obtained. For this reason, the results are not usuallyapplicable to a specific set of conditions. Although the test method and the steel and fiber shoes arestandardized, this is not a mandatory test for classification.
Composition A3 (RDX/WAX — 91/09; binary)
TMD — 1.672 g/cc (10) Heat Of Formation 2.84 kcal/mole (10) Loaded Density — 1.63 g/cc @ 20 ksi (14) Heat Of Products Of Detonation -1.58 (L) –1.39 (G) kcal/g (10) Cast Density — 1.57 g/cc (20) Shock Sensitivity Threshold13.4 kbars @ 1.65 g/cc (20) LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature Critical Temperature — Trauzel — 143% (410 cc)(15) Ballistic Mortar — 135% (7) Pendulum — 130%(36) Decomposition Temperature250°C @ 5 sec (28) Gas Volume862 cc/g (28) Sand — 51.5 g (107% TNT) (36) Detonation Pressure Dent Test — 126% TNT(36) 300 kbars @ 1.60 g/cc (20) Fragment — 2405 m/s @ 1.62 g/cc (20) Velocity Of Detonation Formulae Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation8180 m/s @ 1.60 g/cc (20); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 8470 m/s @ 1.64 g/cc (10)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — >100 cm (7) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — 41 cm (7) Vacuum Stability.60 ml-g/40 hr @ 120°C (20) Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — 2.2 ml-g/40/160°C(9) 2.5 kg/TL12 @ 81 cm (10) Hygroscopicity0% @ 30° 90% RH (10) Friction Sensitivity Steel Shoe — no effect(36) Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe — no effect (36)SpecificationsMIL-C-440B(34) Heat of Combustion1210 cal/g Composition A4 (RDX/Wax — 97/03; binary)
Heat Of Formation Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation Shock Sensitivity Threshold LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature Critical Temperature — Ballistic Mortar — Detonation Pressure Velocity Of Detonation Formulae Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) —2.5 kg/TL12 @ 37 cm (10) Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe —SpecificationsMIL-C-440 (34) Heat of Combustion Composition A5 (RDX/Stearic Acid — 98.5/1.5; binary)
TMD — 1.757 g/cc (10) Heat Of Formation 6.1 kcal/mole (10) Loaded Density — 1.70 g/cc @ 20 ksi (36) Heat Of Products Of Detonation -1.62 (L) –1.61 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Autoignition Temperature Critical Temperature — Ballistic Mortar — Detonation Pressure Velocity Of Detonation Formulae Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe —SpecificationsMIL-E-14970 (34) Heat of Combustion Composition CH6 (RDX/calcium stearate/graphite/polyisobutylene — 97/1.5/0.5/0.5)
Heat of Reaction1280 cal/g Heat Of Formation Loaded Density — 1.64 g/cc @ 20 ksi (36) Heat Of Products Of Detonation Cast Density — 1.67 g/cc (36) Shock Sensitivity Threshold18.0 kbar @ 1.68 g/cc (36) LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature203° C @ 1 sec, 240° C @ 10 sec (36) Critical Temperature — Trauzel — 150% (475 cc) (15) Ballistic Mortar — Decomposition Temperature184° C (36) Gas Volume908 cc/g (14) Detonation Pressure 278 kbar @ 1.66 g/cc (14) Fragment — 2540 m/s @ 1.72 g/cc (36) Velocity Of Detonation Formulae (28) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation8290 m/s @ 1.59 g/cc (14) Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Vacuum Stability1.0 ml/g/40 hr @ 120° C Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — Friction Sensitivity Thermal Stability Heat of Combustion2285 cal/g PBX-9407 (plastic bonded explosive, RDX/FPC 461 – 94/06; binary)
TMD — 1.809 g/cc (10) Heat Of Formation Loaded Density — 1.65 g/cc (20) Heat Of Products Of Detonation -1.60 (L) –1.46 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Autoignition Temperature Critical Temperature — Ballistic Mortar — Detonation Pressure 287 kbars @ 1.60 g/cc (10);262 kbar @ 1.61 g/cc (10) Fragment — 2740 m/s @ 1.61 g/cc (41) Velocity Of Detonation Formulae Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation8100 m/s @ 1.60 g/cc (20); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 7886 m/s @ 1.61 g/cc (8)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 2853°K @ 1.61 g/cc (10) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Vacuum Stability0.1 – 0.3 ml/g/48 hr @ 120° C (20) Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — 5 kg/TL12 @ 33 cm (20) Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability 0.06 cc/0.25 g/22 hr @ 120° C (20) LASL 13Y-109098C (20) Heat of Combustion PBXN-5 (plastic bonded explosive Navy, HMX/Viton A — 95/05; binary)
TMD — 1.90 g/cc (36) Heat Of Formation Bulk Density — 0.86 g/cc (36) -31.3 kcal/mole (36) Loaded Density — 1.78 – 1.80 g/cc @ 40 ksi Heat Of Products Of Detonation & 60° C Vac, 1.73 g/cc @ 25 ksi (36) -1.56 kcal/g (L), -1.42 kcal/g (G) (36) Shock Sensitivity Threshold18.10 @ 1.66 g/cc (36) LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature309° C @ 5 sec (36) Critical Temperature — 223° C (36) Ballistic Mortar — Detonation Pressure 270 kbar @ 1.86 g/cc (36) Fragment — 2920 m/s @ 1.83 g/cc (36) Velocity Of Detonation Formulae (28) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation8210 m/s @ 1.71 g/cc (36); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 8820 m/s @ 1.86 g/cc (36)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — 41 cm (15) Vacuum Stability0.13 ml/g/48 hr @ 120° C (36) Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe —SpecificationsMIL-E-81111 (34) Heat of Combustion PBXN-6 (plastic bonded explosive Navy, RDX/Viton A — 95/05, binary)
Heat Of Formation Bulk Density — >0.650 g/cc (38) Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation Shock Sensitivity Autoignition Temperature Critical Temperature — Ballistic Mortar — Detonation Pressure Velocity Of Detonation Formulae Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation8440 m/s @ 1.77 g/cc (36) Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Vacuum Stability.12 ml/g/48 @ 100° C Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe —SpecificationsWS-12604 (20) Heat of Combustion DIPAM (dipicramide, C12 H6 N8 O12)
TMD — 1.79 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation -6.8 kcal/mole (20) Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation-1.35 (L) –1.27 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Threshold24.17 kbar (36) LASER Initiation Threshold754 J/cm2/.250 us (36) Autoignition Temperature504° C @ 1 sec, 305° @ 10 sec (3) Critical Temperature — Ballistic Mortar — Decomposition Temperature316° C (36) Detonation Pressure Dent Test — .119" (3) 269 kbar @ 1.79 g/cc (8) Fragment — 2550 m/s @ 1.79 g/cc (41) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaemm/us @ TMD = (4.35 – 0.26)/0.55 (23) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation7400 m/s @ 1.76 g/cc (20); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 7738 m/s @ 1.79 g/cc (8)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 2781 °K @ 1.79 g/cc (8) Picatinny Arsenal (PA)— 2.5 kg @ 95 cm (3) Vacuum Stability.1 ml/g/40 @ 120° C (9) Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL)— 5 kg/TL 12 @ 95 cm (20) Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability .1%/g/48 hr @ 210° C (9) Heat of Combustion-1326.8 kcal/mole(20) HNS-I (hexanitrostilbene, C14 H6 N6 O12)
TMD — 1.74 g/cc (10) Heat Of Formation Bulk Density — 0.15 to 0.35 g/cc (10) 18.7 kcal/mole (20) Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation-1.42 (L) –1.36 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Threshold33.69 kbar (36) LASER Initiation Threshold56 J/cm2/.250 us (36) Autoignition Temperature540° C @ 1 sec, 325° C @ 5 sec (3) Critical Temperature — 320° C (8) Ballistic Mortar — 315° C (10)325° C (35) Decomposition Temperature315° C (36) Gas Volume700 cc/g (6) Detonation Pressure 200 kbar @ 1.60 g/cc (10)241 kbar @ 1.74 g/cc (8) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaemm/us @ TMD = (4.02 – 0.26)/0.55 (23) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation6800 m/s @ 1.60 g/cc (10); 7000 m/s @ 1.74 Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — g/cc (35); 7410 m/s @ 1.74 g/cc (8)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 3059 °K @ 1.74 g/cc (8) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Vacuum Stability1.8 cc/g/hr @ 0.33 hr @ 260° C (35); Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — 0.6 cc/g/hr @ 2.0 hr @ 260° C (35) 2.5 kg/TL12 @ 54 cm (10); 2.5 kg/TL12 @ 44 cm (35)Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability 0.01 cc/g/22 hr @ 0.25 g @ 120°C (10); 0.1 cc/g/48 hr @ 100° C Heat of Combustion3451 cal/g (35); -1540.3 kcal/mole (20) HNS-II (hexanitrostilbene, C14 H6 N6 O12)
TMD — 1.74 g/cc (10) Heat Of Formation Bulk Density — 0.45 to 1.0 g/cc (10) 18.7 kcal/mole (20) Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation-1.42 (L) –1.36 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Threshold19.0 kbar @ 1.64 g/cc (36); 34.0 kbar @ 1.68 g/cc (36)LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature520° C @ 5 sec (36) Critical Temperature — Trauzel — 165% (525 cc) (15) Ballistic Mortar — 318° C (10)325° C (35) Pendulum — 150% (2) Decomposition Temperature325° C (15) Detonation Pressure 200 kbar @ 1.60 g/cc (10);215 kbar @ 1.65 g/cc (36) Fragment — 2460 m/s @ 1.61 g/cc (41) Velocity Of Detonation Formulae Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation7000 m/s @ 1.70 g/cc (10) Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 3059 °K @ 1.74 g/cc (8) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Vacuum Stability0.3 cc/g/hr @ 0.33 hr @ 260° C (35); Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — 0.2 cc/g/hr @ 2.0 hr @ 260° C (35) 2.5 kg/TL12 @ 54 cm (10); 2.5 kg/TL12 @ 61 cm (35)Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability 0.01 cc/g/22 hr @ 0.25 g @ 120°C (10) Heat of Combustion3451 cal/g (35), -1540.3 kcal/mole (20) TETRYL (2,4,6-Trinitro-phenylmethylnitramine, C7 H5 N5 O8)
TMD — 1.731 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation 7.6 kcal/mole (20);4.67 kcal/mole (10) Loaded Density — 1.67 g/cc @ 20 ksi (20); Heat Of Products Of Detonation 1.57 g/cc @ 10 ksi (7) -1.41 (L) –1.09 (G) kcal/g (10) Cast Density — 1.62 g/cc (20) Shock Sensitivity Threshold19.3 kbar @ 1.45 g/cc (36) Crystal Hardness< 1.0 Mohs (36) LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature340° C @ .1 sec (7) Critical Temperature — Trauzel — 125% (356 cc) (14);150% (410 cc) (15) Ballistic Mortar — 130% (14) Decomposition Temperature257° C @ 5 sec, 238° C @10 sec (36);213°C (36) Gas Volume760 cc/g (7) Sand — 54.2 g (113% TNT) (36) Detonation Pressure Dent Test — .106" (1) , (116% TNT (7)) 226.4 kbar @ 1.614 g/cc (20); 260 kbar @1.71 g/cc (10); 196 kbar @ 1.53 g/cc (28) Fragment — 2590 m/s @ 1.65 g/cc (7); Velocity Of Detonation Formulae mm/us = 2.742 + 2.935ρ @ 1.3 g/cc <ρ<1.69 g/cc (10) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation7850 m/s @ 1.71 g/cc (10); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 7170 m/s @ 1.53 g/cc (28)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 26 cm (14) 2017 °K @ 1.70 g/cc (8);4837 °K @ 1.6 g/cc (12) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — 2.5 kg @ 25 cm 0.4 – 1.0 ml/g/48 hr @ 120° C (20) Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL)— TL 12 @ 42 cm (10); 5 kg/TL12 @ 28 cm (10) 0.04% @ 30° C 90% RH (36) Friction Sensitivity Steel Shoe — crackles (36) Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe — no effect (36) 5.10 cc/g/48 hr @ 120° C (10) Heat of Combustion-836.8 kcal/mole (20) RDX (Research Department Explosive, Cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine, C3 H6 N6 O6)
Heat of Reaction500 cal/g (20) TMD — 1.806 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation 14.7 kcal/mole (20) Loaded Density — 1.68 g/cc @ 20 ksi (20); Heat Of Products Of Detonation 1.60 g/cc @ 10 ksi (36) -1.51 (L) –1.42 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Threshold9.3 kbar @ 1.53 g/cc (36); 11.26 kbar @ unk g/cc (36) LASER Initiation Threshold 3.1 J/cm2/.250 us @ 1.64 g/cc (Zr Dpd)(36) Autoignition Temperature316° C @ 1 sec 405° C @ .1 sec (7) Critical Temperature — 217° C (20) Trauzel — 184% (525 cc) (36) Ballistic Mortar — 150% (7) 204.1° C (Type I)(20)192° C (Type II) Decomposition Temperature260° @ 5 sec, 239° C @ 10 sec (14) Gas Volume908 cc/g (7) Sand — 60.2 g (129% TNT) (36) Detonation Pressure Dent Test — .112" (1,2) 347 kbar @ 1.80 g/cc (8); 333.5 kbar @ (135% TNT @ 1.50 g/cc (7)) 1.767 g/cc (20); 108 kbar @ 1.0 g/cc (8) Fragment — 2590 m/s @ 1.65 g/cc (36) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaemm/us = 2.66 + 3.40ρ (20);mm/us @ TMD = (5.18 – 0.26)/0.55 (23) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation8639 m/s @ 1.767 g/cc (10); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 8035 m/s @ 1.60 g/cc (14)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) —32 cm (7) 2587 °K @ 1.8 g/cc (8);3600 °K @ 1.0 g/cc (8) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — 20 cm (28) Vacuum Stability0.9 cc/5 g/40 hr @ 120° C (36) Explosive Research Laboratory(ERL)— TL 12 @ 22 cm (20); 5 kg/TL12 @ 28 cm 0.12% @ 25° C 100% RH (36) Friction Sensitivity Steel Shoe — explodes (7) Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe — no effect (7) 0.12 to 0.9 cc/g/48 hr @ 120° C (10) Heat of Combustion-501.8 kcal/mole (20) HMX (High Melting Explosive, Cyclotetramethylene-tetranitromine, C4 H8 N8 O8)
Heat of Reaction500 cal/g (20) TMD — 1.902 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation 11.3 kcal/mole (20);17.93 kcal/mole (10) Loaded Density — 1.60 g/cc @ 10 ksi (36) Heat Of Products Of Detonation -1.48 (L) –1.37 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Threshold Crystal Hardness2.3 Mohs (7) LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature380° C @ 0.1 sec, 306° C @ 1.0 sec (15,36) Critical Temperature — 253° C (20) Trauzel — 145% (413 cc) (36) Ballistic Mortar — 150% (36) 285° C (10) 246° C (20); 276° C (36);273° C (7) Decomposition Temperature200° C (36) Gas Volume927 cc/g (6) Sand — 60.4 g (126% TNT) (36) Detonation Pressure 389.8 kbar @ 1.90 g/cc (20) Fragment — 2970 m/s @ 1.89 g/cc (10, 40) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaem/s = 2660 + 3225 (ρ-1) (20); m/s = 2370 + 3250ρ (20); mm/us @ TMD (5.24 – 0.26)/0.55 (23) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation9110 m/s @ 1.89 g/cc (20) Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 60 cm (14) 2364 °K @ 1.90 g/cc (8) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) —23 cm (14) Vacuum Stability0.1 – 0.4 ml/g/48 hr @ 120° C (20) Explosive Research Laboratory(ERL) — TL 12 @ 26 cm (20); 5 kg/TL12 @ 33 cm 0.0% @ 24° C 96% RH (36) Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — explodes Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe — no effect 0.07 cc/g/48 hr @ 120° C (36) Heat of Combustion-660.7 kcal/mole (20) DATB (1,3-Diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, C6 H5 N5 O6, nitroaromatic)
Heat of Reaction300 cal/g (20) TMD — 1.838 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation -23.6 kcal/mole (20) Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation-1.26 (L) –1.15 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Threshold LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature384° C @ 1 sec Critical Temperature — 322° C (20) Trauzel — 196% (560 cc) (2, 15) Ballistic Mortar — Pendulum — 150% (36) Sand — 50.4 g (105% TNT) (36) Detonation Pressure 247.7 kbar @ 1.780 g/cc (20);259 kbar @ 1.78 g/cc (8) Fragment — 3450 m/s @1.89 g/cc (36) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaemm/us = 2.480 + 2.852ρ (20) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation7600 m/s @ 1.780 g/cc (20) Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 2477 °K @ 1.79 g/cc (8) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Vacuum Stability0.1 – 0.3 ml/g/48 hr @ 120° C (20) Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL)— TL 12 @ >320 cm (20); 5 kg/TL12 @ > 1770 cm (10)Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability <0.03 cc/g/48 @ 120° C (20) Heat of Combustion-711.5 kcal/mole (20) TATB (1,3,5-triamino – 2,4,6,-trinitrobenzene; C6 H6 N6 O6; nitroaromatic)
Heat of Reaction600 cal/g (20) TMD — 1.937 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation -33.4 kcal/mole (20) Loaded Density — 1.86 g/cc @ 20 ksi @ 120° C (20) Heat Of Products Of Detonation-1.20 (L) –1.08 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Threshold LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature384° C @ 1 sec (8) Critical Temperature — 347° C (20) Trauzel — 132% (375 cc) (2,15) Ballistic Mortar — 480° C (20), 452° C (10) Pendulum — 128% (2) Detonation Pressure 326 kbar @ 1.895 g/cc 331° C (8); 255.6 kbar @1.847 g/cc (20); 172 kbar @ 1.5 g/cc (20) Fragment — 2399 m/s @ 1.854 g/cc (10,40) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaem/s = 2480 + 2852ρ (20)mm/us @ TMD = (4.59 – 0.26)/0.55 (23) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation7666 m/s @ 1.847 (20); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 8411 m/s @ 1.895 g/cc (8)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 1887 °K @ 1.895 g/cc (8) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) —TL 12 @ >320 cm (20); 5 kg/TL12 @ 1770 cm (10)Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe —SpecificationsLASL 13Y-188025 (20) Heat of Combustion-735.9 kcal/mole (20) PETN (pentaerythritol-tetranitrate, C5 H8 N4 O12, aliphatic-nitrate-ester)
Heat of Reaction300 cal/g @ 1.74 (20) TMD (20) — 1.778 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation -110.34 kcal/mole (20)-128.7 kcal/mole (10) Loaded Density — 1.71 @ 20 ksi (20); Heat Of Products Of Detonation 1.638 @ 20 ksi (10); 1.57 g/cc @ 10 ksi (36) -1.49 (L) –1.37 (G) kcal/g (10) Shock Sensitivity Threshold26.0 kbar @ unk g/cc (36) Crystal Hardness2.0 Mohs (7) LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature272° C @.1 sec 244 ° C @ 1 sec (14) Critical Temperature — 192° C (20); 200° C(8) Trauzel — 173% (493 cc) (36) Ballistic Mortar — 145% (14) Decomposition Temperature225 C @ 5 sec, 210° C @ 10 sec (36) 790cc/g, 823cc/g (2,6,23) Sand — 62.7 g (131% TNT) (14) Detonation Pressure Dent Test — .126" (1, 2) 335 kbar @ 1.77 g/cc (10); 306 kbar @1.67 g/cc (20); 87 kbar @ 0.99 g/cc (10) Fragment — 2930 m/s @ 1.77 m/s (10,40) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaemm/us = 1.608 + 3.933ρ @ 0.57 g/cc<ρ< 1.585 g/cc (20, 15, 23) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation7975 m/s @ 1.67 g/cc (20); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 8260 m/s @ 1.76 g/cc ((20)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 17 cm (14) 2833 °K @ 1.77 g/cc, 3970 °K @ 1.0 g/cc;4493 °K @ 0.50 g/cc, 4442 °K 0.25 g/cc (10) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — 15 cm (14) Vacuum Stability2.0 to 11.0 cc/g/40 hr @ 120° C (36) Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL)— TL 12 @ 12 cm (20); 5 kg/TL12 @ 11 cm (10) 0% @ 30° C 90% RH (10) Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — crackles Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe — no effect 0.10 to 0.14 cc/g/22 hr @ 0.25 g @ 120° C (10) Heat of Combustion618.7 kcal/mole (20) CYCLOTOL (TYPE I — RDX/TNT, 75/25, binary)
TMD — 1.765 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation-1.57 kcal/g (10) Cast Density — 1.74/1.75 g/cc-vac melt (20);1.71 g/cc typ. (14) Shock Sensitivity Threshold LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature Critical Temperature — 208° C (20) Trauzel — 100% (285 cc) (15) Ballistic Mortar — 79° C (cast) (20) Decomposition Temperature280° C @ 5 sec (14) Gas Volume862 cc/g (23) Sand — 54 g (113% TNT) (14) Detonation Pressure 316 kbar @ 1.752 g/cc (10);281 kbar @ 1.73 g/cc (36) Fragment — 2790 m/s @ 1.754 g/cc (10,40) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaemm/us® = 8.210 [(1 – 4.89 (10-2)/R) – 0,119/R (R –2.44)] (20)mm/us @ TMD = (4.71 – 0.26)/0.55 (23) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation8252 m/s @ 1.743 g/cc (20); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 8030 m/s @ 1.70 g/cc (23)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 51 cm (14) 2829 °K @ 1.44 g/cc (8) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Vacuum Stability.41 ml/g/48 hr @ 100° C (36) Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — TL 12 @ 36 cm (20); 5 kg/TL12 @ 33 cm (10)Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — no effect (14) Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe — no effect (14) 0.25 to 0.94 cc/g/48 hr @ 120° C (10) Heat of Combustion TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, C7 H5 N3 O6, nitroaromatic)
Heat of Reaction300 cal/g @ 1.57 g/cc (20) TMD — 1.653 g/cc (20), 1.465 g/cc (L) (36) Heat Of Formation Bulk Density — 0.97 g/cc (36) -12.0 kcal/mole (20) Loaded Density — 1.55 g/c c @ 20 ksi (20) Heat Of Products Of Detonation -1.09 (L) –1.02 (G) kcal/g (10) Cast Density — 1.61 – 1.62 g/cc @ vac (20) Shock Sensitivity Threshold Crystal Hardness1.4 Mohs (7) LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature570° @ .1 sec, 520 ° C @ 1 sec (36) Critical Temperature — 288°C (20) Trauzel — 100% = 285 cc (36) Ballistic Mortar — 100% = (36) 80 – 82°C (20) Pendulum — 100% = (36) Decomposition Temperature475° C @ 5 sec, 465° C @ 10 sec (14);281° C (36) Gas Volume730 cc/g (36) Sand — 48 g = 100% TNT(36) Detonation Pressure 170 kbar @ 1.56 g/cc (36); 186.6 kbar @1.637 g/cc (20); 200 kbar @ 1.63 g/cc (10) Fragment — 2152 m/s @ 1.62 g/cc, Velocity Of Detonation Formulae 3620 @ 1.58 g/cc (36) mm/us = 1.873 + 3.187ρ@ 0.9 <ρ< 1.534 g/cc (20) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation6942 m/s @ 1.637 g/cc (vac cast) (20); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 6800 m/s @ 1.56 g/cc (pressed) (36)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — 100 cm (14) 2829 °K @ 1.64 g/cc (8) Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — 36 cm (14) Vacuum Stability0.2 ml/g/48 hr @ 120°C (20) Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — Tl 12 @ 154 cm (20); 5 kg/TL12 @ 80 cm (10) 0.03% @ 30° C 90% RH (36) Friction Sensitivity Steel Shoe — crackles (14) Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe — no effect (14) ≈0.005 cc/g/48 hr @ 120° C (10) Heat of Combustion -817.2 kcal/mole (20) Composition B3 (RDX/TNT, 60/40, binary)
TMD — 1.75 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation Cast Density — 1.730 g/cc @ vac (20) Shock Sensitivity Threshold33.3 kbar @ 1.72 g/cc (36) LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature526° C @ .1 sec (36) Critical Temperature — 214°C (20) Ballistic Mortar — 79°C (TNT melt) (20) Decomposition Temperature255° C (23) Detonation Pressure 243 kbar @ 1.68 g/cc (36);287 kbar @ 1.72 g/cc (23) Fragment — 2368 m/s @ 1.73 g/cc (36) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaemm/us® = 7.859 (1 – 2.84 (10-2/R (R-1.94)(20); mm/us @ TMD = (4.71 – 0.26)/0.55 (23) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Vacuum Stability0.2 – 0.6 ml/g/48 hr @ 120°C (20) Explosive Research Laboratory(ERL) — TL 12 @ 59 cm (20); 2.5 kg/TL12 @ 40 to 80 cm (10) .05% @ 90% RH @ 30° C Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe —SpecificationsMIL-C-401C (34) Heat of Combustion XTX-8003 (EXTEX, PETN/SYLGARD-182 80/20)
Heat of Reaction300 cal/g (PETN) (20) TMD —1.556 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation -39 kcal/mole (10) Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation-1.16 (L) –1.05 (G) kcal/g (10) Cast Density — 1.50 g/cc (20) Shock Sensitivity Threshold LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature Critical Temperature — Ballistic Mortar — 129 to 135 ° C (20) Detonation Pressure 170 kbar @ 1.546 g/cc (10) Fragment — 2422 m/s @ 1.554 g/cc (10,40) Velocity Of Detonation Formulaemm/us® = 7.260[(1 – 0.191 (10-2/R) – 2.12 (10-4/R)(R – 0.111) (20) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation7248 m/s @ 1.53 g/cc (20) Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — Vacuum Stability0.2 ml/g/48 hr @ 100°C (20); Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — 0.11 ml/g/40 hr @ 120° C (15) TL 12 @ 30 cm (20); 5 kg/TL12 @ 21 cm (10)Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — Thermal Stability <0.02 cc/22 hr @ 0.25 g @ 120° C (10) LASL-13Y-104481F (20) Heat of Combustion OCTOL (HMX/TNT 75/25, binary)
TMD —1.835 g/cc (20) Heat Of Formation 2.57 kcal/mole (11) Loaded Density — Heat Of Products Of Detonation-1.57 (L) –1.43 (G) kcal/g (10) Cast Density — 1.825 g/cc @ vac (20)1.81 g/cc typ. (7) Shock Sensitivity Threshold 14.7 kbar @ 1.68 g/cc (36) LASER Initiation Threshold Autoignition Temperature Critical Temperature — 281°C (20) Ballistic Mortar — 116% (7) 79°C (TNT melt) (20) Decomposition Temperature350° C @ 5 sec (7) Gas Volume830 cc/g (7) Sand — 62.1 g (129% TNT) (7) Detonation Pressure 333.5 kbar @ 1.809 g/cc (20);342 kbar @ 1.821 g/cc (10) Fragment — 1877 m/s @ 1.81 g/cc (11) Velocity Of Detonation Formulae 2551 m/s @ 1.82 g/cc (36) mm/us = 8.84[(1 – 6.9 (10-2/R)- (9.25 (10-2/R) (R – 1.34)] (20) Impact Sensitivity Velocity Of Detonation8452 m/s @ 1.809 g/cc (20); Bureau of Explosives (BoE) — 8540 m/s @ TMD (36)Temperature of Detonation Bureau of Mines (BoM) — Picatinny Arsenal (PA) — 43 cm (25 mg) (7) Vacuum Stability0.1 – 0.4 ml/g/48 hr @ 120°C (20); Explosive Research Laboratory (ERL) — 2.66 ml/5 g/40 hr @ 140° C (11) TL 12 @ 38 cm (20); 5 kg/TL12 @ 41 cm (10)Friction SensitivitySteel Shoe — no effect (11) Thermal Stability Fiber Shoe — no effect (11) 0.18 cc/g/48 hr @ 120° C (10) MIL-O-45445A (34) Heat of Combustion2.67 kcal/g (11) "Handbook of Pyrotechnics", 1974, Chem. Pub. Co., Inc.
"Explosive Characteristics Tables I Through X" Teledyne McCormick "Engineering Data – Tables, Properties of Selected High Explosives"Selph, "A Glossary of Terms for Energetic Materials, Including Explosives, Propellants, Pyrotechnics,Fireworks and Commercial Explosive Applications" Washington College, Chestertown, MD1992 "A Compilation of Hazard and Test Data for Pyrotechnic Compositions", USA ARADCOMAD-E400-496 / Contractor Report ARLCD-CR-80047, Computer Sciences Corp., October1980.
"Explosives", 2nd Ed. 1981, Verlag Chemie, .
"Explosive Series, Properties of Explosives of Military Interest, Engineering DesignHandbook", U. S. Army Material Command Jan 1971 "Numerical Modeling of Detonation", 1979, U.C. Press.
"Physical and Explosives Properties of Several Heat Resistant Explosives" 10. B. M. Dobratz "LLNL Explosives Handbook – Properties of Chemical Explosives and 11. Picatinny Arsenal "Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items" pp. D380 Table A and pp. D381 Table B.
12. Picatinny Arsenal "Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items", pp. D232-D234, Chapman-JouguetDetonation Parameters Table 13. T. S. Costain, "The Sensitivity Performance and Material Properties of Some High Explosives" TR2587 Feltman Research Laboratory, Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, NJ 14. BROCO, Inc.
"Characteristics of Military High Explosives" (a wall chart) BROCO, Inc. Rialto, CA "Characterization of the DDT Explosive CP", et al, 7th Symp. On Det 6/1981, SNLA,Annapolis, MD.
16. R. Weinheimer "Geometric Shock Initiation Of Pyrotechnics And Explosives", ADPA John C. Stennis SpaceCenter , MS 4 – 5 Oct 1989 "The Technical Report Database (CD-ROM)" Defense Technical Information Center, ElSegundo, CA 1992 "Laser Initiation of Explosives" 1984, Unidynamics Phoenix, Inc 19. Alfred C. Schwarz "Application of Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) in Explosive Components", SNLA, May 1972, SC-RR-710673.
20. Gibbs and Populato "LASL, Explosive Property Data", UC Press, 1980 21. Naval Support "Navy Bank of Explosive Data, Vol. I, II, and III" NSWC MP 83-230, 30 June , 1983 Weapons Ctr.
"Principles of Explosive Behavior, Engineering Design Handbook" U. S. Army MaterialCommand, APR 1972 "Predicting High Explosive Detonation Velocities From Their Composition Structure" Naval Weapon Station AD-AO62266, NWSY TR 78-4 Nov 78 "The Official L & I Design Handbook Of Data For Weird Explosives And S. Isenberg RelatedStuff" Jun 1975 25. Dept Of The Army "Military Explosives" TM9-1300-214, Dept. of The Army, Sep 1984 "Hexanitrostilbene and Its Properties" TBRL, Chandigarll, India R. K. Malhotra "The Effects of Grain Size on The Shock Sensitivity of Porous Granular Explosives" SNLA,SAND83-0852C "Explosive Trains, Explosive Series, Engineering Design Handbook" U. S. Army MaterialCommand, 1974 "The Heat and Products of Detonation in a Calorimeter of CNO, HNO, CHNF, CHNO,CHNOF, and CHNOSi Explosives Combustion and Flame" 23, 37-46 (1974) TheCombustion Institute Erik Oberg, et al "The Machinery Handbook", 23rd Revised Edition 1990 R.P. Olenick, et al "The Mechanical Universe; Introduction to Mechanics and Heat" Cambridge Univ. Press,1986 "Critical Temperature Analysis for a Hemispherical Charge of a Binary Explosive" E G & GMound Labs (>1981) "A New Technique for Characterizing an Explosive for Shock Initiation Sensitivity", SAND-75-0314 SNLA 1975 34. DoD Stds.
"DoD Standards", Compact Disc (CD-ROM) Database Library, Information Handling Services1992 35. Chemtronics, Inc.
"HNS", Fact Sheet 36. R. Weinheimer Personal Files, various sources, 1962 through 1992 "Shock Sensitivity of Explosives Clarified" 10 August 1987 C & EN (pp. 25) 38. NAVSEA WS-1260A "Explosive, Plastic-Bonded Molding Powder (PBXN-6)" Nav. Sea Sys. Com.12 Oct 1974 39. E. W. LaRocca "A Simplified Method of Calculating the Gurney Constant of Common Explosives" TM 6-348-1.13-2, ADPA Yuma, AZ 25-27 Oct 78 40. W. K. Gallant Memo: "Gurney Values for Common and Uncommon Explosives — Issue 1" AlliantTechsystems, Brooklyn Park, MN 25 Feb 92 "Analyses of Terminal Flyer Plate Velocities for Various Cased Explosive Configurations"SAND—0578, UC—742 SNLA, April 1991 "Properties of Selected High Explosives", 18th International Pyrotechnics Seminar,Breckenridge, CO, July 1992

Source: http://www.psemc.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Properties-Selected-High-Explosives.pdf

Unit five puberty [compatibility mode]

 This unit addresses the physical changes that occur for boys and girls during puberty, the reproductive anatomy of males and females, and the ins and outs  PUBERTY PRE-TESTS of what happens during menstruation and spermatogenesis.  PUBERTY WITH SAM AND SALLY ©HiTOPS, Inc./Princeton Center for  Activities help students to learn that there is a wide range of "normal" in each change of puberty.

Nov_rx.cdr

P BOONE COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY S ON THE INSIDE:Page 3 November FeaturePage 5 Letter to the Editor What's Up Doc What's New in Medicine (1963) BOONE COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY PVOLUME: 32 ISSUE: 11 Bridget Early, M.D. Hung Winn, M.D. Raghav Govindarajan, M.D. Immediate Past President