Ogni antibiotico è efficace in relazione a un determinato gruppo di microrganismi comprare keflex senza ricettain caso di infezioni oculari vengono scelte gocce ed unguenti.
7224 produckions broch proof
Worried about antibiotic
use and resistance in cattle?
It's important to us too.
WHERE DOES ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE COME FROM?
When antibiotics are used, bacteria that are responsive to the
drug are killed, and bacteria that aren't responsive (are resistant)
survive and reproduce.
1. Some bacteria cause disease. A
3. The antibiotic resistant bacteria
few are drug resistant.
survive and reproduce.
2 Antibiotics kill disease-causing
4. Some bacteria share their
bacteria, as well as some good
bacteria that protect the body
IS ANTIBIOTIC FREE
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE HAPPENS NATURALLY
A specified withdrawal time must pass after the
The Lechuguilla Cave in New
last treatment to ensure that there are no antibiotic
Mexico has bacteria that have
residues left in the beef. The Canadian Food
lived in complete isolation for
Inspection Agency regularly tests for residues. In
more than four million years.
2013, over 99.9% of both domestic and imported
When treated with a variety of
beef products were free from residues. If residues
antibiotics, many of these
are found, the beef is not allowed to enter the food
bacteria were naturally resistant.
WHY ARE ANTIBIOTICS USED IN CATTLE?
A category of antibiotics
Ensuring animal welfare:
providing care to sick cattle,
help boost growth in
including using antibiotics
cattle. Ionophores are not
when appropriate, is the
used in human medicine, and work
differently than medically important
humane thing to do.
antibiotics. There is no evidence that
use of ionophores causes increased
resistance to antibiotics used in
"It is our privilege,
ANTIBIOTICS not our right to be able
Preventing infection can
to use antibiotics in the
reduce the need to use
more powerful antibiotics
animals that we take
if the disease becomes
more serious. Preventive antibiotics
antibiotic is used in
- Dr. Craig Dorin,
are also used in human medicine, like
feed does not mean
with people who are exposed to
it is being used to
promote growth. It is
often better for sick
AND CONTROL OF DISEASE
animals to be treated through feed
Cattle sometimes get
rather than aggravating their illness
sick, just like people,
with stress from multiple injections.
pets, and other livestock.
Antibiotics can help protect animal health
by limiting the spread of disease.
165, 6815 - 8th Street N.E., Calgary, AB T2E 7H7
ARE ALL ANTIBIOTICS
NO. In Canada there
are four categories6
Not all antibiotics are the same. Some antibiotics are more powerful than others, and some
categories of antibiotics that are often used in cattle are not medically important to humans.
MOST IMPORTANT IN
IN HUMAN MEDICINE
3. IMPORTANCE 4. IMPORT
Yes – limited or no
Yes – alternatives
Not often – many
Drugs of last resort
Sometimes used for
Commonly used for
Commonly used for
treatment, control and treatment, control and growth promotion and
prevention of disease prevention of disease
Human: Cipro, Omnicef Zithromax
Cattle: Ionophores such
examples Cattle: Excede, Baytril
Cattle: Draxxin, Tylan
as Rumensin, Bovatec
Most of these products require a veterinary prescription, just like you need a prescription from
your doctor before the pharmacist will give you most antibiotics.
of the antibiotics
of the antibiotics used in
used in people are of
High and Very High
and pets) are of
Low and Medium
Resistance of E. coli in
retail beef to any of the
Canada has several surveillance programs in
drugs in the VERY HIGH
place to monitor trends in antibiotic
IMPORTANCE category is
resistance. Examples include the Canadian
Integrated Program for Antimicrobial
Resistance Surveillance,7 FoodNet Canada,8
and the newly announced Canadian
Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System.9
DRUG RESISTANCE LEVELS ARE LOW IN BEEF
Bacteria (E. coli) found in retail beef are rarely
resistant to more than one drug. Over 74% of E.
understand the concept
coli samples were not resistant to any of the
of antibiotic stewardship.
We understand the concept
of leaving something in a
better situation than we
-Dr. Leigh Rosengren,
RESISTANT TO ALL
This means that there are lots of options to treat
most drug resistant bacteria.
HOW DIFFICULT IS IT TO GET A RESISTANT INFECTION?
For a person to get an antibiotic resistant infection from eating beef,
a number of unlikely things must happen:
animal gets an
bacteria survives multiple
food safety controls
illness is severe
illness fails to respond
enough to warrant
to treatment because
bacteria is resistant to
If beef is cooked properly, the antibiotic resistant bacteria die – breaking the chain
of unlikely events. The probability of human illness in the U.S. due to drug resistant
food poisoning (campylobacteriosis) is about one in 236 million.12 Being killed by an
asteroid is 1000 times more likely.18
Producers take their
Producers also have a responsibility to Previous research showed no
use antibiotics with good judgment.
predictable or uniform increase
conventional or organic,
to protect the health
Surveillance7 indicating low resistance
in resistance between cattle
and welfare of their
in cattle to antibiotics of importance in raised with the use of
beef is an important
families and animals
human medicine shows they are doing antibiotics and those raised
part of a nutritious diet.
very seriously, which
just that. Canada's Verified Beef
ProductionTM program outlines
Antibiotic use in agriculture is
responsible practices for producers,
just one small part of the whole
and provides training on how to use
antibiotic resistance picture that
also includes humans and
For references and more information about the
beef industry, please visit the consumer section
PLM®EDICIÓN 12 0 1 1 dasideb Oe díauG Guía de Manejo de Claudia Milena Gómez Giraldo Médica cirujana, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales. Especialista en medicina interna, Universidad del Valle, Cali. Especialista en endocrinología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá. Endocrinóloga Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá
TOP_August 2012_FINAL_v2_TOP 8/20/12 9:57 AM Page 1 CANCER CENTER PROFILE University of Arizona Cancer T-DM1 in Metastatic Breast The Expanding Role of the Oncology Pharmacist It's Just the Beginning for an Exciting New Class By Caroline Helwick The biggest newsmaker at the 2012 healthy tissue, T-DM1 not only has Annual Meeting of the American