The digestive diseases dictionary

National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse
The Digestive
Diseases Dictionary
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH The Digestive
Diseases Dictionary
Some terms listed have many meanings; only those meanings that relate to digestion or digestive diseases are included. Words that appear in bold italic
are listed elsewhere in the dictionary. Information in this dictionary is not a substitute for a visit to your doctor. Talk with a health professional if you have a digestive problem. The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory. National Digestive Diseases NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Information Clearinghouse Pronunciation Guide
This pronunciation guide uses letters and letter combinations, rather than
phonetic symbols, to stand for the various sounds in the English language. coat, home
food, rude
pear, hair
tore, soar, for
soil, boy
say, came, weigh
now, couch
saw, bought
put, foot
about, sum, china
eh (used at the end of a syllable or when hurt, alert
yoor cure
meadow (MEH-doh)
enemy (EH-nuh-mee)
chop, itch
diet (DY-et)
feet, neat
fur, tough, calf
grape, big
ih (used at the end of a syllable or when joke, nudge
kite, car, tack
chicken (CHIH-ken)
lip, sell
miracle (MIHR-ih-kuhl)
move, jam
not, knee
picnic (PIK-nik)
play, hop
near, here
rain, fur
set, tips
eye (used at the beginning of a syllable or bus, guess, fence
when standing alone) shy, fish
toy, boat
iron (EYE-urn)
chloride (KLOR-eyed)
vine, have
walk, where
silent (SY-luhnt)
zip, jazz, has
abdomen (AB-doh-men): the area
achlorhydria (ay-klor-HY-dree-uh):
between the chest and the hips a lack of hydrochloric acid in the
containing the stomach, small
digestive juices of the stomach.
intestine, large intestine, liver,
gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen.
activated charcoal (AK-tih-vayt-ed)
(CHAR-kohl): a substance that abdominal migraine (ab-DOM­
may be used to treat accidental ih-nuhl) (MY-grayn): sudden, or intentional ingestion of toxic repeated attacks of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting,
usually in children who later acute (uh-KYOOT): refers to
develop migraine headaches. A conditions that happen suddenly headache may also be present. and last a short time. Acute is the opposite of chronic, or long
absorption (ab-SORP-shuhn): the
way nutrients are taken up by the digestive system.
adenovirus (AD-uh-noh-VY-ruhss):
viruses that cause gastroenteritis
achalasia (ak-uh-LAY-zee-uh): a
and respiratory infection. rare disorder of the esophagus
Vomiting and diarrhea appear
making it difficult to swallow about 1 week after exposure. food because the muscle at the Infections occur all year round end of the esophagus does not and most often in children less relax enough for the passage than 2 years old. aerophagia (AIR-oh-FAY-jee-uh):
a condition that occurs when a person swallows too much air, causing gas and frequent belching.
alactasia (ay-lak-TAY-zee-uh): an
inherited condition causing a lack of the enzyme needed to
digest milk sugar. Contracted muscle Achalasia.

Alagille syndrome (ah-lah-ZHEEL)
amino acids (uh-MEE-noh)
(SIN-drohm): a genetic (ASS-idz): the basic building condition causing multiple blocks of proteins. The body
abnormalities in the body, produces many amino acids and including in the liver. A lower
others come from food, which than normal number of bile ducts
the body breaks down for use by inside the liver reduces bile the cells. See protein.
ampulla of Vater (am-PUL-luh)
alimentary canal (al-ih-MEN­
(uhv) (VAH-tur): the opening tur-ee) (kuh-NAL): see of the common bile duct and
gastrointestinal tract.
pancreatic duct into the alkaline reflux esophagitis (AL­
duodenum. Also called papilla of
kuh-lyn) (REE-fluhks) (uh-sof­ uh-JY-tiss): the development anal fissure (AY-nuhl) (FISH-ur):
of esophagitis due to prolonged
a small tear in the anus that may
contact of the esophagus with
cause itching, pain, or bleeding. nonacidic gastric contents.
allergy (AL-ur-jee): a condition in
which the body's immune system has an over-reaction to certain foods, animals, plants, or other amebiasis (uh-mee-BY-uh-siss):
an acute or chronic infection
caused by amoebas, a type of Anal fissure.
parasite. Symptoms vary from mild diarrhea to frequent, watery
anal fistula (AY-nuhl) (FISS-tyoo­
diarrhea and loss of water luh): a passage that develops and fluids in the body. See between the anus and the skin.
Most fistulas are the result of an
abscess or infection that spreads to the skin. Fistulas are typical of Crohn's disease.
anorectal function tests (AY-noh­
siss): a surgical connection of REK-tuhl) (FUHNK-shuhn) two body parts. An example is (tests): tests used to diagnose an operation in which part of abnormal functioning of the anus
the colon is removed and the two
or rectum and to evaluate anal
remaining ends are joined. sphincter muscle function.
anemia (uh-NEE-mee-uh): a
anoscopy (an-OSS-kuh-pee): a
condition caused when the test to look for anal fissures,
body does not have enough fistulas, hemorrhoids, or cancer.
red blood cells or hemoglobin. A special instrument called an Hemoglobin is a protein in the
anoscope is used to look into the blood that carries oxygen. antacids (ant-ASS-idz): medicines
PLAY-zee-uh): abnormal or that neutralize acids in enlarged blood vessels in the the stomach. (Brand names:
gastrointestinal tract.
Maalox, Mylanta, Di-Gel.) angiography (AN-jee-OG-ruh-fee):
antibiotic (AN-tee-by-OT-ik): a
an x ray that uses dye to detect medicine that kills bacteria. blood vessels in organs. Examples are cephalexin and amoxicillin. (Brand names: anorectal (AY-noh-REK-tuhl):
Keflex, Novamox.) related to, or involving, both the rectum and anus.
ih-NUR-jiks): medicines anorectal abscess (AY-noh-REK­
that are often used to treat tuhl) (AB-sess): a collection of muscle spasms in the intestine.
pus in a cavity in the anorectal
Examples are dicyclomine and hyoscyamine. (Brand names: anorectal atresia (AY-noh-REK­
Bentyl, Levsin.) tuhl) (uh-TREE-zee-uh): the lack of a normal opening REE-uhlz): medicines that help between the rectum and anus.
control diarrhea. An example
is loperamide. (Brand name: antiemetics (AN-tee-uh-MET-iks):
aorto-enteric fistula (ay-OR-toh-en­
medicines used to treat nausea
TUR-ik) (FISS-tyoo-luh): a rare and vomiting. Examples are
condition in which a prosthetic promethazine, prochlorperazine, aortic graft causes an opening and ondansetron. (Brand into the duodenum.
names: Compazine, Phenergan, mee): an operation to remove the appendix.
MOD-iks): medicines that help reduce muscle spasms in
appendicitis (uh-PEN-dih-SY-tiss):
the intestines. Examples are
inflammation of the appendix.
dicyclomine and atropine. appendix (uh-PEN-diks): a 4-inch
(Brand names: Bentyl, pouch attached to the cecum, the
first part of the large intestine.
antrectomy (an-TREK-toh-mee):
The appendix's function, if any, an operation to remove the lower portion of the stomach,
ascending colon (uh-SEN-ding)
called the antrum. This
(KOH-lon): the beginning part operation helps reduce the of the colon, usually on the right
amount of stomach acid. It is side of the abdomen.
rarely used when a person has complications from ulcers.
ascites (uh-SY-teez): a buildup
of fluid in the abdomen usually
antrum (AN-truhm): the lower
caused by severe liver disease
part of the stomach, which is
such as cirrhosis.
lined with mucus and produces
astrovirus (ASS-troh-VY-ruhss):
a virus that causes vomiting
anus (AY-nuhss): the opening
and diarrhea within 1 to 3 days
at the end of the digestive tract
of exposure and is most active where bowel contents leave the
during the winter months. It infects primarily infants, young children, and older adults. barium (BA-ree-uhm): a chalky
MAT-ik): the condition of liquid used to coat the inside of having a disease but none of its organs so they will show up on atonic colon (uh-TON-ik) (KOH­
barium enema x ray (BA-ree-uhm)
lon): a lack of normal muscle (EN-uh-muh) (eks) (ray): x ray tone or strength in the colon.
of the rectum, colon, and lower
It may result in chronic part of the small intestine. A
constipation. Also called lazy
barium enema is given first.
Barium coats the insides of
organs so they will show up on atresia (uh-TREE-zee-uh): the
the x ray. Also called lower GI
lack of a normal opening in the esophagus, intestines, bile ducts,
or anus.
barium meal (BA-ree-uhm) (meel):
x rays of the esophagus, stomach,
atrophic gastritis (uh-TROF-ik)
and duodenum. The patient
(gass-TRY-tiss): chronic
swallows barium before x rays
irritation of the stomach lining
are taken. Barium makes the that causes loss of the stomach organs show up on x rays. Also lining and glands. called upper GI series.
autoimmune hepatitis (AW-toh-ih-
Barrett's esophagus (BA-ruhts)
MYOON) (HEP-uh-TY-tiss): a (uh-SOF-uh-guhss): a condition liver disease in which the body's
in which the tissue lining the immune system damages liver esophagus is replaced by tissue
cells for unknown reasons. that is similar to the lining of the intestine. It is commonly found
in people with gastroesophageal
reflux disease (GERD).

belching (BELCH-ing): see eructation.
biliary dyskinesia (BIL-ee-air­
ee) (DISS-kih-NEE-zee-uh): Bernstein test (BURN-steen)
refers to a group of functional
(test): a test used to find out if disorders of the biliary system and
heartburn is caused by acid in the esophagus. The test involves
dripping a mild acid, similar to biliary stricture (BIL-ee-air-ee)
stomach acid, through a tube
(STRIK-choor): a narrowing of placed in the esophagus. the biliary tract from scar tissue
that results from injury, disease, bezoar (BEE-zor): a ball of food,
pancreatitis, infection, gallstones,
mucus, vegetable fiber, hair, or or cancer. See stricture.
other material that cannot be digested in the stomach. Bezoars
biliary system (BIL-ee-air-ee)
can cause blockage, ulcers, and
(SISS-tuhm): see biliary tract.
biliary tract (BIL-ee-air-ee) (trakt):
bile (byl): fluid made by the liver
made up of the gallbladder and
and stored in the gallbladder that
the bile ducts. Also called biliary
helps break down fats and get rid
system or biliary tree.
of wastes in the body. bile acids (byl) (ASS-idz): acids
made by the liver that work with
bile to break down fats.
bile ducts (byl) (duhkts): tubes that
carry bile from the liver to the
gallbladder for storage and to the
small intestine for use in digestion.
biliary atresia (BIL-ee-air-ee)
(uh-TREE-zee-uh): a condition Common bile duct present from birth in which the bile ducts inside or outside
the liver do not have normal
Biliary tract.
openings. Bile becomes trapped
in the liver, causing jaundice and
cirrhosis. Without surgery the
condition may cause death. biliary tree (BIL-ee-air-ee) (tree):
blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome
see biliary tract.
(bloo) (RUHB-ur) (bleb) (NEE­ vuhss) (SIN-drohm): a rare bilirubin (BIL-ih-ROO-bin): a
condition with painful lesions reddish-yellow substance formed found in the small intestine,
when hemoglobin breaks down. colon, and sometimes stomach
Bilirubin is found in bile and
and parts of the nervous system blood and is normally passed that may cause gastrointestinal
in stool. Too much bilirubin
accumulating in the blood is the cause of jaundice.
borborygmi (bor-boh-RIG-mee):
rumbling sounds caused by gas
biofeedback (BY-oh-FEED-bak): a
moving through the intestines.
machine that measures physical Also known as stomach
responses. It is used to treat both physical and psychological problems, including motility
bowel (boul): another word for the
small and large intestines.
biopsy (BY-op-see): a procedure
bowel movement (boul) (MOOV­
in which a tiny piece of a body ment): body wastes passed part, such as the colon or liver,
through the rectum and anus.
is removed for examination with bowel obstruction (boul)
(ob-STRUHK-shuhn): partial bismuth subsalicylate (BIZ-muhth)
or complete blockage of the (SUHB-suh-LISS-ih-layt): a small or large intestine.
nonprescription medicine used to treat diarrhea, heartburn,
bowel prep (boul) (prep): the
indigestion, and nausea. It can
process used to clean the be part of the treatment for colon with enemas or a special
ulcers caused by the bacterium
drink that causes frequent Helicobacter pylori. (Brand
bowel movements. It is used
name: Pepto-Bismol.) before surgery of the colon, a
colonoscopy, or a barium enema
bloating (BLOHT-ing): a fullness
x ray. See lavage.
or swelling in the abdomen that
often occurs after meals. Brooke ileostomy (bruk) (IL-ee­
calcivirus (KAL-see-VY-riss): a
OSS-tuh-mee): a procedure family of viruses divided into the in which one end of the small
noroviruses and the sapoviruses. intestine is brought through an
They can infect people of all opening in the abdominal wall ages and are transmitted from and sewn to the skin to create a person to person and through stoma. It is performed when the
contaminated water or food— entire colon must be removed or
especially oysters from contaminated waters. Budd-Chiari syndrome (buhd-kee­
calculi (KAL-kyoo-ly): stones or
AH-ree) (SIN-drohm): a rare solid lumps such as gallstones.
liver disease in which the veins
that drain blood from the liver are blocked or narrowed. BAK-tur) (py-LOR-eye): the original name for the bacterium bulking agents (BUHLK-ing) (AY­
that causes ulcers. The new
jents): laxatives that make bowel
name is Helicobacter pylori.
movements soft and easy to pass.
burping: see eructation.
siss): an infection caused by the Candida fungus, which lives naturally in the gastrointestinal
drayts): one of the three main classes of food and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are the sugars and starches found in breads, cereals, fruits, and vegetables. During digestion,
carbohydrates are changed into simple sugars glucose, galactose,
and fructose, which are stored in the liver until cells need them for
Caroli's disease (kah-ROH-leez)
celiac sprue (SEE-lee-ak) (sproo):
(dih-ZEEZ): a rare, inherited see celiac disease.
condition in which the bile ducts
in the liver are enlarged and
chloride channel activators
may cause irritation, infection, (KLOR-eyed) (CHAN-uhl) gallstones, or cancer.
(AK-tih-vay-torz): medication used to increase intestinal fluid cathartics (kuh-THAR-tiks): see
and motility to help stool pass,
thereby reducing the symptoms of constipation. An example is
catheter (KATH-uh-tur): a thin,
lubiprostone. (Brand name: flexible tube that carries fluids Amitiza.) See laxatives.
into or out of the body. C. difficile (see) (duh-FISS-uh-lee):
OG-ruh-fee): a series of x rays see Clostridium difficile.
of the bile ducts.
cecostomy (see-KOSS-toh-mee): a
cholangitis (KOH-lan-JY-tiss):
tube that goes through the skin irritated or infected bile ducts.
into the beginning of the large
intestine to remove gas or feces.
This procedure is a short-term TEK-toh-mee): an operation to way to protect part of the colon
remove the gallbladder.
while it heals after surgery. cecum (SEE-kuhm): the beginning
tiss): an irritated gallbladder.
of the large intestine. The cecum
is connected to the lower part cholecystogram, oral (KOH-lee­
of the small intestine, called the
SISS-toh-gram), (OR-uhl): an x ray of the gallbladder and
bile ducts. The patient takes
celiac disease (SEE-lee-ak) (dih-
pills containing a special dye ZEEZ): an immune reaction that makes the organs show to gluten, a protein found in
up on x ray. Also called wheat, rye, and barley. The cholecystography, oral.
disease causes damage to the lining of the small intestine and
cholecystography, oral (KOH-lee­
prevents absorption of nutrients. siss-TOG-ruh-fee), (OR-uhl): Also called celiac sprue, gluten
see cholecystogram, oral.
intolerance, and nontropical sprue.
chronic idiopathic constipation
KY-nin): a hormone released (KRON-ik) (ID-ee-oh- in the small intestine that causes
PATH-ik) (KON-stih-PAY­ muscles in the gallbladder and
shuhn): constipation caused
the colon to tighten and relax.
by a disturbance of colonic or anorectal motor function of
koh-lith-EYE-uh-siss): the presence of gallstones in the
chyme (kym): a thick liquid made
bile ducts.
of partially digested food and stomach juices. This liquid is
made in the stomach and moves THY-uh-siss): the presence of into the small intestine for further
gallstones in the gallbladder.
cholestasis (koh-LESS-tuh-siss):
cirrhosis (sur-ROH-siss): a chronic
reduced bile flow, which may be
liver condition caused by scar
caused by drugs or liver diseases.
tissue and cell damage, which cholesterol (koh-LESS-tur-ol): a
makes it hard for the liver to fatlike substance in the body. remove poisons or toxins such as The body makes and needs some alcohol and drugs from the blood. cholesterol, which also comes These toxins build up in the blood from foods such as butter and and may impact brain function. egg yolks. Too much cholesterol may cause gallstones or a buildup
of fat in the arteries that causes
a disease called atherosclerosis that slows or stops blood flow. chronic (KRON-ik): refers to
disorders that last a long time, often years. Chronic is the opposite of acute, or brief.
chronic atrophic gastritis
(KRON-ik) (uh-TROF-ik) (gass-TRY-tiss): end stage of chronic inflammation of the
stomach, usually caused by
H. pylori, resulting in reduced
acid production.

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)
colon (KOH-lon): the part of the
large intestine extending from the
FISS-uh-lee): a bacterium cecum to, but not including, the
naturally present in the large
rectum. See large intestine.
intestine that can make a toxin
that causes diarrhea.
Descending colon Transverse colon colectomy (koh-LEK-toh-mee): an
operation to remove all or part of the colon.
colic (KOL-ik): attacks of
abdominal pain. Infant colic refers to extended crying of unknown cause in infants. colitis (koh-LY-tiss): irritation of
the colon.
collagenous colitis (ko-LAJ-uh­
nuhss) (koh-LY-tiss): a type of colonic conduit (ko-LON-ik)
colitis having an abnormal band
(KON-doo-it): a surgical of collagen, which is a threadlike procedure that uses a section of the large bowel, instead of the
small intestine, to form a channel
for urinary drainage. colonic inertia (ko-LON-ik) (in­
UR-shuh): a condition of the colon when the muscles do
not work properly, causing colonoscopic polypectomy (koh­
colorectal transit study (KOH­
loh-REK-tuhl) (TRAN-zit) PEK-tuh-mee): the removal (STUHD-ee): a test that reveals of tumorlike growths called how stool moves through the
polyps by using a device inserted
colon. The patient swallows
through a colonoscope. capsules that contain small markers and an x ray tracks the movement of the capsules pee): a test to look into the through the colon. rectum and colon that uses a long,
flexible, narrow tube with a light colostomy (koh-LOSS-toh-mee):
and tiny camera on the end. The an operation that attaches tube is called a colonoscope. the colon to an opening in the
abdomen called a stoma. An
colon polyps (KOH-lon) (POL-ips):
ostomy pouch, attached to the
small, fleshy, mushroom-shaped stoma and worn outside the growths in the colon.
body, collects stool. A temporary
colostomy may be created to prok-TEK-toh-mee): see allow the rectum to heal from
injury or surgery. colorectal cancer (KOH-loh-REK­
common bile duct (KOM-on) (byl)
tuhl) (KAN-sur): cancer that (duhkt): the tube that carries starts in the colon (also called
bile from the liver to the small
the large intestine) or the rectum
(the end of the large intestine). common bile duct obstruction
Several digestive diseases may (KOM-on) (byl) (duhkt) (ob­ increase a person's risk of STRUHK-shuhn): a blockage colorectal cancer, including of the common bile duct, often
caused by gallstones or cancer.
computerized tomography (CT)
scan (kom-PYOO-tur-eyezd)
STIHR-oydz): medicines such (toh-MOG-ruh-fee) (skan): an as cortisone and hydrocortisone. x ray that produces pictures These medicines reduce of the body. Also called a irritation from Crohn's disease
computed axial tomography and ulcerative colitis. They
(CAT) scan or computed may be taken either by mouth tomography (CT) scan. or as suppositories. (Brand names: Cortone Acetate, shuhn): a condition in which a person usually has fewer than Crohn's disease (krohnz) (dih-
three bowel movements in a week.
ZEEZ): a form of inflammatory
The bowel movements may bowel disease that causes
irritation in the gastrointestinal
(GI) tract. It usually affects
continence (KON-tih-nenss): the
the lower small intestine (also
ability to control the timing of called the ileum) or the colon,
urination or a bowel movement.
but it can also affect any part continent ileostomy (KON-tih­
of the GI tract. Also called nent) (IL-ee-OSS-tuh-mee): an regional enteritis and ileitis. See
operation to create an internal inflammatory bowel disease and
pouch from part of the small
intestine. Stool that collects
in the pouch is removed by RID-ee-uh): a parasite that can inserting a small tube through an cause gastrointestinal infection
opening made in the abdomen.
and diarrhea. See gastroenteritis.
See ileostomy.
CT scan: see computerized
defecation (DEF-uh-KAY-shuhn):
tomography scan.
the passage of bowel contents
through the rectum and anus.
CVS (SEE-VEE-ESS): see cyclic
vomiting syndrome.
fee): an x-ray test of the anus
cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS)
and rectum that shows how the
(SIK-lik) (VOM-it-ing) (SIN­ muscles work to move stool. The
drohm): sudden, repeated patient sits on a toilet placed attacks of severe vomiting,
next to the x-ray machine. nausea, and physical exhaustion
with no apparent cause that occur in children and adults, but shuhn): loss of fluids from the more often in children. Attacks body, sometimes caused by can last from a few hours to diarrhea. It may result in the loss
10 days. The episodes begin and of important salts and minerals. end suddenly. Loss of fluids and changes in body chemicals delayed gastric emptying (duh-
can require immediate medical LAYD) (GASS-trik) (EMP-tee­ ing): see gastroparesis.
cystic duct (SISS-tik) (duhkt): the
dermatitis herpetiformis (DUR­
tube that carries bile from the
gallbladder into the common
FOR-miss): a skin disorder bile duct.
associated with celiac disease and
characterized by severe itching cystic duct obstruction (SISS-tik)
(duhkt) (ob-STRUHK-shuhn): a blockage of the cystic duct, often
descending colon (dee-SEND-ing)
caused by gallstones.
(KOH-lon): the part of the colon
where stool is stored. It is usually
located on the left side of the diaphragm (DY-uh-fram): the
muscle wall between the chest and the abdomen. It is the major
muscle used for breathing. diarrhea (DY-uh-REE-uh):
digestive system (dy-JESS-tiv)
frequent, loose, and watery (SISS-tuhm): the organs in bowel movements. Common
the body that break down and causes include gastrointestinal
absorb food. Organs that make infections, irritable bowel
up the digestive system are the syndrome, medicines, and
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small
intestine, large intestine, rectum,
and anus. Organs that help with
dietitian (dy-uh-TISH-uhn): a
digestion but are not part of the
nutrition expert who helps digestive tract are the tongue,
people plan what and how salivary glands, pancreas, liver,
much food to eat. and gallbladder.
Dieulafoy's lesion (dyoo-lah-
FWAHZ) (LEE-zhuhn): a small erosion in the stomach
that causes heavy gastrointestinal
diffuse esophageal spasm (dih-
FYOOZ) (uh-SOF-uh-JEE-uhl) (SPA-zum): uncoordinated contractions down the length of the esophagus that may cause
pain or trouble swallowing. digestants (dy-JESS-tuhnts):
(large intestine) medicines that aid or stimulate digestion. Examples are digestive
enzymes for people with lactase
deficiency or damage to the
Digestive system.
pancreas. (Brand names:
digestive tract (dy-JESS-tiv) (trakt):
Lactaid, Ultrase.) see gastrointestinal tract.
digestion (dy-JESS-chuhn): the
distention (diss-TEN-shuhn):
process the body uses to bloating or swelling of the
break down food into simple substances for energy, growth, and cell repair.

diverticula (DY-vur-TIK-yoo-luh):
the plural form of diverticulum.
luhm): a small pouch in the See diverticulum.
colon. These pouches are not
painful and harmful unless they become inflamed. tiss): a condition that occurs when small pouches in the dry mouth: see xerostomia.
colon called diverticula become
Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DOO­
bin-JON-suhn) (SIN-drohm): a rare, inherited form of chronic (large intestine) dumping syndrome (DUHMP-ing)
(SIN-drohm): see rapid gastric
duodenal ulcer (DOO-oh-DEE­
nuhl) (UHL-sur): an ulcer in
the lining of the first part of the small intestine, also called the
duodenitis (DOO-od-uh-NY-tiss):
an irritation of the first part of the small intestine, also called the
LOH-siss): a condition that duodenum (doo-OD-uh-nuhm):
occurs when small pouches in the first part of the small
the colon called diverticula push
outward through weak spots. dysentery (DISS-en-tair-ee): an
E. coli (ee) (KOH-ly): see
infectious disease of the colon.
Escherichia coli.
Symptoms include bloody, mucus-filled diarrhea; abdominal
pain; fever; and loss of fluids dyspepsia (diss-PEP-see-uh): upper
koh-AG-yoo-LAY-shuhn): a abdominal discomfort, often procedure that uses an electrical provoked by eating, that may current passed through an be accompanied by fullness, instrument to stop bleeding. bloating, nausea, or other
electrolytes (ee-LEK-troh-lyts):
gastrointestinal symptoms. Also
chemicals in the body fluids called indigestion.
that are parts of salts, including dysphagia (diss-FAY-jee-uh):
sodium, potassium, magnesium, problems with swallowing food or liquid, usually caused ELISA (uh-LEE-suh): see enzyme-
by blockage or injury to the linked immunosorbent assay.
encopresis (en-koh-PREE-siss):
accidental passage of a bowel
movement. A common disorder
endoscope (EN-doh-skohp): a
small, flexible tube with a light and a camera on the end that is used to look into the esophagus,
stomach, duodenum, colon, or
rectum. It can also be used
to take tissue from the body for testing or to take color photographs of the inside of the body. Colonoscopes and sigmoidoscopes are types of endoscopic papillotomy (en­
enteral nutrition (EN-tur-uhl)
(noo-TRISH-uhn): a way to uh-mee): see endoscopic
provide food through a tube placed in the nose, stomach, or
small intestine. A tube in the
endoscopic retrograde
nose is called a nasogastric or nasoenteral tube. A tube may (ERCP) (en-doh-SKOP-ik)
be placed into the stomach or small intestine through a hole called a gastrostomy, percutaneous
a test that uses an x ray to look endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), into the bile and pancreatic ducts.
jejunostomy, or percutaneous
The doctor inserts an endoscope
endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ). through the mouth into the Also called tube feeding.
duodenum and bile ducts. Dye is
sent through the tube into the enteritis (EN-tur-EYE-tiss): an
ducts, which makes the ducts irritation of the small intestine.
show up on an x ray. enterocele (EN-tur-o-SEEL): a
endoscopic sphincterotomy (en­
hernia in the intestines. See
uh-mee): an operation to cut the muscle between the common
enterokinase deficiency (EN-tur-oh­
bile duct and the pancreatic duct.
KY-nayss) (duh-FISH-en-see): The operation uses a catheter
a rare disorder of protein and wire to remove gallstones
or other blockages. Also called endoscopic papillotomy.
pee): an examination of the endoscopy (en-DOSS-kuh-pee): a
small intestine with an endoscope.
procedure that uses an endoscope
The endoscope is inserted to diagnose or treat a condition. through the mouth and stomach
into the small intestine. enema (EN-uh-muh): a liquid put
into the rectum to clear out the
bowel or administer drugs.
enterostomal therapy (ET) nurse
epithelial cells (EP-ih-THEE-lee­
(EN-tur-oh-STOH-muhl) uhl) (selz): one of many kinds of (THAIR-uh-pee) (nurss): a cells that form the epithelium and
nurse who cares for patients who absorb nutrients. have an ostomy.
uhm): the inner and outer tissue mee): an ostomy, or opening,
covering digestive tract organs.
into the intestines through the
see endoscopic retrograde
enzyme (EN-zym): proteins in
the body that control chemical reactions in the body, including eructation (ee-ruhk-TAY-shuhn):
energy production and a noisy release of gas from the
stomach through the mouth.
Also called belching or burping.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay (ELISA) (EN-zym-linkt)
erythema nodosum (AIR-ih­
THEE-muh) (NOH-doh-suhm): say): a type of blood test usually swelling or red sores on the used to measure antibodies. lower legs during flare-ups of Crohn's disease and ulcerative
eosinophilic esophagitis (EE-oh­
colitis. These sores show that the
disease is active and usually go JY-tiss): a disease in which the away when the disease is treated. lining of the esophagus becomes
infiltrated with a type of white Escherichia coli (E. coli) (esh­
blood cell called an eosinophil. uh-RIK-ee-uh) (KOH-ly): a family of bacteria found in the eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EE­
gastrointestinal tract. Some forms
may cause diarrhea.
en-tur-EYE-tiss): an irritation of the stomach, small intestine, or
large intestine caused by a type
of white blood cell called an esophageal atresia (uh-SOF-uh­
esophageal pH monitoring (uh­
JEE-uhl) (uh-TREE-zee-uh): SOF-uh-JEE-uhl) (PEE-AYCH) a birth defect in which the (MON-ih-tur-ing): a test to esophagus lacks the opening
measure the amount of acid in to allow food to pass into the the esophagus.
esophageal reflux (uh-SOF-uh­
JEE-uhl) (REE-fluhks): see gastroesophageal reflux disease.
esophageal spasms (uh-SOF-uh­
JEE-uhl) (SPA-zumz): muscle contractions in the esophagus
that cause pain in the chest or trouble swallowing. esophageal stricture (uh-SOF-uh­
Normal esophageal development.
JEE-uhl) (STRIK-choor): a narrowing of the esophagus often
caused by acid flowing back from the stomach or cancer. This
condition may require surgery. esophageal ulcer (uh-SOF-uh-JEE­
uhl) (UHL-sur): a sore in the esophagus caused by long-term
inflammation, infection, pills, or One form of esophageal atresia.
esophageal varices (uh-SOF-uh­
JEE-uhl) (VAIR-ih-seez): large esophageal manometry (uh-SOF­
veins in the esophagus that occur
when the liver is not working
tree): a test to measure muscle properly. If the veins burst, the contraction in the esophagus.
bleeding can cause death. esophageal perforation (uh-SOF­
shuhn): a hole in the esophagus,
which may be caused by a disease or medical procedure. esophagitis (uh-SOF-uh-JY-tiss):
failure to thrive (FAYL-yoor) (too)
an irritation of the esophagus,
(thryv): a condition that occurs usually caused by acid that flows when a child grows at a slower­ up from the stomach.
than-normal rate. familial adenomatous polyposis
(FAP) (fa-MIL-ee-uhl) (AD-uh­
pee): an exam of the upper POH-siss): an inherited disease digestive tract using an endoscope.
characterized by the presence of See endoscopy.
100 or more polyps in the colon.
The polyps lead to colorectal
esophagus (uh-SOF-uh-guhss): the
cancer if not treated.
organ that connects the mouth to the stomach. Also called the
FAP (EF-AY-PEE): see familial
adenomatous polyposis.
fat: 1. one of the three main
EL): see extracorporeal shock
nutrients in food. Foods that provide fat are butter, margarine, wave lithotripsy.
salad dressing, oil, nuts, meat, ET nurse (EE-TEE) (nurss): see
poultry, fish, and some dairy enterostomal therapy nurse.
products. 2. a greasy liquid or solid material found in the human excrete (eks-KREET): when the
body, animals, and some plants. body gets rid of waste. In the body, excess calories are stored as fat, providing a reserve extracorporeal shock wave
supply of energy. lithotripsy (ESWL) (EKS­
truh-kor-POH-ree-uhl) (shok) fatty liver (FAT-ee) (LIV-ur): see
(wayv) (LITH-oh-TRIP-see): a method of breaking up bile
fecal fat test (FEE-kuhl) (fat)
stones, gallstones, and pancreatic
(test): a test to measure the and renal stones that uses a body's ability to break down and specialized tool and shock waves. absorb fat by examining stool
extrahepatic biliary tree (EKS-truh­
heh-PAT-ik) (BIL-ee-air-ee) fecal incontinence (FEE-kuhl) (in­
(tree): the bile ducts located
KON-tih-nenss): being unable outside the liver.
to hold stool in the colon and
fecal occult blood test (FOBT)
(FEE-kuhl) (uh-KUHLT) fulminant hepatic failure.
(bluhd) (test): a test to see whether there is blood in the fiber (FY-bur): a substance in
stool that is not visible to the
foods that comes from plants. naked eye. A sample of stool is Fiber helps keep stool soft
placed on a chemical strip that so that it moves smoothly changes color if blood is present. through the colon. Soluble fiber
Hidden blood in the stool may dissolves in water and is found be a sign of colorectal cancer.
in beans, fruit, and oat products. Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and is found in whole- grain products and vegetables. fistula (FISS-tyoo-luh): an
abnormal passage between two organs, or between an organ and the outside of the body, caused when damaged tissues come into contact and join together while flatulence (FLAT-yoo-lenss):
excessive gas in the stomach or
intestine that can cause bloating
Fecal occult blood test.
and flatus.
feces (FEE-seez): the solid waste
flatus (FLAY-tuhss): gas passed
that passes through the rectum
through the rectum.
as a bowel movement. Feces
are undigested food, bacteria, FOBT (EF-OH-BEE-TEE): see
mucus, and dead cells. Also fecal occult blood test.
called stool.
foodborne illness (FOOD­
born) (IL-ness): an acute
shuhn): the process of bacteria gastrointestinal infection caused
breaking down undigested food by food that contains harmful and releasing alcohols, acids, bacteria or toxins. Symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal
pain, fever, and chills.

fulminant hepatic failure (FHF)
galactose (guh-LAK-tohss): a
(FUL-mih-nuhnt) (heh-PAT-ik) type of sugar in milk products (FAYL-yoor): liver failure that
and sugar beets. The body also occurs suddenly in a previously makes galactose. healthy person. The most common causes of FHF are acute hepatitis, acetaminophen
mee-uh): a buildup of galactose
overdose, and liver damage in the blood caused by the lack from prescription drugs. of one of the enzymes needed to
break down galactose. functional disorders (FUHNK­
shuhn-uhl) (diss-OR-durz): gallbladder (GAWL-blad-ur): the
disorders such as irritable bowel
organ that stores the bile made
syndrome that are of unknown
in the liver and that is connected
cause. Symptoms such as gas,
to the liver by bile ducts. The
pain, constipation, and diarrhea
gallbladder can store about come back repeatedly but 2 tablespoons of bile. Eating without signs of disease or signals the gallbladder to empty damage. Emotional stress can the bile through the bile ducts to trigger symptoms. Also called help the body digest fats.
motility disorders.
gallstones (GAWL-stohnz): the
fungus (FUHNG-guhss): a mold or
solid masses or stones made of yeast such as Candida that may cholesterol or bilirubin that form
cause infection. in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
Gallbladder with stones Common bile duct Greater duodenal papilla (ampulla of Vater) Gallstones.
Gardner's syndrome (GARD-nurz)
gastric juices (GASS-trik) (JOO­
SIN-drohm): a condition sez): liquids produced in the in which many polyps form
stomach to help break down food
throughout the digestive tract.
and kill bacteria. Because these polyps are likely to become cancerous, the colon
gastric resection (GASS-trik) (ree­
and rectum are often removed to
SEK-shuhn): an operation to prevent colorectal cancer.
remove part or all of the stomach.
gastric ulcer (GASS-trik) (UHL­
gas: air that results from the normal
breakdown of food. The gases sur): an open sore in the lining are passed out of the body of the stomach. Also called
through the rectum (flatus) or the
stomach ulcer.
mouth (burping).
gastrin (GASS-trin): a hormone
gastrectomy (gass-TREK-tuh-mee):
released after eating that causes an operation to remove all or part the stomach to produce more acid.
of the stomach.
gastritis (gass-TRY-tiss):
gastric (GASS-trik): related to the
inflammation of the stomach lining.
gastrocolic reflex (GASS-troh-KOL­
gastric hypersecretion (GASS-trik)
ik) (REE-fleks): an increase of muscle movement in the the oversecretion of gastric acid
gastrointestinal tract when food
and the hallmark symptom of enters an empty stomach. It may
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
cause the urge to have a bowel
movement right after eating.
Some Causes of Gastroenteritis
EYE-tiss): an infection or irritation – Escherichia coli of the stomach and intestines,
– Salmonella which may be caused by viruses – Shigella or by bacteria or parasites from spoiled food or unclean water. – Norwalk virus Other causes include eating food Rotavirus that irritates the stomach lining and emotional upsets such as anger, fear, or stress. Symptoms – Cryptosporidia include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting,
– Entamoeba histolytica and abdominal cramping. See – Giardia lamblia infectious diarrhea and traveler's
gastrointestinal tract (GI tract)
tur-OL-uh-jist): a doctor who specializes in digestive diseases. (trakt): the large, muscular tube that extends from the mouth to the anus, where the movement of
EN-tur-OL-uh-jee): the field muscles, along with the release of medicine focusing on the of hormones and enzymes, allows
function and disorders of the for the digestion of food. Also
digestive system.
called the alimentary canal or
gastroesophageal reflux disease
digestive tract.
uh-JEE-uhl) (REE-fluhks) REE-siss): nerve or muscle (dih-ZEEZ): a condition in damage in the stomach that
which stomach contents flow
causes slow emptying, vomiting,
back up into the esophagus.
nausea, or bloating. Also called
GERD happens when the delayed gastric emptying.
muscle between the esophagus and the stomach (the lower
esophageal sphincter) is weak or
mee): an artificial opening from relaxes when it should not. It the stomach to a hole (stoma)
may cause esophagitis. Also
in the abdomen where a feeding
called esophageal reflux or reflux
tube is inserted. See enteral
gastrointestinal (GI) (GASS-troh­
GERD (gurd): see gastroesophageal
in-TESS-tin-uhl): related reflux disease.
to the gastrointestinal tract.
GI (JEE-EYE): see gastrointestinal.
gastrointestinal duplications
giardiasis (JEE-ar-DY-uh-siss): an
(DOO-plih-KAY-shuhnz): rare, infection of the parasite Giardia smooth cystic structures attached lamblia caused by spoiled food to the border of the intestines,
or unclean water. It can cause which are most commonly seen diarrhea. See gastroenteritis.
in the ileum.
Gilbert syndrome (zheel-BAIR)
glycogen (GLY-koh-jen): the stored
(SIN-drohm): a buildup of form of sugar in the liver and
bilirubin in the blood caused by
muscles that releases glucose into
the lack of a liver enzyme needed
the blood when cells need it for to break it down. See bilirubin.
energy. Glycogen is the chief source of stored fuel in the body. GI tract (JEE-EYE) (trakt): see
gastrointestinal tract.
glycogen storage diseases (GLY­
koh-jen) (STOR-uhj) (dih- globus sensation (GLOH-buhss)
ZEEZ-iz): a group of birth (sen-SAY-shuhn): a constant defects that changes the way the feeling of a lump in the throat liver breaks down glycogen.
that is usually related to stress. glucose (GLOO-kohss): a simple
muh): a type of immune sugar the body manufactures reaction seen in some diseases. from carbohydrates in the
diet. Glucose is the body's granulomatous colitis (GRAN-yoo­
main source of energy. See LOM-uh-tuhss) (koh-LY-tiss): another name for Crohn's disease
of the colon.
gluten (GLOO-tuhn): a protein
found in wheat, rye, and barley. granulomatous enteritis (GRAN­
In people with celiac disease,
gluten damages the lining of the EYE-tiss): another name for small intestine or causes sores on
Crohn's disease of the small
the skin. See celiac disease.
gluten intolerance (GLOO-tuhn)
gullet (GUHL-uht): see esophagus.
(in-TOL-ur-uhnss): see celiac
gut: see intestines.
gluten sensitive enteropathy
(GLOO-tuhn) (SEN-sih-tiv) (EN-tur-OP-uh-thee): a general term that refers to celiac disease
and dermatitis herpetiformis.
H2 blockers (AYCH-TOO) (BLOK­
Tips to Control Heartburn
urz): medicines that reduce the amount of acid the stomach
• Avoid foods and beverages that produces. Histamine worsen symptoms or irritate signals the stomach to make the esophagus lining, such as acid. Examples of H2 blockers fried, spicy, and acidic foods. include cimetidine, famotidine, • Lose weight if overweight. nizatidine, and ranitidine. (Brand names: Tagamet, • Stop smoking. Pepcid, Axid, Zantac.) They are • Elevate the head of the bed used to treat ulcer symptoms.
Nonprescription H2 blockers are • Avoid lying down 2 to 3 hours Zantac 75, Axid AR, Pepcid-AC, • Take an antacid. HBIg (AYCH-BEE-EYE-JEE): see
hepatitis B immunoglobulin.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
heartburn (HART-burn): a
painful, burning feeling in the LOR-eye): a spiral-shaped chest caused by stomach acid
bacterium found in the stomach.
flowing back into the esophagus.
H. pylori damages the stomach
Changing the diet and other and tissue in the first part of the lifestyle habits can help prevent small intestine, causing ulcers.
heartburn. Heartburn may Previously called Campylobacter
be a symptom of GERD. See
gastroesophageal reflux disease.
KROH-muh-TOH-siss): a disease that occurs when the body absorbs too much iron or receives many blood transfusions. The body stores the excess iron in the liver,
pancreas, and other organs and
can cause cirrhosis. Also called
iron overload disease.
hepatitis (HEP-uh-TY-tiss): an
DEK-tuh-mee): an operation to irritation of the liver that
remove hemorrhoids.
sometimes causes permanent damage. Hepatitis may be hemorrhoids (HEM-uh-roydz):
swollen blood vessels in and caused by viruses, medicines, around the anus and lower
rectum. Continual straining to
hepatitis A (HEP-uh-TY-tiss)
have a bowel movement causes
(ay): a virus most often spread them to stretch and swell. through unclean food and water. They cause itching, pain, and sometimes bleeding. hepatitis B (HEP-uh-TY-tiss)
(bee): a virus commonly spread through sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, sharing needles with infected people, or from mother to newborn at birth. Hepatitis B is more common and much more easily spread than the AIDS virus and may lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.
hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg)
(HEP-uh-TY-tiss) (bee) (IM­ yoo-noh-GLOB-yoo-lin): a vaccination that gives short-term hepatic (heh-PAT-ik): related to
protection against hepatitis B.
the liver.
hepatic coma (heh-PAT-ik)
hepatitis B vaccine (HEP-uh-TY­
(KOH-muh): see hepatic
tiss) (bee) (vak-SEEN): a vaccination to prevent hepatitis B.
The vaccine leads the body to hepatic encephalopathy (heh-PAT­
make its own protection ik) (en-SEF-uh-LAW-puh-thee): (antibodies) against the virus. a condition that may cause loss of consciousness and coma. It is usually the result of advanced liver disease. Also called hepatic
hepatitis C (HEP-uh-TY-tiss)
(see): a virus spread by blood SISS-ih-tee): refers to damage transfusion (prior to July a medicine or other substance 1992) and possibly by sexual does to the liver.
intercourse or sharing needles with infected people. Hepatitis hernia (HUR-nee-uh): the part of
C can lead to cirrhosis and liver
an internal organ that pushes cancer. Hepatitis C used to be through an opening in the called non-A, non-B hepatitis. organ's wall. Most hernias occur in the abdominal area. For an hepatitis D (HEP-uh-TY-tiss) (dee):
example, see inguinal hernia.
a virus that occurs mostly in people who share needles with infected people. Only people fee): an operation to repair who have hepatitis B can get
a hernia.
hiatal hernia (hy-AY-tuhl) (HUR-
hepatitis E (HEP-uh-TY-tiss) (ee):
nee-uh): an opening in the a virus spread mostly through diaphragm that allows the upper
unclean water. This type part of the stomach to move up
of hepatitis is common in
into the chest. It may cause developing countries. It has not heartburn from stomach acid
occurred in the United States. flowing back up through the opening. See diaphragm. Also
hepatologist (HEP-uh-TOL-uh-jist):
called hiatus hernia. a doctor who specializes in liver diseases.
hepatology (HEP-uh-TOL-uh-jee):
the field of medicine focusing on the functions and disorders of the liver.
hepatorenal syndrome (HEP-uh­
toh-REE-nuhl) (SIN-drohm): unexplained kidney failure seen in people with severe liver or
biliary tract disease.
Hiatal hernia.
Hirschsprung disease (HURSH­
hydrogen breath test (HY-droh­
spruhng) (dih-ZEEZ): a birth jen) (breth) (test): a test for defect in which some nerve cells lactose intolerance that measures
are lacking in the large intestine,
breath samples for hydrogen
causing the intestine not to move levels. The body makes too stool and become blocked. It
much hydrogen when lactose is
causes the abdomen to swell. See
not broken down properly in the small intestine.
hormone (HOR-mohn): a natural
chemical produced in one part men-TAY-shuhn): see parenteral
of the body and released into the blood to trigger or regulate particular functions of the body. The digestive system makes
ih-roo-bih-NEE-mee-uh): the a large number of different condition of having too much bilirubin in the blood, which
occurs when the liver does not
H. pylori (aych) (py-LOR-eye): see
work normally or blood breaks Helicobacter pylori.
down too quickly. Symptoms include jaundice.
hydrochloric acid (HY-droh-
KLOR-ik) (ASS-id): an acid made in the stomach that works
HY-dree-uh): having too much with pepsin and other enzymes to
hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
break down proteins.
hyperplastic polyps (HY-pur-
hydrogen (HY-droh-jen): an
PLASS-tik) (POL-ips): the most odorless, colorless, flammable common form of polyps, usually
gas that combines chemically to
found in the sigmoid colon and
rectum. These polyps are not
thought to progress to cancer. hypoproteinemic hypertrophic
EE-mik) (HY-pur-TROF-ik) (gass-TRY-tiss): see Ménétrier
inflammatory bowel disease.
IBS (EYE-BEE-ESS): see irritable
bowel syndrome.
ileal (IL-ee-uhl): related to the
ileum, the lowest end of the small
ileal pouch (IL-ee-uhl) (pouch):
see ileoanal reservoir.
ileitis (IL-ee-EYE-tiss): see
Crohn's disease.
Ileoanal pouch anastomosis.
ileoanal pouch anastomosis (IL­
ileoanal reservoir (IL-ee-oh­
ee-oh-AY-nuhl) (pouch) (uh­ AY-nuhl) (REZ-ur-vwar): a NASS-toh-MOH-siss): an colonlike pouch created from the
operation to remove the colon
last several inches of the ileum.
and inner lining of the rectum.
The pouch allows stool to exit
The outer muscle of the rectum through the anus after the
is not removed. The bottom end colon is removed. Also called
of the small intestine (ileum) is
a J-pouch or pelvic pouch.
pulled through the remaining rectum and joined to the anus,
ileocecal valve (IL-ee-oh-SEE­
allowing stool to pass normally.
kuhl) (valv): one or more flaps Also called ileoanal pull-through
of tissue between the lower part of the small intestine (ileum)
and the upper part of the large
ileoanal pull-through intestine (IL­
intestine (cecum).
ee-oh-AY-nuhl) (PUL-throo) (in-TESS-tin): see ileoanal pouch
ileocolitis (IL-ee-oh-koh-LY-tiss):
irritation of the lower part of the small intestine (ileum) and the
beginning part of the colon.
ileostomy (IL-ee-OSS-tuh-mee):
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
an operation that attaches the (in-FLAM-uh-toh-ree) (boul) small intestine to an opening
(dih-ZEEZ): long-lasting in the abdomen called a stoma.
disorders that cause irritation An ostomy pouch, attached to
and ulcers in the gastrointestinal
the stoma and worn outside the tract. The most common
body, collects stool.
disorders are ulcerative colitis
ileum (IL-ee-uhm): the lower end
and Crohn's disease.
of the small intestine.
inguinal hernia (ING-gwih-nuhl)
impaction (im-PAK-shuhn): when
(HUR-nee-uh): a condition in an object is trapped in a body which intra-abdominal fat or
passage. Examples are stones in part of the small intestine bulges
the bile duct, hardened stool
through a weak area in the lower in the colon, or food in the
abdominal muscles. imperforate anus (im-PUR-foh­
rayt) (AY-nuhss): a birth defect in which the anal canal fails to develop. The condition is treated with an operation. indigestion (IN-dih-JESS-chuhn):
see dyspepsia.
infectious diarrhea (in-FEK-shuhss)
(DY-uh-REE-uh): diarrhea
caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, or parasites. See traveler's diarrhea and
Inguinal hernia.
infectious gastroenteritis (in-FEK­
EYE-tiss): see gastroenteritis.
intestinal adhesions (in-TESS-tih­
nuhl) (ad-HEE-zhuhnz): bands SEP-shuhn): a disorder that of fibrous tissue that can connect causes part of the intestines to
the loops of the intestines to
fold into another part, causing each other, to other abdominal blockage. It is most common in organs, or to the abdominal wall. infants and can be treated with These bands can pull sections of the intestines out of place and may block the passage of food. iron overload disease (EYE-urn)
(OH-vur-lohd) (dih-ZEEZ): see intestinal flora (in-TESS-tih-nuhl)
(FLOH-ruh): the bacteria, yeasts, and fungi that normally irrigation (IHR-ih-GAY-shuhn):
grow in the intestines and colon.
cleansing of a cavity or tube with fluid. Example: when an enema
intestinal mucosa (in-TESS-tih­
is given through a colostomy nuhl) (myoo-KOH-suh): the stoma to cleanse the large bowel.
inner surface lining of the intestines where the cells absorb
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
(IHR-ih-tuh-buhl) (boul) (SIN­ drohm): a disorder of unknown intestinal pseudo-obstruction
cause that is associated with abdominal pain, bloating, and
doh-ob-STRUHK-shuhn): a altered bowel habits. Also called
disorder that causes symptoms of spastic colon or mucous colitis.
blockage, but no actual blockage, such as constipation, vomiting,
ischemic colitis (iss-KEE-mik)
and pain. See obstruction.
(koh-LY-tiss): irritation of the colon caused by decreased
intestines (in-TESS-tinz): also
blood flow. It may cause bloody called the gut. See large intestine
and small intestine.
intolerance (in-TOL-ur-uhnss): a
reaction to a food, drug, or other jaundice (JAWN-diss): a sign of
karaya (kuh-RY-uh): a plant-
many disorders. The skin and derived adhesive used in ostomy
eyes turn yellow from too much bilirubin in the blood. See
Kupffer's cells (KOOP-furz) (selz):
cells that line the liver. These
cells remove waste such as mee): an operation to create an bacteria from the blood. opening, called a stoma, between
the jejunum and the abdomen.
See enteral nutrition.
jejunum (juh-JOO-nuhm): the
middle section of the small
intestine between the duodenum
and ileum.
J-pouch: see ileoanal reservoir.
lactase (LAK-tayss): an enzyme
laparoscopic cholecystectomy
in the small intestine needed to
digest milk sugar (lactose).
lee-siss-TEK-toh-mee): an operation to remove the lactase deficiency (LAK-tayss)
gallbladder. The doctor inserts
(duh-FISH-en-see): a lack of the a laparoscope and other surgical
lactase enzyme, causing lactose
instruments through small holes made in the abdomen. The
lactose (LAK-tohss): the sugar
camera allows the doctor to see found in milk. The body breaks the gallbladder on a television lactose down into galactose and
screen. The doctor removes the gallbladder through the holes. lactose intolerance (LAK-tohss) (in­
TOL-ur-uhnss): being unable to digest lactose, the sugar in milk.
This condition occurs when the body cannot produce lactase.
lactose tolerance test (LAK-tohss)
(TOL-ur-uhnss) (test): a test for lactase deficiency. The patient
drinks a liquid that contains milk sugar. Then the patient's blood is tested to measure the amount Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
of milk sugar in the blood. laparoscope (LAP-uh-roh-skohp):
pee): a procedure that uses a a thin tube with a tiny video laparoscope to look at and take
camera attached that is used to tissue from the inside of the look inside the body to view the surface of organs. See endoscope.
mee): an operation that opens up the abdomen.
large intestine (larj) (in-TESS-tin):
liver (LIV-ur): the largest
the part of the intestine that
abdominal organ. The liver includes the appendix, cecum,
carries out many important colon, and rectum. The large
functions, such as making intestine absorbs water from important blood proteins and
stool and changes it from a liquid
bile, changing food into energy,
to a solid form. The large and cleaning alcohol and poisons intestine is 5 feet long. lavage (luh-VAHZH): a cleaning of
liver enzyme tests (LIV-ur) (EN­
the stomach and colon that uses
zym) (tests): blood tests that a special drink and enemas. See
may indicate abnormalities of bowel prep.
the liver or biliary system. Also
called liver function tests.
laxatives (LAK-suh-tivz):
medicines that relieve long-term liver function tests (LIV-ur)
constipation. Also called
(FUHNK-shuhn) (tests): see liver enzyme tests.
lazy colon (LAY-zee) (KOH-lon):
loop ileostomy (loop) (IL-ee-OSS­
see atonic colon.
tuh-mee): a temporary ileostomy
in which a loop of the small
levator syndrome (leh-VAY-tur)
intestine is pulled through the
(SIN-drohm): a feeling of abdominal wall to create a stoma.
fullness in the anus and rectum
with occasional pain caused by lower esophageal ring (LOH-wur)
muscle spasms.
(uh-SOF-uh-JEE-uhl) (ring): an abnormal ring of tissue that may partially block the lower esophagus. Also called Schatzki's
lower esophageal sphincter
lower GI series (LOH-wur) (JEE­
(LOH-wur) (uh-SOF-uh­ EYE) (SIHR-eez): see barium
JEE-uhl) (SFINGK-tur): the enema x ray.
muscle between the esophagus
and stomach. When a person
swallows, this muscle relaxes to TAY-zee-uh): an obstruction of let food pass from the esophagus lymph drainage from the small
to the stomach. It stays closed intestine causing malabsorption.
at other times to keep stomach lymphocytic colitis (LIM-foh­
contents from flowing back into SIT-ik) (koh-LY-tiss): an inflammatory bowel disease that
affects the large bowel. Also
called microscopic colitis because
there is no sign of inflammation on the surface of the colon
during a colonoscopy.
Lower esophageal sphincter.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
(mag-NET-ik) (REZ-oh-nuhnss) shuhn): when the bowel does
(IM-uhj-ing): a test that takes not rotate completely during pictures of the body's soft embryonic development. tissues. The pictures do not use manometry (muh-NOM-uh-tree):
tests that measure muscle pressure and movements in the gastrointestinal tract. See
esophageal manometry and rectal
Meckel's diverticulum (MEK-uhlz)
(DY-vur-TIK-yoo-luhm): a bulge in the small intestine that is
a remnant of the umbilical cord Magnetic resonance imaging.
that persists in about 2 percent of people. It can cause bleeding malabsorption syndromes (MAL­
or obstruction.
ab-SORP-shuhn) (SIN-drohmz): conditions that occur when the megacolon (MEG-uh-KOH-lon):
small intestine cannot absorb
a huge, swollen colon that
nutrients from foods. results from several different conditions. In children, Mallory-Weiss tear (MAL-uh-
megacolon is more common in ree-WYSS) (tair): a tear in boys than girls. See Hirschsprung
the lower end of the esophagus
caused by severe vomiting.
melena (meh-LEE-nuh): blood in
the stool.
uhn): a condition caused by not eating enough food or not eating Ménétrier disease (MAYN-ay-tree-
a balanced diet. AY) (dih-ZEEZ): a long-term disorder that causes large, coiled folds in the stomach. Also called
hypoproteinemic hypertrophic
metabolism (muh-TAB-oh-lizm):
mucosal protective drugs (myoo­
the way cells change food into KOH-suhl) (proh-TEK-tiv) energy after food is digested and (druhgz): medicines that protect absorbed into the blood. the stomach lining from acid.
Examples are sucralfate and microvillus inclusion disease
misoprostol. (Brand names: Carafate, Cytotec, Mylanta, zhuhn) (dih-ZEEZ): a disease characterized by severe diarrhea
beginning the first few days after mucous colitis (MYOO-kuhss)
birth. It is life threatening. (koh-LY-tiss): see irritable bowel
motility (moh-TIL-ih-tee): the
movement of food through the mucus (MYOO-kuhss): a clear
digestive tract.
liquid made by the intestines that
coats and protects tissues in the motility disorders (moh-TIL-ih-tee)
gastrointestinal tract.
(diss-OR-durz): see functional
MRI (EM-AR-EYE): see magnetic
resonance imaging.
mucosal lining (myoo-KOH­
suhl) (LYN-ing): the lining of gastrointestinal tract organs that
absorb nutrients and fluid, form a barrier, and produce mucus.
NASH (nuhsh): see nonalcoholic
Nissen fundoplication (NISS-uhn)
an operation to sew the top of nausea (NAW-zee-uh): the feeling
the stomach (fundus) around
of needing to throw up, or vomit. the esophagus. It is used to stop
See vomiting.
stomach contents from flowing necrosis (nuh-KROH-siss): death
back into the esophagus (reflux)
of cells or tissues. and to repair a hiatal hernia.
necrotizing enterocolitis (NEH­
LY-tiss): a condition in which part of the tissue in the intestines
is destroyed. It occurs mainly in underweight newborns. neonatal hepatitis (NEE-oh­
Nissen fundoplication.
NAY-tuhl) (HEP-uh-TY-tiss): irritation of the liver with no
nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
known cause. It occurs in (NASH) (NON-al-koh-HOL-ik)
newborns and its symptoms include jaundice and liver cell
a common, often "silent," liver
disease that resembles alcoholic liver disease but occurs in people neoplasm (NEE-oh-plazm):
who drink little or no alcohol. new and abnormal growth of The major characteristic of tissue that may or may not be NASH is fat in the liver, along
cancerous. Also called a tumor. with inflammation and damage. nontropical sprue (NON-TRAH­
pih-kuhl) (sproo): see celiac
nonulcer dyspepsia (NON-UHL­
obstruction (ob-STRUHK-shuhn):
sur) (diss-PEP-see-uh): constant a blockage in the gastrointestinal
pain or discomfort in the upper tract that prevents the flow of
gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
liquids or solids. Symptoms include burning, nausea, and bloating, but not
occult bleeding (uh-KUHLT)
ulcers. It is a functional disorder.
(BLEED-ing): blood in stool that is not visible to the
Norwalk virus (NOR-wok) (VY­
naked eye. It may be a sign of ruhss): a virus that may cause inflammation or a disease such gastrointestinal infection and
as colorectal cancer.
diarrhea. See gastroenteritis.
oral dissolution therapy (OR­
nutcracker esophagus (nuht-
uhl) (DIH-suh-LOO-shuhn) KRAK-ur) (uh-SOF-uh-guhss): (THAIR-uh-pee): an a condition in which the muscle infrequently used method of contraction in the esophagus is
dissolving cholesterol gallstones.
too strong, causing chest pain or The patient takes the oral difficulty swallowing. medications chenodiol and ursodiol. These medicines are most often used for people who cannot have an operation. (Brand names: Chenix, osmotics (oz-MOT-iks): drugs that
draw fluid into the colon and
soften stool, making it easier
to pass. This class of drugs is useful for people with idiopathic constipation and includes
lactulose and polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution. (Brand names: Cephulac, Miralax.) See laxatives.
ostomate (OSS-toh-mayt): a person
pancreas (PAN-kree-uhss): a gland
who has an ostomy. Also called
that makes the hormone insulin
an ostomist in some countries. and enzymes and fluids for
ostomy (OSS-tuh-mee): an
operation that makes it possible pancreatitis (PAN-kree-uh-TY-tiss):
for stool to leave the body
an irritation of the pancreas that
through an opening made in can cause it to stop working. It the abdomen. An ostomy is
is most often caused by gallstones
necessary when part or all of or alcohol abuse. the intestines are removed or
blocked. Colostomy and ileostomy
papilla of Vater (puh-PIL-uh) (uhv)
are types of ostomy. (VAH-tur): see ampulla of Vater.
papillary stenosis (PAP-ih-
LAIR-ee) (steh-NOH-siss): a condition in which the openings of the bile ducts and pancreatic
parenteral nutrition (puh-REN­
tur-uhl) (noo-TRISH-uhn): a way to provide an intravenous liquid food mixture through a special tube in the chest. Also called hyperalimentation or total
parenteral nutrition.
parietal cells (puh-RY-uh-tuhl)
(selz): cells in the stomach wall
that make hydrochloric acid.
pediatric gastroenterologist (PEE­
OL-uh-jist): a doctor who treats children who have digestive pelvic pouch: see ileoanal reservoir.
pepsin (PEP-sin): an enzyme made
percutaneous transhepatic
in the stomach that breaks down
kyoo-TAY-nee-uhss) peptic (PEP-tik): related to the
LAN-jee-OG-ruh-fee): an x ray stomach and the duodenum,
of the gallbladder and bile ducts.
where pepsin is present.
A dye is injected through the peptic ulcer (PEP-tik) (UHL-sur):
abdomen and liver to make the
a sore in the lining of the organs show up on the x ray. esophagus, stomach, or duodenum,
perforated ulcer (PUR-foh-RAYT­
usually caused by the bacterium ed) (UHL-sur): an ulcer that
Helicobacter pylori. An ulcer in
breaks through the wall of the stomach is a gastric ulcer;
the stomach or the duodenum,
an ulcer in the duodenum is a causing stomach contents to leak duodenal ulcer.
into the abdominal cavity. perforation (PUR-foh-RAY-shuhn):
a hole in the wall of an organ. perianal (PAIR-ee-AY-nuhl): the
area around the anus.
perineal (PAIR-ih-NEE-uhl):
related to the perineum.
perineum (PAIR-ih-NEE-uhm):
the area between the anus and
Peptic ulcers.
peristalsis (PAIR-ih-STAL-siss):
nee-uhss): the passage of an a wavelike movement of muscles instrument through the skin to in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
allow access to the organs. Peristalsis moves food and liquid through the GI tract. uhm): the lining of the abdominal cavity. peritonitis (PAIR-ih-toh-NY-tiss):
porphyria (por-FIHR-ee-uh): a
an infection of the peritoneum.
group of rare, usually inherited disorders that affect the skin pernicious anemia (pur-NISH-uhss)
or nervous system and may (uh-NEE-mee-uh): anemia
cause abdominal pain. When caused by a lack of vitamin B12. a person has porphyria, cells The body needs B12 to make red fail to change porphyrins (body blood cells and nerve cells. chemicals) into heme, the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PUTS­
substance that gives blood its red JAY-gurz) (SIN-drohm): an color. Porphyrins then build up inherited condition causing many in the body and cause illness. polyps to grow in the intestine.
portal hypertension (POR-tuhl)
It poses an increased risk of (HY-pur-TEN-shuhn): high blood pressure in the portal
pharynx (FAIR-ingks): the space
vein. This vein carries blood into
behind the mouth that serves the liver. Portal hypertension
as a passage for food from the is a common complication mouth to the esophagus and for
of cirrhosis and may cause
air from the nose and mouth to esophageal varices and ascites.
the larynx, or voice box. portal vein (POR-tuhl) (vayn):
polyp (POL-ip): a growth on the
the large vein that carries blood surface of an organ. People from the intestines and spleen to
who have polyps in the colon
the liver.
may have an increased risk of portosystemic shunt (POR-toh-siss­
colorectal cancer.
TEM-ik): an operation to create an opening between the portal
mee): the surgical removal of vein and other veins around
a polyp.
the liver to treat portal
polyposis (POL-ih-POH-siss): the
presence of many polyps.
postcholecystectomy syndrome
primary sclerosing cholangitis
(PRY-mair-ee) (skleh- mee) (SIN-drohm): symptoms ROHSS-ing) (KOH-lan-JY­ persisting after removal of the tiss): irritation, scarring, and gallbladder or new symptoms
narrowing of the bile ducts inside
caused by its removal. and outside the liver. Bile builds
up in the liver and may damage postgastrectomy syndrome
its cells. Many people with this condition also have ulcerative
(SIN-drohm): a condition that can occur after an operation to remove the stomach
proctalgia fugax (prok-TAL-jee-uh)
(gastrectomy). It causes food to
(FYOO-gaks): short episodes of empty too quickly. Also called intense pain in the rectum. It is
dumping syndrome or rapid
caused by muscle spasms around
gastric emptying.
the anus.
postvagotomy stasis (POST-vay­
proctectomy (prok-TEK-tuh-mee):
GOT-uh-mee) (STAY-siss): an operation to remove the delayed stomach emptying, which
can occur after surgery affecting the vagus nerve.
proctitis (prok-TY-tiss): irritation
of the rectum.
pouch: 1. a special bag worn over a
stoma to collect stool. Also called
an ostomy appliance. 2. an
LEK-tuh-mee): an operation internal, surgically constructed to remove the colon and rectum.
cavity. See ileoanal pouch
Also called coloproctectomy.
primary biliary cirrhosis (PRY­
LY-tiss): irritation of the colon
mair-ee) (BIL-ee-air-ee) (sur­ and rectum.
ROH-siss): a chronic liver
disease that slowly destroys the bile ducts in the liver, preventing
the release of bile. Long-term
irritation of the liver may cause scarring and cirrhosis in later
stages of the disease. proctologist (prok-TOL-uh-jist):
prolapse (PROH-laps): a condition
a doctor who specializes in that occurs when a body part disorders of the anus and rectum.
slips from its normal position. proctoscope (PROK-toh-skohp): a
protein (PROH-teen): one of the
short, rigid metal tube used to three main nutrients in food. look into the rectum and anus.
Foods that provide protein include meat, poultry, fish, proctoscopy (prok-TOSS-kuh-pee):
cheese, milk, dairy products, looking into the rectum and anus
eggs, and dried beans. Proteins with a proctoscope.
are also used in the body for cell structure, fighting infection, and moy-DY-tiss): irritation of the other functions. The stomach,
rectum and the sigmoid colon.
small intestine, and pancreas
break down proteins into amino
acids. After the body's cells
SIG-moy-DOSS-kuh-pee): an use protein, it is broken down endoscopic examination of the into waste products containing rectum and sigmoid colon. See
nitrogen that must be removed by the kidneys. The blood prokinetic drugs (PROH-kih­
absorbs amino acids and uses NET-ik) (druhgz): medicines them to build and mend cells. that cause muscles in the See amino acids.
gastrointestinal tract to move
proton pump inhibitors (PROH­
food. Examples are bethanechol ton) (puhmp) (in-HIB-ih-turz): and metoclopramide. (Brand medicines that stop the stomach's
names: Duvoid, Reglan.) acid pump. Examples include omeprazole, lansoprazole, and esomeprazole. (Brand names: Prilosec, Prevacid, Nexium.) pruritus ani (proo-RY-tuhss) (AY­
radiation colitis (RAY-dee-AY­
nee): itching around the anus.
shuhn) (koh-LY-tiss): damage to the colon from radiation therapy.
pseudomembranous colitis (SOO­
radiation enteritis (RAY-dee­
LY-tiss): severe irritation of AY-shuhn) (EN-tur-EYE-tiss): the colon caused by Clostridium
damage to the small intestine
difficile bacterium. It occurs
from radiation therapy. after taking oral antibiotics, which kill bacteria that normally radionuclide bleeding scans
live in the colon. (RAY-dee-oh-NOO-klyd) (BLEED-ing) (skanz): tests to pyloric sphincter (py-LOR-ik)
find gastrointestinal bleeding.
(SFINGK-tur): the muscle Radioactive material is injected between the stomach and the
in the body to highlight organs small intestine.
on a special camera. Also called pyloric stenosis (py-LOR-ik) (steh­
NOH-siss): a narrowing of the rapid gastric emptying (RA-pid)
opening between the stomach
(GASS-trik) (EMP-tee-ing): a and the small intestine.
condition that occurs when food moves too fast from the stomach
to the small intestine. Symptoms
tee): an operation to widen the include nausea, pain, weakness,
opening between the stomach
and sweating. This syndrome and the small intestine, which
most often affects people who allows stomach contents to pass have had stomach operations. more freely from the stomach. Also called dumping syndrome or
pylorus (py-LOH-ruhss): the
postgastrectomy syndrome.
opening from the stomach into
the top of the small intestine
rectal manometry (REK-tuhl)
reflux esophagitis (REE-fluhks)
(muh-NOM-uh-tree): a test (uh-sof-uh-JY-tiss): irritation that uses a thin tube and of the esophagus occurring
balloon to measure pressure when stomach contents flow
and movements of the rectal back into the esophagus. See and anal sphincter muscles. It gastroesophageal reflux disease.
is used most often to diagnose chronic constipation and fecal
regional enteritis (REE-juhn-uhl)
(EN-tur-EYE-tiss): see Crohn's
rectal prolapse (REK-tuhl) (proh-
LAPS): a condition in which the rectum slips so that it protrudes
shuhn): see reflux.
from the anus.
resection (ree-SEK-shuhn): the
rectum (REK-tuhm): the lower end
surgical removal of an organ. of the large intestine leading to
retching (RECH-ing): dry vomiting.
the anus.
revision (ree-VIH-zhuhn): an
reflux (REE-fluhks): a condition
operation to modify the effects that occurs when gastric juices
of a previous operation. or small amounts of food from the stomach flow back into the
esophagus and mouth. Also
called regurgitation.
rotavirus (ROH-tuh-VY-ruhss):
saliva (suh-LY-vuh): a mixture
the most common cause of of water, protein, and salts
infectious diarrhea in the
produced in the mouth that United States, especially in makes food easy to swallow and children less than 2 years old. begins the process of digestion.
Children between the ages of 6 to 32 weeks can be vaccinated Salmonella (SAL-moh-NEL-uh):
against the virus. (Brand name: a bacterium that may cause intestinal infection and diarrhea.
See gastroenteritis.
rupture (RUHP-chur): a break or
tear in any organ or soft tissue. sarcoidosis (SAR-koy-DOH-siss): a
condition that causes granulomas
in the liver, lungs, and spleen.
Schatzki's ring (SHAHT-skeez)
(ring): see lower esophageal ring.
scintigraphy (sin-TIG-ruh-fee): see
radionuclide bleeding scans.
THAIR-uh-pee): a method of stopping upper gastrointestinal
bleeding. A needle is inserted through an endoscope to send
hardening agents to the place that is bleeding. secretin (seh-KREE-tin): a
hormone made in the duodenum
that causes the stomach to make
pepsin, the liver to make bile, and
the pancreas to make digestive
short stature (short) (STACH­
shuhn): the process by which yoor): a person who is muscles in the intestines move
significantly below the average food and wastes through the height, possibly due to a disease or medical condition such as serotonin agonists (SAIR-oh­
TOH-nin) (AG-on-ists): these Shwachman's syndrome
drugs help the muscles in the (SHWAHK-muhnz) (SIN­ intestines work correctly when a
drohm): a digestive and slow-moving digestive system is
respiratory disorder in children caused by low levels of serotonin. that causes a lack of certain Serotonin is a neurotransmitter digestive enzymes and few
found mostly in the digestive
white blood cells. Symptoms tract. See laxatives.
may include diarrhea and short
shigellosis (SHIG-uh-LOH-siss):
an infection with the bacterium sigmoid colon (SIG-moyd) (KOH­
Shigella, which usually causes a lon): the lower part of the colon
high fever, acute diarrhea, and
that empties into the rectum.
dehydration. See gastroenteritis.
short bowel syndrome (short)
kuh-pee): looking into the (boul) (SIN-drohm): problems sigmoid colon and rectum with
related to absorbing nutrients a flexible or rigid tube called a after removal of part of the small
intestine. Symptoms include
diarrhea, weakness, and weight
sitz bath (sits) (bath): a special
loss. Also called short gut
plastic tub that allows a person to sit in a few inches of warm water to help relieve the short gut syndrome (short) (guht)
discomfort of hemorrhoids or
(SIN-drohm): see short bowel
anal fissures.
small bowel enema (smal) (boul)
spasms (SPA-zumz): muscle
(EN-uh-muh): x rays of the movements, such as those in the small intestine taken as barium
colon, that cause pain, cramps,
liquid passes through the organ. and diarrhea.
Also called small bowel follow-
through. See lower GI series.
spastic colon (SPASS-tik) (KOH­
lon): see irritable bowel
small bowel follow-through (smal)
(boul) (FAH-loh-THROO): see small bowel enema.
sphincter (SFINGK-tur): a ringlike
band of muscle that opens small intestine (smal) (in-TESS­
and closes an opening in the tin): the organ where most body. An example is the muscle digestion occurs. It measures
between the esophagus and the
about 20 feet and includes the stomach known as the lower
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
esophageal sphincter.
small intestine mucosal biopsy
sphincter of Oddi (SFINGK-tur)
(smal) (in-TESS-tin) (myoo­ (uhv) (OD-ee): the muscle KOH-suhl) (BY-op-see): the between the common bile duct
standard test for diagnosing and pancreatic ducts. celiac disease.
spleen: the organ that cleans blood
solitary rectal ulcer (SAH-luh-
and makes white blood cells. TAIR-ee) (REK-tuhl) (UHL­ White blood cells attack bacteria sur): a rare type of ulcer in the
and other foreign cells. rectum that can develop because
of straining to have a bowel
splenic flexure syndrome (SPLEN­
ik) (FLEK-shur) (SIN-drohm): a condition that occurs when air or gas collects in the upper parts
STAT-in): a hormone in the
of the colon and causes pain in
pancreas that helps the body
the upper left abdomen. The
know when to make the pain often moves to the left chest hormones insulin, glucagon, and may be confused with heart gastrin, secretin, and renin.

squamous epithelium (SKWAY­
stoma (STOH-muh): an opening in
muhss) (EP-ih-THEE-lee-uhm): the abdomen that is created by an
tissue in an organ such as the operation (ostomy). It is usually
mouth or esophagus that consists
covered by an external pouch
of layers of flat cells. that collects stool. A pouch
is not needed for a continent
uh): a condition in which the body cannot absorb fat. It causes
a buildup of fat in the stool and
loose, greasy, and foul-smelling bowel movements.
steatosis (STEE-uh-TOH-siss):
the buildup of fat in liver cells,
commonly caused by alcoholism. Other causes include obesity, diabetes, and pregnancy. Also called fatty liver.
stomach (STUHM-uhk): the organ
stenosis (steh-NOH-siss): the
between the esophagus and the
abnormal narrowing of a normal small intestine. The stomach is
opening in the esophagus,
where the digestion of protein
intestines, or anus.
stimulant laxatives (STIM-yoo­
stomach ulcer (STUHM-uhk)
luhnt) (LAK-suh-tivz): drugs (UHL-sur): see gastric ulcer.
that cause rhythmic muscle contractions in the intestines.
stool: see feces.
(Brand names: Senokot, Correctol, Dulcolax.) See stress ulcer (stress) (UHL-sur):
an upper gastrointestinal ulcer
resulting from physical injury such as surgery, major burns, or a critical head injury. stricture (STRIK-choor): the
TEF (TEE-EE-EF): see
abnormal narrowing of a body tracheoesophageal fistula.
opening. Also called stenosis.
See esophageal stricture and
tenesmus (teh-NEZ-muhss): a
pyloric stenosis.
feeling of a continuous need to have a bowel movement. It
may be painful and associated with cramps and involuntary straining. It is common in conditions affecting the rectum,
such as ulcerative colitis.
total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
uhl) (noo-TRISH-uhn): see parenteral nutrition.
TPN (TEE-PEE-EN): see total
parenteral nutrition.
tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)
JEE-uhl) (FISS-tyoo-luh): a condition that occurs when suh): a layer of connective tissue there is a connection between underneath the mucosa, a layer the esophagus and the trachea,
of smooth muscle. or windpipe, causing food and saliva to enter the lungs. It is
most often caused by cancer. transverse colon (tranz-VURSS)
(KOH-lon): the part of the colon
that goes across the abdomen
from right to left. traveler's diarrhea (TRAV-lurz)
ulcer (UHL-sur): a sore on the
(DY-uh-REE-uh): an infection skin's surface or on the stomach
caused by ingesting unclean food or intestinal lining. or drink. It often occurs during travel outside of one's own ulcerative colitis (UHL-sur-uh-tiv)
country. See gastroenteritis.
(koh-LY-tiss): a disease that causes ulcers and irritation in
triple therapy (TRIH-puhl)
the inner lining of the colon and
(THAIR-uh-pee): a rectum. See inflammatory bowel
combination of three antibiotics used to treat Helicobacter pylori
infection and ulcers. Drugs that
ulcerative jejunoileitis (UHL­
stop the body from making acid are often added to the triple IL-ee-EYE-tiss): a severe therapy to relieve symptoms. complication of celiac disease
causing ulcerations and strictures
tropical sprue (TRAH-pih-kuhl)
of the small intestine.
(sproo): a condition of unknown cause producing abnormalities upper GI endoscopy (UHP-pur)
in the lining of the small intestine
(JEE-EYE) (en-DOSS-kuh­ that prevent the body from pee): looking into the esophagus,
absorbing food normally. stomach, and duodenum with an
endoscope. See endoscopy.
tube feeding: see enteral nutrition.
upper GI series (UHP-pur) (JEE­
EYE) (SIHR-eez): see barium
urea breath test (yoo-REE-uh)
(breth) (test): a test used to detect Helicobacter pylori (H.
pylori) infection. The test
detects the presence of urease, an enzyme made by H. pylori.
vagotomy (vay-GOT-uh-mee):
villi (VIL-eye): tiny, fingerlike
an operation to cut the vagus
projections on the surface of nerve. This procedure causes the
the small intestine that help with
stomach to produce less acid but
nutrient absorption. also to empty abnormally. vagus nerve (VAY-guhss) (nurv):
the nerve in the stomach that
controls the making of stomach acid and stomach emptying. valve: one or more flaps of tissue
in the lining of an organ that controls the flow of fluid and prevents backflow. varices (VAIR-ih-seez): stretched
viral gastroenteritis (VY-ruhl)
veins such as those that form in the esophagus due to cirrhosis.
an intestinal infection caused by VC (VEE-SEE): see virtual
several viruses, which is highly contagious and causes millions of cases of diarrhea each year.
viral hepatitis (VY-ruhl) (HEP-uh­
be performed with computerized
TY-tiss): hepatitis caused by a
tomography (CT), also called
virus. Five different viruses (A, a CT scan, or with magnetic
B, C, D, and E) most commonly resonance imaging (MRI).
cause this form of hepatitis. Other rare viruses may also volvulus (VOL-vyoo-luhss): a
cause viral hepatitis. See twisting of the stomach or large
intestine. It can be caused by
the stomach being in the wrong position, a foreign substance, Viral Hepatitis
or abnormal joining of one part of the stomach or intestine to
another. Volvulus can lead to hepatitis A • contaminated food blockage, perforation, peritonitis,
and poor blood flow. hepatitis B • sexual intercourse • sharing infected • blood transfusion • mother to newborn hepatitis C • sexual intercourse • sharing infected • blood transfusion hepatitis D • sharing infected hepatitis E • contaminated water from poor sanitation Volvulus.
virtual colonoscopy (VC) (VUR­
vomiting (VOM-it-ing): forceful
release of stomach contents
pee): a procedure that uses through the mouth. x rays and computers to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon and displays
them on a screen. A VC can

wafer (WAY-fur): a molded plate
Wilson disease (WIL-suhn) (dih-
that is part of an ostomy pouch
ZEEZ): an inherited disorder in which too much copper builds up in the liver and is slowly released
watermelon stomach (WAH-tur­
into other parts of the body. The MEH-luhn) (STUHM-uhk): overload can cause severe liver parallel red sores in the stomach
and brain damage if not treated that look like the stripes on a with medication. webs: thin membranous structures
within the lining of the esophagus
that can narrow the esophageal lumen, or space in the interior of Normal esophagus and
esophagus with webs.
Zenker's diverticulum (ZEN­
uh): dry mouth. Xerostomia kurz) (DY-vur-TIK-yoo-luhm): can be caused by a number of pouches in the esophagus caused
conditions, including rheumatoid by increased pressure in and arthritis, diabetes, kidney failure, around the esophagus. infection with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS), drugs used to Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
treat depression, and radiation treatment for mouth or throat drohm): a group of symptoms that occur when a tumor called a gastrinoma forms. The tumor, which can be cancerous, releases large amounts of the hormone
called gastrin. The gastrin causes
too much acid in the duodenum,
resulting in ulcers, bleeding, and
National Digestive Diseases
Information Clearinghouse
2 Information Way Bethesda, MD 20892–3570 Phone: 1–800–891–5389 TTY: 1–866–569–1162 Fax: 703–738–4929 Email: Internet: The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established in 1980, the Clearinghouse provides information about digestive diseases to people with digestive disorders and to their families, health care professionals, and the public. The NDDIC answers inquiries, develops and distributes publications, and works closely with professional and patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources about digestive diseases. Publications produced by the Clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. This publication is not copyrighted. The Clearinghouse encourages users of this booklet to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired. This booklet is also available at This publication may contain information about medications. When prepared, this publication included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1–888–INFO–FDA (463–6332) or visit Consult your doctor for more information. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Publication No. 09–2750


Sri shankaracharya sadhana panchakam

Sri Shankaracharya Sadhana Panchakam SHARP AS EDGE OF A RAZOR, AND DIFFICULT TO TREAD IS THE PATH TO PERFECTION. SO THE SAGES DECLARE. Sri Shankaracharya Sadhana Panchakam. Narrow and ancient is the Path, that stretches far. That has been found by me, has been realised by the Wise.

Trustees of Agricultural Issue 1, First Quater January-March,2016 Livestock Value Chain TA P P Trustees of Agricultural Executive EditorProfessor Leonard Kamwanja Content DevelopmentCharles Mkoka PhotographyCharles Mkoka & Amos Gumulira Layout & Design Stephen Schade Mbalule